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AN English Dictionary, specially suitable for the use of pupils in 
Secondary Schools and the upper classes of Elementary Schools, 
has long been a desideratum. Such a book should be (1) helpful in the 
reading of ordinary current literature ; (2) a guide to the peculiari- 
ties of spelling and pronunciation ; (3) free from all objectionable 
words and meanings; and (i) printed in very bold, clear type. The 
" Modern Dictionary " has been specially prepared to meet these 

One of the chief aims of the editor has been to produce a work which 
shall be thoroughly practical and quite up-to-date, and a reliable com- 
panion (as complete as possible within its limits) to current newspapers, 
magazines, books, and conversation. Great care has, therefore, been 
bestowed on the selection of modern words and phrases (including foreign 
ones of frequent occurrence), and on the definitions given ; it is believed 
that no small English Dictionary at present on the market contains so 
many of the newer words and phrases that form part of the current 
literature of to-day. 

Many simple words and obsolete meanings, or meanings that very 
rarely occur, are omitted. Where abstract nouns, adjectives, and adverbs are 
derived directly from the root word, and present no peculiarity either of spel- 
ling, pronunciation, or meaning, such words also are frequently omitted. 

Words are often arranged in groups, as they thus help to explain each 
other ; but where a derived word would (from its form) be difficult to find 
in a group, it has been inserted in its proper alphabetical order, often with 
a cross reference. 

Prefixes, abbreviations, and foreign words and phrases are 
arranged in the body of the Dictionary in their proper alphabetical order. 

The pronunciation (either of a whole word or of a peculiar part of 
it) is given in all necessary cases. Allowable alternatives, both of spel- 
ling and pronunciation are given, the first one, in each case, being the one 
for which there is most authority. Many popular errors, both of spelling 
and pronunciation, are pointed out, and little notes often call especial 
attention to these, as well as to some common errors in grammar. The 
chief authorities consulted for spelling have been the Rules of the Oxford 
Press, and Collins' Authors^ and Printer** Dictionary , which books codify the 
best typographical practices of the present day, and Murray's New English 
Dictionary ; this last has also been tbe chief guide for pronunciation. 

Etymology is a difficult subject, and there are many cases in which 

'doctors disagree,' but an endeavour has been made to show (in square 

hr*** 1 " " the end of each definition) the word from which our word directly 

out showing all the stages through which it has passed. Few 

sLave been included which have not the authority of either 


Murray's New English Dictionary or Skeat's Concise Etymological Diction- 
ary. Where these show that the origin of a word is obscure, a question 
mark [?] points this out. Some doubtful etymologies given in numbers 
of our ordinary books of reference are therefore absent from this little 

Dr. Samuel Johnson finishes the Preface of his Dictionary (published 
1755) in the following words, some of which are equally applicable here : — 

"In this work, when it shall be found that much is omitted, let it not' 

be forgotten that much likewise is performed It may repress the 

triumph of malignant criticism to observe that if our language is not here 
fully displayed, I have only failed in an attempt which no human powers 

have hitherto completed " 

The Editor. 


The division of the words into syllables is chiefly as an aid to pro- 
nunciation. Unmarked Vowels and Consonants have their ordinary syllabic 
sounds. Where pronunciation is separately indicated, the sounds are as 
shown by the italic letters in the following words : — 

mate, nwt or fat, far, all. 
seem, me, met or bed, her (nearly 

silent e). 
pine, pin or nip. 
note, 6* as ough in thought, plot 

or not, moon, book, 
pure, nut or bwd, u or uh = 

French it. 
found, cow, hoy, water, law. 
cuair, ,9ame (g hard), Jug, king, 

sit, shun. 

h = French nasal, almost like ng 
in " sing." 

C, in French words, sounded as 
*, as in facade. 

h, silent, as in hour. 

fi and ii^ny, as " canon," pro- 
nounced kan' -yon. 

thing, there, zeal, zh as si in 

ch, guttural ch, as in Scottish 

Note. — The pronunciations given of French and German words and 
phrases are sometimes only approximate, since some of the foreign sounds 
cannot be accurately represented by English letters. In Latin, every 
syllable must be pronounced. 

Note. — When three forms are placed after a verb in brackets, they 
denote past tense, past participle, and present participle respectively, as in 
come (came, come, com'-ing). When two forms are so placed, the first 
denotes the past tense and the past participle, which are alike, and the 
second the present participle, as in re-ply' (-plied', -ply'-ing). 

Note. — Words and phrases not yet Anglicized are put in bold 
italic type. 









as t ron. 





cf. (L. 
















f. or Jem. 




e= adjective. 
= adverb. 
~ American. 
== architecture. 
= article. 
= Arabic. 
= Anglo-Saxon. 
= astronomy. 

— Bible. 
= between. 
= Celtic. 
= century. 

onfer) — compare. 
ex chemistry. 

— conjunction. 
= demonstrative; died. 
= Dutch. 
= Danish. 
= definite. 
ex derivation. 
= diminutive. 
= dressmaking. 

— English. 

eea electricity ; electric. 
-= England ; English. 

et cetera (L.) 






gram == grammar. 

Gr. »x Greek. 

H. ---- Hebrew. 

Hind. = Hindustani. 

I. =t Italian. 

Ic. = Icelandic. 

Imit. =x imitative. 

indef. = indefinite. 

int. = interjection. 

intr. = intransitive. 

Lang. e=5 language. 

L. = Latin. 

L.L. ex late Latin. 

lit. «s literally. 

m. or mas. — masculine. 

mack. = machine ; machinery 

M.E. bo MiddleEnglish. 

mus. = music. 

M.B. (L. nota bene)— note well. 

n. — noun. 














pres.p. N = 






q.v. (L. quod 




Bus. = 

s. or sing* = 



Scand. = 







term. - 



usu. = 

V. = 


< = 

: OM. 

= obsolete. 

= original (ly). 

= Persian. 

= past. 

= participle. 

= personal. 

= plural. 

= Portuguese. 

= past participle. 

: prefix. 

: preposition. 


: present participle. 


= pronoun. 

= past tense. 
: published. 
vide) = which see. 
: relative. 

Boman Catholic 




Scotch ; Scotland. 


: square. 







United States. 





shows the omission of the root- 
word in a definition, or that 
the meaning is directly derived 
from the root- word. 

 (a thick and long hyphen) shows 
that the word is a compound 
word, and ought to be written 
with the hyphen. 

slang, colloquial, or not polished 



A Abide 

a.(&n) i indef. art. one. (Note. — " a " is used 
before a consonant sound, and before 
" eu " and " u " when these are sounded 
as yu, as a eunuch, a unit; "an" is 
used before a vowel sound, as an apple, 
and also before h mute, as an hour. 
In certain /i-words, where the accent 
falls on the second or later syllable, 
" an " may be used, as an historian, 
an hotel. [A.S.] 

a-, pr"-f. [A.S.] on; of. 

a-, ab-, abs-,2>re/. [L.] from; away from. 

a-, am-, an-, pref. [Gr.] not ; without. 

A.A., Associate of Arts. 

Al, first-class (esp. of a ship) ; first-rate. 

A.B., able-bodied seaman ; Ar'-ti-um Bac- 
ca-lau' -re-us [L.], Bachelor of Arts. 

a-back', adv. backwards ; by surprise. 

ab'-a-cus (-km), (pi. ab'-a-ci (-si)),n. 
a counting-frame or table ; a level slab 
on the top of a column (arch.). £L.] 

a-baft', adv. at the hind part ; behind ; 
towards the stern (of a ship). [A.S.] 

a-ban'-don (-d'n), (-doned, -don-ing), v. 
to give up ; to forsake ; to desert, a- 
b an '-don, n. careless freedom or ease of 
manner, a-ban'-doned, adj. forsaken ; 
depraved; bad. a-ban'-don-ing, n. 
giving up. a-ban'-don-ment, n. the 
state of being abandoned. [F.] 

a bas (d-lxV), [F.] down ! down with ! 

a-base' (-based', -ba'-sing), v. to make 
low ; to cast down ; to degrade in posi- 
tion, a-base '-ment, n. [F.<L.] 

a-bash' (-bashed', -bash'-ing), v. to 
make ashamed ; to confuse (with 
shame), a-bashed', adj. [O.F.] 

a-bate' (-ba'-ted, -ba'-ting), v. to make 
or become less or lower, a-ba'-ted, adj. 
lessened, a-bate' -ment, n. a lessening ; 
a putting down ; a reduction (esp. in 
price); the amount abated. [F.<L. 
ab (<ad) + batuo, I beat.] 

ab'-at-is, or ab-at-tis' (ab'-d-tis or ab- 
a-te'), n. a row of felled trees used as a 
fortification. [F.<L.] 

a-bat-toir' (-twdr'), n. a public slaughter- 
house. [F.] 

ab'-ba, n. father. [Syr.] 

ab'-ba-cy (-ba-sl), (pi. -cies),n. the office, 
or dignity, or state of an abbot. [F.] 

ab'-be (-bd), n. the head of an abbey (in 
France) ; also (in France) a general title 
for any priest or clergyman. [F.] 

ab'-bess, n. a lady head or superior of a 
convent or nunnery (/. of abbot). [F.] 

ab'-bey (ab'-bl), (£>Lab'-beys),n. a house 
for religious persons ; a monastery (for 
monks) ; a convent (for nuns). [F.] 

ab'-bot, n. the head or superior of a 
monastery or abbey for men. £F.] 

ab-bre'-vi-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
make shorter; to abridge. ab-bre-Yi- 
a'-tion, n. a shortened or contracted 
form. [L. ab (<ad) + brevis, short.] 

ab'-di-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to give 
up or resign an office or dignity, ab-di- 
ca'-tion,n. [L. ab + dlco, I proclaim.] 

ab-do'-men (-do'-), n. the lower half of 
the belly ; the hinder part of the body 
in an insect, ab-dom'-i-nal, adj. [L. 
abdo, I hide.] 

ab-duct' (-duct'-ed, -duct'-ing), v. to 
draw or lead away (esp. stealthily and by 
force). ab-duc'-tion,n. ab-duct'-or, 
n. one who — . [L. abduco, I lead away.] 

a-beam', adv. at right angles to the length 
of a ship. [A.S.] 

a-bele' (-beV), n. the white poplar-tree. 
[L. albus, white. J 

ab-er'-rant, adj. wandering from the 
right path ; deviating from rule ; vary- 
ing from type or group ; exceptional. 
ab-er-ra'-tion,n. [L. aberro, I wander 

a-bet' (-bet' -ted, -bet' -ting), v. to aid (in 
a bad sense) ; to encourage (esp. in evil 
things), a-bet'-tor, n. one who abets ; 
an accomplice. [O.F. < Scan.] 

a-bey'-ance (d-bd'-), n. state of being 
held back, or put off, for a time. [O.F.] 

ab-hor' (-horred', -hor'-ring), v. to hate 
very much ; to detest, ab-hor '-rence, 
n. detestation. ab-hor'-rent, adj. 
odious ; repugnant. [L. abhorreo, I 
shrink from in terror.] 

a-bide' (-bode', -bi'-ding), v. to dwell ; 



to wait for ; to endure or submit to. 
a-bi'-ding, adj. dwelling; lasting, to 
abide by, to adhere to ; to accept the 
consequences of. [A. 8.] 

a-bil'-i-ty (pi. -ties), n. power to do a 
thing ; strength; skill. [L., see able.] 

ab in-i'-ti-o (-i'-shi-d), [L.] from the 

ab-i-o-gen'-es-is {-jen'A, n. the doctrine 
that living matter can be produced from 
non-living matter, a-bi-o-gen-et'-ic, 
adj. ab-i-o'-gen-ist, n. one who 
holds this doctrine. [Gr. a + bios, life, 
genesis, birth.] 

ab'-ject, adj. cast down (in spirits or 
hope) ; mean ; base; vile : v. ab-jec'- 
tion, n. ab'-ject-ly, adv. [L. abjicio, 
I throw down, or away.] 

ab-jure' (-jured', -ju'-ring), v. to deny 
or renounce with an oath ; to reject ; 
to repudiate, ab-ju-ra'-tion, n. ab- 
ju'-ror, n. one who — . [L. abjiiro, I 
deny, or swear away from.] 

a'-ble (a'-bler, a -blest), adj. having 
strength, means, or power to do a thing ; 
skilful. a-ble-bod'-ied (-id), adj. 
robust ; first-rate or skilled (as a sea- 
man, labourer, etc.); an A.B. a'-bly, 
adv. with ability. [O.F.<L. hdbllis, 
fit; able.] 

ab-lu'-tion, n. the act of washing ; cleans- 
ing (as by water). [L. abluo, I wash off.] 

ab'-ne-gate (-ga-ted, -ga-ting), v. to 
deny ; to renounce, ab-ne-ga'-tion, n. 
[L. abnego, I deny totally.] 

ab-nor'-mal, adj. not normal or according 
to law and regular rule ; irregular ; out 
of the usual or natural course. [L. 
ab -f norma, a rule.] 

a-bode', n. the place where one abides ; a 
dwelling; a habitation. [A.S.< abide.] | 

a-bol'-ish (-ished, -ish-ing), v. to put an j 
end to ; to do away with, a-bol- 
ish-er, n. ab-o-li -tion (-lish'-un), n. 
ab-o-li'-tion-ist,n. one who is in favour 
of abolishing anything (esp. slavery). 
[F.<L. abnleo, I destroy.] 

a-bom'-in-a-ble, adj. hateful ; detestable. 
a-bom'-in-a-bly, adv. a-bom'-in-ate 
(-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to hate very much ; 
to loathe ; to detest, a-bom-in-a'- 
tion, n. [L. abominor, I detest.] 

ab-o-rig'-i-nal(-o-ry'-), adj. belonging to 
the first ; primitive ; first, ab-o-rig'- 
i-nes (-nez), n. pi. the original inhabi- 
tants of a country. [L.] 

ab or-ig'-i-ne, [L.] from the beginning. 

ab-or -tion, n. an untimely production ; 
that which is produced in an unfinished 
state ; failure ; something misshapen or 
ugly, ab-or' -ti Ye (-tiv), adj. unsuc- 
cessful. [L. abdrior, I fail.] 

a-bound' (-bound'-cd, -bound'-ing), v. 
to be full; to be plentiful. [F.<L. 
abundo, I overflow.] 

a-bout', prep, and adv. around ; nearly ; 
concerning, to bring about, to accom- 
plish, to go (or set) about, to prepare 
to do. to put about, to turn a ship at 
sea ; to disturb, upset, or annoy a 
person. [A.S.] 

a-bove' (-buv'), prep, and adv. in or to a 
higher place, above board, on the 
table ; open ; unconcealed ; without 
deceit, aboye all, most of all. [A.S.] 

Abp., Archbishop. 

a-brade' (-bra'-ded, -bra'-ding), v. to 
scrape off ; to wear off or away, a-bra- 
sion (-zhun), n. the act or process of 
abrading; a slight wound made by 
rubbing off the skin. [L. abrddo, I 
scrape off.] 

a-breast', adj. and adv. breasting the 
same line ; side by side, abreast of 
the times, up-to-date. [A.S.] 

a-bridge' (-brij'), (-bridged', -bridg'- 
ing), v. to shorten by using fewer words ; 
to reduce, a-bridg'-ment (or -bridge'-), 
n. — ; a shortened form, a-bridg'-er, 
n. one who — . [O.F. <L. brevis, short.] 

a-broad', adv. not at home ; away from 
one's country ; widely. [A.S.] 

ab'-ro-gate (-ga-ted, -ga-ting), v. to do 
away with; to abolish, ab-ro-ga'-tion, 
n. the repeal of a law. fL. abrogo, 
I repeal (a law).] 

ab-rupt', adj. broken off ; steep (of a cliff) ; 
sudden ; unconnected. ab-rupt'-ly,adv. 
ab-rupt'-ness, n. [L. abrumpo, I break 

ab'-scess (-ses), n. a gathering of bad 
matter in the body. [L. abscessus, a 

ab-scond' (-scond'-ed, -scond'-ing), v. 
to run away ; to flee from justice. 
ab-scond' -er, n. [L. abscondo, I hide.] 

ab'-sent, adj. not preseht. ab-sent' 
(-sent'-ed, -sent'-ing), v. to keep one- 
self away, ab'-sence, n. — ; want. 
ab-sen-tee', n. one who is absent. 
ab-sen-tee'-ism (-izm), n. the practice 
of staying away from one's office, or 
living away from one's estate, absent- 
minded, adj. forgetful or unconscious of 



one's surroundings. [L. absens, being 

ab'-sinth or -sinthe, n. an alcoholic bev- 
erage flavoured with wormwood, much 
used by the French. [F.<L.] 

ab'-so-lute, adj. free from control; des- 
potic; unlimited; perfect. ab'-so- 
lute-ly, adv. in an absolute manner ; 
completely, ab-so-lu-tism (-tizm), n. 
a principle of government under which 
the one ruler has unlimited control. 
[L. absolutus<solvo, I loose.] 

ab-solYe' (-solv' or -zolv'), (-solved', 
-Boly'-ing), v. to free from a penalty, or 
from guilt, or from sin ; to acquit. 
ab-so-lu'-tion, n. the act of absolving ; 
state of being absolved ; acquittal. [L. 
absolvo, I loosen, or set free.] 

ab-sorb' (-sorbed , -sorb'-ing), v. to 
drink or suck in (as a sponge) ; to take 
complete possession of ; to engage wholly; 
to occupy fully, ab-sorb'-ent, adj. 
having the power of absorbing : n. any- 
thing which has the power of absorbing. 
ab-sorp'-tion, n. the act of absorbing. 
[L. absorbeo, I swallow.] 

ab-stain' (-stained', -stain'-ing), v. to 
refrain ; to keep oneself (from), ab- 
sten'-tion,n. ab-stain'-er,n. one who 
abstains (esp. from intoxicating drinks). 
ab'-sti-nent (-sti-), adj. abstaining. 
ab'-sti-nence, n. keeping oneself from 
anything. [L. abstlneo, I keep away 

ab-ste'-mi-ous (-nii-us), adj. temperate 
(esp. in eating and drinking) ; moderate. 
ab-ste'-mi-ous-ness, n. ab-ste'-mi- 
OUS-ly, adv. [L. abstemlus.'] 

abs-tract' (-tract'-ed, -tract'-ing), v. to 
draw or take away ; to separate ; to steal. 
abs' -tract, adj. separated, in thought, 
from the things to which it belongs ; 
theoretical : n. a short summary ; an 
epitome, abs-tract'-ed, adj. lost in 
thought, abs-tract' -ed-ly, adv. as 
though lost in thought, abs-trac'- 
tion, n. — ; absent-mindedness, in the 
abstract, considered apart from the 
things with which it is connected. [L. 
abs tr actus <traho, I draw.] 

ab-struse', adj. not clear in meaning ; 
obscure ; difficult to understand, ab- 
struse'-ly, adv. ab-struse' -ness, n. 
[L. abstrusus, thrust away from; hidden] 

ab-surd', adj. against reason or common 
sense ; ridiculous, ab-surd' -i-ty, n. 
something which is — . ab-surd' -ly, 

adv. [L. absurdus."} 

a-bund'-ant, adj. abounding ; plentiful ; 
quite sufficient. a-bund -ance, n. 
a-bund'-ant-ly, adv. [F.<L. abundo, 
I overflow.] 

a-buse' (d-buz'), (-bused', -bus'-ing), 
v. to make a bad, improper, or wrong 
use of ; to ill-use : n. (-bus'), improper 
use ; misuse ; insulting language. 
a-bu'-siye, adj. a-bu'-sive-ness, n. 
[L. abutor, I misuse.] 

a-but' (-but'-ted, -but'-ting), v. to bor- 
der or rest on ; to project ; to meet end 
to end. a-but'-ment, n. that which — ; 
the support for the end of a bridge. 
[F. a, at, bout, end.] 

a-byss' (-bis'), or a-bysm' (a-bizm 1 ), n. a 
bottomless hole, gulf, or chasm ; an im- 
measurable space, a-bys'-mal (-biz'-), 
adj. like, or of>an abyss; bottomless. 
[Gr. abussos, without bottom.] 

ac-, L. pre/., a form of ad, to. 

a/c, ace, or acct., account. 

A.C., An' -te Chris' -turn, [L.] before Christ. 

A.G.A., Associate of the Institute of 
Chartered Accountants. 

a-ca'-ci-a (a-ka'-shl-a), n. a kind of 
thorny shrub with pointed leaves. One 
kind produces gum-arabic. [Gr. akahia 
<ake, a point.] 

acad., academy. 

a-cad'-e-my, n. a school of a superior 
kind ; a society of persons learned in 
some art or science, ac-a-dem'-ic, adj. 
belonging to a university ; philosophical. 
a-cad-e-mi'-cian (-nush'-un), or a- 
cad' -e-mist, n. a member of an academy. 
\ m <Akadem\a, a grove at Athens (Greece) 
where Plato taught.] 

A-ca'-di-an, adj. belonging to Acadia, a 
former name of Nova Scotia (N. Amer.). 

a-can'-thus (pi. -thus-es or -thi), n. a 
kind of prickly plant ; an ornament for 
a column made to resemble its leaves. 
[Gr. akanthos <akantha, a thorn.] 

a-car'-pous (-pus), adj. not producing 
fruit. [Gr. a + karpos, without fruit.] 

ac-cede' (-ce'-ded, -ce'-ding), v. to com- 
ply (with) ; to consent (to) ; to agree (to). 
[L. accedo, I go or yield to.] 

ac-cel-er-an'-do (at-chel-er-an' -do,lesa 
correctly dk-sel-er-an'-do), adv. with 
gradual quickening of time (mus.) [I.] 

ac-cel'-er-ate (-sel 1 -), (-a-ted, -a-ting), 
v. to increase the speed of ; to hasten. 
ac-cel-er-a'-tion, n. [L. accUero, I 
hasten.] - 



ac'-cent (sent), n. stress or modulation of 
the voice ; a mark to show stress ; a 
mannerism in speaking peculiar to a 
district or person, ac-cent', or ac-cen'- 
tu-ate, v. to make, or mark, accent on. 
[F.<L. accentus<cantus, a song.] 

ac-cept' (sept'), (-ed, -ing), v. to take 
(willingly) ; to receive ; to agree or 
assent to ; to promise to pay (as a bill of 
exchange), ac-cept -a-ble, adj. worth 
receiving ; pleasing ; agreeable, ac- 
cept' -ance, n. approval ; a written pro- 
mise to pay money, ac-cep-ta'-tion, 
n. the meaning or sense in which a 
word is generally understood. [L. 
accipio, I receive.] 

ac'-cess (sess), n. approach; power of 
approaching ; means of approach, ac- 
ces'-si-ble, adj. able to be approached ; 
easy of — . ac-ces-si-bil'-i-ty, it. ac- 
ces'-sion (sesh'-un), n. a coming to (the 
throne) ; commencement of reign ; an 
addition. [L. accedo, I go to.] 

ac-ces'-sa-ry (or ak'ses-), or ac-ces'- 
BO-ry, adj: additional ; giving help (to 
crime) ; taking part in : n. anything 
helpful or needful (to an act) ; one who 
assists, or favours, or encourages (in a 
crime). [L. accedit, it is added.] 

ac'-ci-dence(-st-),7i. that part of grammar 
which treats of inflections of words 
(because these changes are 'accidents' 
and not • essentials ' of the words). [L. 
a corruption of accidents.] 

ac'-ci-dent, n. that which happens un- 
foreseen (esp. of a bad kind) ; a mishap ; 
an unexpected event ; an unessential 
quality of something, ac-ci-dent'-al, 
adj. unexpected ; without apparent 
cause, by accident, by chance, a 
chapter of accidents, an unforeseen or 
unexpected series of events. [F^L. 
accldo, I fall to or upon.] 

ac-claim', n. a shout of applause : v. to 
applaud loudly ; to declare by acclama- 
tion, ac-clam-a'-tion, n. loud shout- 
ing of applause . ac-c 1 am ' - a- tor-y , adj . 
[L. accldmo, I cry out.] 

ac-cli'-ma-tize or-tise (-tized, -ti'-zing) 
v. to accustom to a new climate, ac- 
cli'-mat-i-za'-tion,w. £F.<L. ad, to, 
and G. kllma, a slope, a zone.] 

ac-cliY'-i-ty, n. a rising; an upward 
slope. [L. acclivitas<clivus, a slope.] 

ac-col-ade' (ak-kol-dd' or -dd'), n. an em- 
brace ; a ceremony used in the making of 
a knight by a gentle blow on the neck or 

shoulder. [F.<L. ad + collum, neck.] 
ac-com'-mo-date (-da-ted, -da-ting), v. 

to make suitable or fit ; to hold ; to 
provide room or lodging for ; to lend ; 
to oblige. ac-com-mo-da'-tion,7i. ac- 
commodation ladder, a ladder hung 
over the side of a ship. [L. accomodo < 
commodus, convenient.] 

ac-com'-pan-y (-kum'-), (-ied, -y-ing),v. 
to go with ; to attend on ; to play with 
or for (in singing), ac-com'-pan-i- 
ment, n. (mus.) the music played to 
accompany a vocalist or solo instrument- 
alist, ac-com'-pan-ist, n. one who 
plays to the singing of a vocalist or the 
playing of a soloist. [F. accompagner, 
see companion.] 

ac-com'-plice (-plis), n. one who aids (esp. 
in crime) (used with "of"). [L. ad-j- 
complex, folded (with).] 

ac-com'-plish (-plished, -plish-ing), v. 
to complete ; to fulfil ; to equip ; to bring 
about, ac-com' -plished, adj. com- 
pleted ; having a finished education (in 
any subject), ac-com '-plish-ment, n. 
completion ; in^Z. elegant acquirements. 
[F. accomplir<h. compleo, I fill up.] 

ac-cord' (-ed, -ing), v. to agree ; to recon- 
cile ; to award : n. agreement ; harmony. 
ac-cord' -ance, n. agreement ; consent. 
ac-cord' -ant, adj. agreeing; harmoni- 
ous, ac-cord'-ing, adj. agreeing. 
according to, prep, agreeably to ; in 
proportion to ; as stated by. ac-cord' - 
ing-ly, adv. in agreement with, or in 
consequence of, what precedes, of one's 
own accord, with one's own will ; with- 
out being told or compelled. [F . accord, 
agreement <\- cor, the heart.] 

ac-cor'-di-on, n. a small, portable, wind 
and reed musical instrument with keys. 
accordion pleating (dress.), small 
pleats in a fabric, arranged to resemble 
the bellows of an accordion. [From 

ac-cost' (-ed, -ing), v. to speak to first ; to 
address. [F. accoster<h. costa, a rib.] 

ac-count', n. a reckoning ; a bill (for 
money due) ; a record or description ; 
a report : v. to reckon ; to judge ; to 
estimate ; to value, ac-count'-a-ble, 
adj. liable to be called upon to explain ; 
responsible for. ac-count'-ant, n. one 
who is skilled in keeping accounts ; one 
whose profession is to keep or check 
accounts, accountant— general, n. an 
officer of Chancery who receives all 



moneys paid into that court, on 
account of, by reason of ; on behalf of. 
on account, on credit, without paying at 
once; by part payment, to account for, 
to explain, to turn to account, to make 
good or profitable use of. [O.F. acconter 
<L. ad + comptito, I reckon.] 

ac-cou'-tre (-coo'-ter), (-tred (-t8rd), 
-tring), v. to dress ; to equip (esp. for 
military service) ; to arm. ac-cou'-tre- 
ments, n. pi. military dress or equip- 
ments; trappings (of a horse) . [F.<L.] 

ac-cred'-it, v. to trust or believe in (some 
one) ; to place confidence in ; to give 
credit to; to authorize, ac-cred'-it-ed, 
adj. authorized (as an agent) ; recog- 
nized. [L. accredo, I trust to.] 

ac-cre'-tion, n. the act of growing or in- 
creasing; something added by growth. 
[L. accretio<cresco, I grow.] 

ac-crue' (-kroo'), (-crued', -cru'-ing), v. 
to increase by growing to ; to come to 
anyone by way of advantage ; to be 
added or gained (as profit or damage) ; 
to arise. [O.F.<L. accresco."] 

ac-cu'-mu-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to 
heap or pile up ; to lay up in store ; to 
collect ; to amass, ac-cu-mu-la'-tion, 
n. act of accumulating ; what is accumu- 
lated, ac-cu'-mu-la-tive, adj. ac- 
cu'-mu-la-tor, n. a person or thing 
that — ; an apparatus for storing elec- 
tricity. [L. accumulo, I heap up< 
cumulus, a heap.] 

ac'-cu-rate, adj. done with care ; correct ; 
free from error, ac'-cu-ra-cy, n. ac'- 
cu-rate-ly, adv. ac'-cu-rate-ness, n. 
[L. accurdtus <cura, care.] 

ac-cursed' (in B. -curs'-ed), p.p. and 
adj. under a curse ; doomed ; extremely 
wicked. [A. S. a + cursian, to curse.] 

bring a charge against ; to blame, ac- 
cu-sa'-tion {-za'-), n. the act of — ; a 
charge brought against anyone, ac-cu'- 
sa-tive, adj. objective case of nouns and j 
pronouns (in L. gram.), ac-cused', n. 
the person against whom a charge is 
brought, ac-cu'-ser (-zSr), n. one who 
— . [F. accuser <L. accuse-, I call to 
account <L. causa, a cause in law.] 

ac-cus'-tom (-tomed, -tom-ing), v. to 
make familiar with (by use), ac-cus'- 
tomed, adj. usual ; frequent ; familiar. 
[O.F. acoutumer <L. consuetude-, cus- 
tom, q.v."] 

ace (as), n. a single one ; a unit ; a play- 

ing card or a die marked with a single 
pip. within an ace of, very nearly ; on 
the point of. [F.<L. as, a unit.] 

a-cel'-da-ma (-seV- or -kel'-), n. "the 
field of blood," Acts i. 19 ; a scene of 
slaughter, [of Chaldaic origin.] 

a-cer'-bi-ty (-ser'-bl-), n. bitterness of 
manner or disposition ; sharpness of 
temper ; sourness. [L. acerbus, sour.] 

a-cet'-ic (-set' -or -se'-tic), adj. belonging 
to, or like, vinegar ; sour, acetic acid, 
the pure acid of vinegar, ac'-e-tate of 
lead, a poisonous compound of lead and 
acetic acid, known as "sugar of lead." 
[L. acetum, vinegar.] 

a-cet'-y-lene (a-set'-i-len),n. a poisonous 
gas made from carbide of calcium and 
water, which burns very brightly. [From 

ache (ak), n. continued pain (as in head- 
ache or tooth-ache), ache (ached, 
ach'-ing), v. [A.S. cece, a pain.] 

a-chieve' (-chev'), (-chieyed', -chiev'- 
ing), v. to bring to an end ; to perform 
(esp. a work of importance) ; to complete 
successfully; to win. a-chieve'-ment, 
n. something performed or done fully. 
[F. achever<h. caput, head.] 

ach-ro-mat'-ic (ak-), adj. without colour 

» (said of light, or of a lens which forms 
images free from prismatic colouring at 
their outline), ach-ro'-ma-tism, n. 
state or property of being achromatic. 
[Gr. a + chroma, colour.] 

ac'-id (as' -id), adj. sour and sharp to the 
taste : n. a chemical substance having 
an acid quality, a-cid'-i-fy (a-sid' -), 
(-fled, -fy-ing), v. to make acid, a-cid'- 
i-ty or ac'-id-ness, n. the quality of an 
acid; sourness, a-cid'-u-late (-la-ted, 
-la-ting), v . to give an acid quality to. 
a-cid'-u-la-ted, adj. having a sour 
quality, a-cid'-u-lous, adj. slightly 
sour. [L. acidus, sour.] 

ac-know' -ledge (-no'-lij, or -nol'-ij), 
(-ledged, -ledg-ing), -v. to own the 
knowledge of ; to own that something is 
true, or is as stated ; to admit ; to con- 
fess ; to assent to ; to give a receipt for 
(as money, etc.). ac-know '-ledge- 
ment [or -ledg-] , n. — ; a receipt for 
money paid. [A.S. on + endwan, to 

ac'-me (ak'-me), n. the highest point ; the 
top ; the summit ; perfection. [Gr. 
akme, a point.] 

ac'-o-lyte, n. an attendant (esp. on the 



minister during certain services in 
church) ; an attendant or companion star 
(astron.). [Gr. akolouthos, a follower.] 

ac'-o-nite, n. a poisonous plant, also 
called "monk's-hood" and "wolf's- 
bane " ; a deadly poison extracted from 
the plant. [L.<Gr. akonlton.'] 

a '-corn, n. the fruit or seed of the oak. 
[A.S. acern!\ 

a-cou'-stic (-kow'-), adj. belonging to 
hearing . a-cou'-stics, the science 
of sound. [Gr. akoud, I hear.] 

A.C.P., Associate of the College of Pre- 

ac-quaint' (-kwdnt'), (-ed, -ing), v. to let 
(any one) know ; to inform ; to commu- 
nicate notice to. ac-quaint -ed, adj. 
having knowledge of. ac-quaint' -ance, 
n. knowledge of a person or thing ; a 
person known. [O.F. from L.L. ad + 
cognitdre<cogni tus , known . ] 

ac-qui-esce' (-kwi-es') t (-esced', -es'- 
cing), v. to agree ; to make no opposition 
to ; to consent without making objec- 
tions, ac-qui-es'-cence, n. — ; satis- 
faction with, ac-qui-es'-cent, adj. 
resting satisfied ; submissive. {h.acqui- 
esco, I become quiet <qutes, rest.] 

ac-quire' (-quired', -qui '-ring), v. to get ; 
to gain possession of ; to win or attain. 
ac-quire -ment, n. what one gets or 
attains, ac-qui-si'-tion (-zl'-shun), n. 
the thing acquired or gained; an addition. 
[L. acqulro< queer o, I seek.] 

ac-quit' (-quit'-ted, -quit' -ting), v. to set 
free ; to declare innocent ; to release 
(from a duty, or obligation, or charge). 
ac-quit'-tal, it. the act of acquitting. 
ac-quit '-tance, n. freeing from debt or 
other obligation ; a receipt for money 
paid. [L. ad (ac) + quietus, at rest.] 

a' -ere (d'-k'r), n. a field of cultivated 
land (obs.) ; a common land-measure ; 
an area of 4,840 sq. yards, a' -ere- age 
(d'-kW-ij), n. the number of acres in a 
portion of land, or estate. God's acre, 
a church-yard ; a cemetery. [A.S. cecer, 
a field.] 

ac'-rid, adj. of sharp or bitter taste ; pun- 
gent, ac-rid'-i-ty or ac'-rid-ness, n. 
[L. deer, sharp.] 

ac-ri-mo'-ni-ous, adj. sharp or bitter (of 
temper, speech, or disposition), ac'-ri- 
mo-ny, n. [L. deer, sharp.] 

ac'-ro-bat, n. one who performs feats of 
strength or agility ; a tumbler ; a rope- 
dancer, ac-ro-bat'-ic, adj. [Gr.] 

a-crop'-o-lis, «. the citadel of Athens ; 
the citadel of any Greek city ; a citadel. 

a-cross', prep, and adv. from one side to 
another; beyond; cross-wise. [A.S.] 

a-cros'-tic, n. a short poem in which the 
first or last letters of the lines form a 
name, or other word. [Gr.] 

act, n. a deed ; something done ; a decree 
or law ; one of the chief divisions of a. 
drama, act (act'-ed, act'-ing), v. to 
do ; to exert power ; to perform ; to play 
on the stage, act'-ing, n. performing 
(as on the stage) : adj. doing temporary 
duty, ac'-tion, n. something done or 
performed ; a deed ; a law-suit ; a battle ; 
movement (as of a horse) ; a working part 
(as in a piano), ac'-tion-a-ble, adj. 
furnishing cause for an action at law. 
act of God, an event, hurtful or calami- 
tous, beyond human control, act of 
grace, a pardon specially granted by 
the sovereign. Act of Parliament, a 
law or statute made by both Houses of 
Parliament and sanctioned by the sover- 
eign, to take action, to commence (as 
a law- suit, etc.). to act up to, to fulfil 
an engagement or promise. [L. actum, 
a thing done ; a deed.] 

ac'-tin-ism (-izm), n. a property of radiant 
energy (luminous and non-luminous) 
that produces chemical changes (as 
in photography, the fading of colours, 
etc.). ac-tin'-ic, adj. pertaining to the 
radiation of heat or light, actinic rays, 
invisible radiations, more refrangible 
than light ; the so-called chemical rays. 

ac'-tiye (-tiv), adj. in a state of action ; 
busy ; causing change ; quick ; nimble ; 
lively, ac'-tiye-ly, adv. ac-tiy'-i-ty, 
n. state of being active. [F. <L. activus 
<dgo (actum), I do.] 

ac'-tor, n. one who acts ; a stage-player. 
ac'-tress, n. f. [L. actor.] 

ac'-tu-al, adj. existing; real ; not imag- 
inary, ac-tu-al'-i-ty, n. state of being 
— . ac'-tu-al-ly, adv. really ; in fact. 
[L. actus, done.] 

ac'-tu-a-ry, n. a registrar or clerk who 
makes calculations (esp. for insurance 
purposes). [L. actudrius,<dgo, I do*] 

ac'-tu-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to move 
or incite to action ; to give ground for 
action ; to influence. [L. actus, done.] 

a-cu'-men (not ac'-u-), n. quickness of 
perception ; sagacity ; sharpness. [L. 



from acuo, I sharpen.] 

a-cute', adj. sharp (in mind or under- 
standing) ; quick of thought ; shrewd ; 
keen or severe (as of pain) ; shrill (as 
sound) ; sharp-pointed {esp. of an angle). 
a-cute'-ness, n. a-cute'-ly, adv. [L. 
acutus, sharp.] C( our ) Lord. 

A.D., an' -no dom'-i-ni [L.] in the year of 

ad. or adyt., advertisement. 

ad-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, ar-, 
as-, at-,_pre/. [L.] to. 

ad'-age (-aj), n. an old, common saying ; 
a proverb. [L. addgium, a proverb.] 

ad-a'-^io (-d'-j5, less correctly a-dd'-ji-o), 
adj. and adv. slow or slowly (in music) ; 
n. a slow movement in music. £1.] 

Ad'-am, n. the first man. Adam's apple, 
n. a natural projection on the forepart 
of the throat. Adam's ale, n. water. 

ad'-a-mant, n. a very hard stone {esp. 
the diamond), ad-a-man'-tine, adj. of 
adamant ; exceedingly hard ; hard- 
hearted. [L.<Gr.] 

ad-apt' (-ed, -ing), v. to make fit or suit- 
able ; to alter for a new use. a-dapt- 
a-ble, adj. ad-ap-ta-bil'-i-ty, n. the 
quality of being easily adapted, ad-ap- 
ta'-tion (-sft'w), n. making fit or suit- 
able. [L. adapto, I fit to.] 

A.D.C., Aide-de-camp. [F.] An officer 
assisting the general in various ways. 

add, v. to put one thing to another, or 
others ; to join (to) ; to say further. 
[L. addo, I give, or put to.] 

ad-den'-dum, n. {pi. -da) something 
added ; an appendix. [L.] 

ad'-der, n. the common English name of 
the viper, adder's tongue, n. a species 
of fern. [A.S. ncedre, a snake, an adder.] 

ad-dict' (-ed, -ing), v. to give oneself up 
to a custom, a habit, or something bad. 
ad-dict'-ed, adj. much inclined or given 
(to a custom or habit), ad-dic'-tion 
i-sh'n), n. a giving way to. [L. addlco, 
I say to ; I give up to.] 

ad-di'-tion (-it'-s/t'n), n. the act of add- 
ing ; something added ; an increase. 
ad-di'-tion-al,ad;". added; in addition. 
[L. see add.] 

ad'-dle {-dl), (-died, -dling), v. to make 
or become rotten (of eggs), ad' -died, 
adj. become rotten (eggs) ; confused (in 
mind), addle-headed, or -brained, 
adj. stupid. [A.S. adela, filth.] 

ad-dress' (-dressed', -dres'-sing), v. to 
direct something to (a person or 
place) ; to put name and direction on 

a letter ; to speak to : n. direction {esp. 
of a letter) ; a speech ; a written speech 
or letter of congratulation or welcome ; 
skill; dexterity; manners. [F.< 
-\-dlrectus, straight.] 

ad-duce' (-duced', -du'-cing), v. to bring 
to or forward ; to quote ; to name, ad- 
du'-ci-ble, adj. able to be adduced. 
[L. adduco, I lead to.] 

ad-ept', n. one highly skilled or experi- 
enced in anything : adj. highly skilled. 
[L. adeptus, having obtained.] 

ad'-e-quate, adj. equal to ; sufficient (for 
any purpose), ad'-e-qua-cy, n. state 
of being — . ad'-e-quate-ly, adv. suf- 
ficiently. [L. ad + aequus, equal.] 

ad-here' (-hered', -he '-ring), v. to stick 
(to) ; to be attached (to) ; to hold (to an 
opinion), ad-he'-rence, n. ad-he- 
rent, adj. sticking to : n. a follower ; 
one who adheres to another. [L. ad- 
it aereo, I stick to.] 

ad-he'-sion {-zh'n), n. the quality of ad- 
hering or sticking (to), ad-he'-siye 
{-siv), adj. having the quality of stick- 
ing (to):«. ad-he' -si Ye-ness, n. the 
ability to stick (to). [L. adliaereo, I 
stick to.] [ticular purpose. 

ad hoc, [L.] to or for this; for this par- 

a-dieu' {d-du'), {pi. a-dieux' or a-dieus' 
(a-duz 1 )), n. and int. farewell ; an affec- 
tionate good-bye. [F.<L. ad Deum, (I 
commit you) to God.] 

ad in-Hn-i -turn, [L.] to infinity; with- 
out limit ; endlessly. 

ad in'-ter-im, [L.] meanwhile. 

ad'-i-pose {-i-pos), adj. of fat ; fatty : n. 
animal fat. adipose tissue, animal 
tissue containing fat. [L. adeps, fat.] 

ad' -it, n. an approach ; an opening (to a 
mine). [L. aditus, approach.] 

ad-ja'-cent, adj. lying near ; close to ; 
bordering on. [L. adjacens, lying to.] 

Adj. or Adjt., adjutant, q.v. 

ad'-jec-tive \-tiv), n. a word which quali- 
fies a noun, ad-jec-ti'-val, adj. of an 
adjective. [L. adjicio, I throw to.] 

ad-join' (-joined', -join'-ing), v. to be 
joined to ; to lie or be situated next to. 
ad-join'-ing, adj. situated next to. 
[F.<L. adjungo, I join to.] 

ad-journ' {-jum'), v. to put off ; to post- 
pone (to another day) ; to leave off (for 
a time), ad-journ' -ment, n. [F.<L. 
ad + dlurnus, da,\ly<dies, a day.] 

ad-judge' {juj'), (-judged', -judg'-ing), 
v. to decree ; to decide (as a judge) ; to 



Ad rem 

pronounce judgement. £F.<L. ad + 
judex, a judge.] 

ad-ju'-di-cate {-dl-), (-ca'-ted, -ca'- 
ting), v. to adjudge ; to sit and decide as 
a judge, ad-ju-di-ca'-tion, n. the 
decision given by a judge ; the act of 
adjudicating, ad-ju'-di-ca-tor, n. one 
who — . [See adjudge.] 

ad'-junct, n. something added or joined : 
adj. [L. adjungo, I join to.] 

ad-jure' (-jured', -ju'-ring), v. to charge 
solemnly or on oath, ad-ju-ra'-tion, 
n. a charging on oath ; a solemn oath. 
[L. adjuro, I swear to.] 

ad-just', v. to set right ; to fit ; to arrange ; 
to adapt ; to reduce to order, ad-just'- 
a-ble, adj. ad-just'-ment, n. [F.<L. 
ad + Justus, just; fitting.] 

ad'-ju-tant, n. an assistant ; an officer 
whose duty it is to assist a commanding- 
officer, ad'-ju-tan-cy, n. the office of 
an — ; the time when in office as an — . 
adjutant bird, a kind of large stork. 
adjutant— general,^. the chief staff- 
officer in the army at head- quarters, 
ranking next to the Commander-in- 
chief. [L. adjuto, I assist.] 

ad Hb'-i-tum, or ad lib., [L.] at plea 
sure ; as much as one pleases. 

ad-min'-is-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to 
act as minister (or servant) ; to manage 
(as a steward) ; to conduct ; to carry 
out (as the law, punishment, instruc- 
tions, a religious office, etc.) ; to manage 
the estate of a dead person according to 
the will, ad-min-is-tra'-tion, n. — ; 
the ministers who manage the govern- 
ment of a country, ad-min'-is-tra- 
tiYe 9 adj. ad-min'-is-tra-tor (/. -trix), 
n. [L. administro, I serve or assist.] 

ad'-mi-ral, n. a naval officer of the high- 
est rank ; a commander of a fleet, ad'- 
mi-ral-ty, n. the board of officials (the 
Lords of the Admiralty) which controls 
the royal navy ; the building in which 
they meet for business. [F»<Ar. amir, 
a chief.] 

ad-mire' (-mired', -mi'-ring), v. to think 
highly of ; to regard with wonder or 
pleasure; to love, ad'-mi-ra-ble {-ml-), 
adj. worthy of being admired ; very ex- 
cellent. ad'-mi-ra-bly,adv. ad-mi- 
ra'-tion, n. ad-mi'-rer, n. one who 
admires or has special regard for another. [ 
Admirable Crichton {krl'-Vn), a very 
learned Scotchman (born 1560) ; any 
person of wide learning and accomplish- 

ments. [L. admiror, I wonder at.] 

ad-mis' -si-ble {-si-), adj. able to be ad- 
mitted or allowed. [See admit.] 

ad-mis'-sion {-mish'-un), n. the act of 
admitting or letting in ; being let in ; 
something acknowledged ; money paid 
for entering. [See admit.] 

ad-mit' (-mit'-ted, -mit'-ting), v. to let 
in ; to allow to enter ; to acknowledge 
{esp. as a fault) ; to concede, ad-mit'- 
ta-ble, ad-mis' -si-ble, adj. able to be 
admitted, ad-mit -tance, n. power, 
right, or leave to enter ; act of entering 
or letting in. [L. admitto, I send to.] 

ad-mix' -ture, n. the act of mixing ; a 
number of things mixed together. [L. 
ad + mixtiira, a mixture.] 

to reprove gently ; to advise ; to caution. 
ad-mon'-ish-er, n. one who — . ad- 
mo-ni'-tion {-nish'-uu), n. the act of 
admonishing ; warning ; reproof, ad- 
mon'-i-to-ry, adj. [L. admoueo, I 

ad nau'-se-am {-si- not -shi-), [L.] to a 
very tiresome extent ; so as to become 
wearisome. [difficulty. [A.S.] 

a-do' {-doo'), n. stir; bustle; trouble; 

a-do'-be {a-do'-bd), n. and adj. a sun- 
dried brick, or made of such. [Sp.] 

a-do-les'-cence {-les'-ens), n. state of 
growing ; growing up (to manhood 
or womanhood), ad-o-les'-cent, adj. 
[F.<L. adolesco, I grow up.] 

a-do'-nis {-do'- not -don'-), n. a fine, 
spruce, young gentleman ; a dandy. 
[From Adonis, a famous, beautiful Greek 
youth, loved by Venus.] 

a-dopt' (-ed, -ing), v. to take as one's 
own {esp. a child) ; to take up or choose. 
a-dop'-tion, n. a-dopt' -er, n. one 
who — . a-dopt '-i Ye, adj. [L. adopto, 
I choose for myself.] 

a-dore' (-dored', -do-ring), v. to wor- 
ship ; to love very much, a-do'-ra-ble 
{-do'-ra-bl), adj. greatly loved; able to 
be, or worthy of being adored, ad-o- 
ra'-tion, n. the act of adoring ; worship 
offered to God. ad-o'-rer, n. [L. 
adoro, I pray to ; I adore.] 

ad-orn' (-orned', -orn'-ing), v. to make 
beautiful ; to decorate ; to embellish. 
ad-orn' -ment, n. act of adorning ; 
that which — . [L. adorno, I adorn.] 

ad ref-er-en'-dum, [L.] for further 

ad rem, [L.] to the purpose or point. 



a-drift', adv. driven along by stream and 
wind ; moving without being under 
control. [A.S.] 

a-droit', adj. skilful with the hands ; 
dexterous; clever; expert, a-droit'- 
ness, n. [F. <L. directus, straight.] 

ad' -sum, [L.] I am here, or present. 

ad-u-la'-tion, n. flattery of a low kind ; 
praising too highly, ad'-u-la-tor, n. a 
servile flatterer, ad'-u-la-to-ry, adj. 
containing excessive praise. [L. adula- 
tio, flattery.] 

a-dult', n. a person come to full growth ; 
one grown up : adj. full-grown ; of full 
age. [L. adultus, grown up.] 

a-dul'-ter-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
make impure ; to corrupt, a-dul'-ter- 
ant, n. the person who, or the thing 
which, adulterates, a-dul-ter-a'-tion, 
n. the act of adulterating. [L. adultero, 
I corrupt.] 

a-dul'-ter-y, n. unfaithfulness to the 
marriage vows. a-dul'-ter-er (/. 
-tress), n. one who is guilty of adultery. 
[F.<L. adulterium."\ 

ad va-lo' -rem ox ad val., [L.] accord- 
ing to the value or worth. 

ad-vance' (-Yanced', -Yan'-cing), v. to 
put forward ; to put in a superior posi- 
tion ; to go forward ; to supply before- 
hand (as money, goods) ; to raise the 
market value of : adj. : n. act of putting 
or going forward ; supplying something 
(esp. money) beforehand ; progress ; a 
proposal, ad-vance' -ment, w. causing 
to advance ; being advanced ; promo- 
tion ; improvement, in advance, before 
it is due (said esp. of paying money) ; in 
front ; beforehand. [F. avanccr <L. ab 
+ ante, from before.] 

ad-van'-tage (-taj), n. gain; superiority; 
profit : v. to benefit or profit ; to cause 
profit to. ad-van-ta'-geous (-jtis), adj. 
causing advantage ; useful (with ' to ' 
and ' for '). to have the advantage 
of, to be in a more favourable position 
than someone else ; to know (a person) 
without being known to him. to take 
advantage of, to avail oneself of. [F. 
avantage<h. ab + ante, from before.] 

ad'-Yent, n. coming; arrival; the coming 
of Jesus Christ on earth, and the festival 
celebrating this coming held four weeks 
before Christmas. [L. advenio, I come 

ad-Yen-ti'-tious (-tish'-us), adj. as an 
addition ; accidental ; casual. [L. 

adventicius, coming iiom without.] 

ad-ven'-ture, n. a risky ir bold under- 
taking ; an enterprise ; a remarkable 
incident or experience ; a commercial 
speculation : v. to undertake a fsk ; to 
dare. ad-Yen'-tu-rer, n. one whu — ; 
a speculator ; one who tries to advarr^ 
(in business, position, etc.,) by unfair 
means or false pretences, ad-ven'-tu- 
rous (-rus) , adj. bold ; not afraid of risks. 
[F. aventure <L. advenio, I come to.] 

ad'-Yerb, n. a word which modifies a verb, 
adjective, or other adverb. ad-Yer'- 
bi-al, adj. of an adverb, ad-ver'-bi- 
al-ly, adv. [L. adv erbium < ad + 
verbum, a word.] [[L. adver sarins."] 

ad'-ver-sa-ry,n. an opponent ; an enemy. 

ad' -verse, adj. in a contrary direction ; 
opposed (to) ; contrary, ad-verse' -ly, 
adv. ad-Yer'-si-ty, n. ill-fortune ; an 
unfortunate state or circumstance ; af- 
fliction; misery, [h.adversus, against.] 

ad-Yert' (-ed, -ing), v. to direct the mind 
or attention (to) ; to refer or allude (to). 
ad-ver'-tent, adj. attentive (to) ; heed- 
ful (of). [L. adverto, I turn to.] ' 

ad'-Yer-tise (-*&), (-tised, -ti-sing), v. to 
give public notice (of or to) ; to make 
public or known, ad-ver'-tise-ment 
\-tiz-), n. a notice in a newspaper or 
other public print ; notoriety, ad-ver- 
ti'-ser (-zer) , n. one who — . [F. avertir, 
to inform<L. adverto, I turn to.] 

ad-vice' (-vis'), n. something said to 
another for his guidance ; counsel ; 
recommendation ; warning. ad-Yi'- 
ces, notice or information. [F. 
avis, an opinion <L. ad + visum, what 
is seen.] 

ad-vise' (-viz'), (-vised', -Yi'-sing), v. to 
give advice to ; to inform (of) ; to recom- 
mend, ad-vi'-sa-ble, adj. in keeping 
with good advice ; proper to be done ; 
prudent. ad-Yi'-sed-ly, adv. after due 
consideration; not hastily, ad-vi'-ser, 
n. one who — . ad-Yi'-so-ry, adj. 
having power to advise ; containing 
advice, advisory committee, a c— 
specially appointed to give advice on 
certain matters. [F.<L. see advice.] 

ad vi'-tam ant cul'-pam, [L.] for 
lifetime or until fault. 

ad'-vo-cate, n. one who pleads the cause 
of another (esp. in a court of justice) : 
(-ca-ted, -ca-ting) , v . to plead (a cause) ; 
to urge (a course of action). ad'-YO- 
ca-cy, n. the act of advocating. Lord 





Advocate, the./ first Law-officer of the 
Crown and the Public Prosecutor in 
Scotland. Judge Advocate, the officer 
who con ducts a court-martial. [F. <L. 
advo co , I call to.] 

a d_':Ow'-son,?j. the right of presentation 
to a church living or benefice. [O.F. < 
L. advocdtus, a patron, see advocate.] 

adze (adz), n. a kind of axe. [A.S.] 

ae'-dile (e'-dll) (less correctly e'-dile), n. 
a magistrate (in ancient Kome) who had 
charge of public buildings, markets, 
games, police, etc. ; a municipal officer. 
[L. aedllis<aedes, a house.] 

se'-gis (e'-jis) (not egis), n. the shield of 
Jupiter (among the ancient Greeks and 
Romans) ; protection. [Gr.] 

w-gro'-tat (e-gro'- or e'-gro-), n. [L. he 
is sick] a certificate that a person is ill . 

/E-o'-li-an (e-o'-) (less correctly eolian), 
adj. of iEolia, a province of Ancient 
Greece, or of iEolus (e'-o-lus) the Greek 
god of the wind. An iEolian lyre (or 
harp) is one made to sound by the wind. 

se'-on (e'-on) (not eon), n. an age, esp. a 
very long age, or natural period of time ; 
an eternity. [Gr. aion, an age.] 

aeq.=se-qua'-les, [L.] equal, or equals. 

a'-er-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to put air 
into ; to mix or fill with carbonic acid 
or other gas, as in aerated water, 
aerated bread, a'-er-a-ted, adj. 
a'-er-a-ting,a(//. a-er-a'-tion,n. — ; 
exposing to the action of the air. a' -er- 
a-tor, n. an apparatus for aerating. 
[L. < Gr. der, air.] [derius, of air.] 

a-e'-ri-al, adj. of the air; lofty. [L. 

ae'-rie (d'-rl), ae'-ry, ey'-rie (I'-ri) or 
ey'-ry, n. the nest of an eagle or other 
bird of prey. [F. < L. < Gr. der, air.] 

a'-er-o-drome (or dr'-o-), n. a ground 
from which flying-machines ascend. [F. 
<Gr. der, air, dromos, a (race) course.] 

a'-er-o-lite, or -lith (or dr'-o-), n. a mete- 
oric stone (falling from the air) ; a 
meteorite. [Gr. der, air, litlios, a stone.] 

a'-er-o-naut (or dr'-o-), n. one who sails 
in the air (in a balloon), a-er-o-naut'- 
ic, adj. a-er-o-naut'-ics, n. pi. the 
science or art of aerial navigation. [Gr. 
der, air, nautes, a sailor.] 

a'-er-o-plane (or dr'-o-), n. a kind of 
flying-machine.^ [Gr. der, air -f- plane.] 

a'-er-o-stat (or dr'-o-), n. an air-balloon ; 
a flying-machine. a-er-o-stat'-ics, 
n. pi. the science of the air (or gases) 
in a state of rest ; ballooning. [Gr. der, 

air, staticos, at a standstill.] 

a'-er-y, adj. belonging to air; unsub- 
stantial ; high in the air. [L. derius, 
of the air.] 

>*Es-cu-la -pi-an (es-), adj. relating to 
iEsculapius, the Roman god of medicine, 
or to medicine itself. 

aes-thet'-ic (es-), adj. belonging to the 
beautiful, to the fine arts, or to good 
taste : -ics, the science of beauty 
and of good taste. [Gr. aisthetiko$< 
aisthanomai, I feel, perceive.] 
I aet. or aetat., ae-ta'-tis, [L.] = of 
(one's) age ; aged (so and so). 

A.— F., Anglo-French. [aries. 

i A.F.A., Associate of the Faculty of Actu- 

af -fa-ble (-/&-), adj. easy to speak to ; 
agreeable in speech, bearing, and man- 
ners, af-fa-bil'-i-ty, n. the quality of 
being affable. [F. <L. affari, to speak to] 

af-fair' (-far'), n. a matter or business. 
af-fairs', n. pi. public or private busi- 
ness ; finances, affair of honour (F. 
affaire d'honneur), a duel. [F. d 
faire<L. ad+fdcio, I do.] 

af-fect' (-ed, -ing), v. to act upon ; to 
move the feelings of ; to produce a 
change upon ; to influence ; to like ; to 
pretend, af-fec-ta'-tion, n. an un- 
natural or assumed manner of speaking 
or acting; pretence, af-fect '-ed, adj. 
full of affectation, af-fect'-ing, adj. 
moving ; touching ; pathetic. [L. affecto 
< ad+fdcio, I do.] 

af-fec'-tion, n. love ; kindly feeling ; a 
disease ; disposition of mind, af-fec'- 
tion-ate, adj. af-fec'-tion-ate-ly, 
adv. [L. qffectus< ad+fdcio, I do.] 
I af-fi'-ance, n. promise of marriage ; 
betrothal ; trust ; confidence ; faith : v. 
(-anced, -anc-ing) to pledge faith ; to 
betroth. [O.F. ajiance, trust<L. ad + 
fides, faith.] 
l . af-fi-da'-vit, n. a written declaration on 
oath. [L. he has pledged his faith.] 

af-fiT-i-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to adopt 
(a child) ; to fix the parentage of (a child) . 
af-fil-i-a'-tion,w. [L. affi,liatus<ad+ 
filius, a son.] 

af-fin'-i-ty, n. nearness of relationship ; 
likeness of nature or disposition ; the 
attraction of atoms (chem.). [F. affinity 
<L. ad -f finis, an end.] 

af-firm' (-firmed, -firm-ing),t>. to declare 
confidently, solemnly, or positively. 
af-fir-ma'-tion, n. the act of affirming. 
af-fir'-ma-tive, adj. asserting ; expres- 




sing yes, or assent, (to answer) in the 
affirmative (to answer) « yes ' to a 
question. [O.F. afermer <L. afiirmo< 
firmus, strong.] 

af-fix' (-fixed', -fix'-ing), v. to fix or' join 
(to) . af ' -fix, n . a syllable or letter j oined 
at the end of a word ; a suffix ; some- 
thing placed at the end. [L. ad+Jixus, 
fixed.] [tion (as of a poet). [L.] 

af-fla'-tus, n. a breath of wind ; inspira- 

af-flict' (-ed, -ing), v. to give pain or dis- 
tress to ; to grieve, af-flic'-tion, n. 
distress of mind ; grief ; loss of friends ; 
persecution. [L. affligo, I dash down.] 

af -flu-ence, n. abundance ; great wealth. 
af -flu-ent, adj. wealthy : n. a tributary 
stream . [F . < L . affiuens , flowing to . ] 

af-ford' (-ed, -ing), v. to give forth ; to 
yield ; to be able to spend ; to give or 
grant. [A.S. geforthian, to further.] 

af-for'-est (-ed, -ing), v. to turn land 
into a forest by planting trees on it. 
af-for-es-ta'-tion, n. [L. ad+foris, 
out of doors.] 

v, to make free from slavery or an obK 
gation. af-fran'-chise-ment (-c7wz-), n. 
act of setting free. [F. a+franc, free.] 

af-fray' (-frayed', -fray'-ing), v. to 
frighten : n. a fight causing alarm ; a 
noisy quarrel ; a breach of the peace. 
[F . < L . ex -f . G . fridu, peace .] 

af -fright' {-frit'), (-ed, -ing), v. to cause 
sudden fear to : n. great fear or fright ; 
terror. [A.S. a+fyrhtan, to terrify.] 

af-front' (-ed, -ing), v. to insult ; to ill- 
treat openly : n. an insult (of word or 
deed). [O.F. afronter<h. ad+frons, 
the forehead.] 

af-fu'-sion (-zhun), n. the pouring on (of 
water, etc.). [L. ad+fundo, I pour.] 
N. B. — Do not confuse with effusion, q . v . 

a-fore', adv. before, a-fore'-said, adj. 
before-mentioned or spoken of . a-fore ' - 
time, adv. in past times. [A.S.] 

a for-ti-o'-ri, [L.] much more then ; 
with stronger reason. [ [See affray.] 

a-fraid', adj. filled with fear ; timid. 

Af -ri-can, adj. of Africa : n. a native of 
Africa. Af -ri-can' -der, n. a native of 
S. Africa born of white (esp. Dutch) 

aft, adj. and adv. behind ; near the stern 
(of a vessel). [Contraction of after.] 

af -ter, adj. behind ; hinder : prep, and 
adv. behind; later; later than ; below 
in rank ; next to (in order) ; in pursuit 

of ; following ; in imitation of. after- 
crop, n. a second crop (after the main 
crop), after— damp, n. ehoke-damp 
(a poisonous gas arising in mines after 
an explosion of fire-damp), after- 
glow, n. the glow in the west of the sky 
after sunset, after— math, n. a second! 
crop (of grass, &c). after— taste, n. a 
taste which remains after eating or 
drinking, after— thought, n. a thought 
or reflection that comes after. [A.S.] 

a-gain', adv. once more. [A.S.] 

a-gainst', prep, opposite, or in opposition 
to ; in exchange for. [A.S.] 

a-gar'-ic (or ag'-ar-ik), n. a mushroom 
or other fungus. [Gr. agarikon."\ 

ag'-ate, n. a precious stone (a kind of 
quartz). [Gr. achates, a river in Sicily. ]' 

age (ay) , n. a period of time ; the length 
of man' s life ; a generation . age (aged, 
age '-ing), v. to become old. a'-ged, 
adj. advanced in age ; old. to come of 
age, to become 21 years old, and attain 
full responsibility as man or woman. 

a-gen'-da (-jen'-), memoranda ; list 
of things to be done or discuss'd. [L. 
"d#t>, I d.Q f ."\ 

a -gent, tt.'fhfrptH -or or thing that exert ;•; 
power ; one who act& 'ior anothef by 
authority, a'-gen-cy, n. acting for 
another ; the office of an agent. [L. 
ago, I do.] 

ag-glom'-er-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
collect into a ball or mass, ag-glom- 
er-a'-tion, n. [L. ag glome ro< glomus, 
a ball.] 

ag-glu'-ti-nate (-na-ted, -na-ting), v. 
to unite or to make to unite (as with 
glue), ag-glu-ti-na'-tion, n. ag-glu- 
ti-na-tiye, adj. tending to or causing 
union. [L. agglutino< gluten, glue.] 

ag'-gran-dize (-dized, -diz-ing), I to 
make great ; to exalt in power, rani, or 
honour, ag-gran'-dize-ment (ff ), 
n. [L. ad+grandis, great.] 

ag'-gra-yate (-va-ted, -ya-ting), t to 
make worse, or more severe, or less 
endurable ; to irritate or make a^ry. 
ag-gra-ya'-tion, n. ag'-gra-ya-mg, 
adj. making worse ; making angry. [L. 
aggrdvo< gravis, heavy.] 

ag'-gre-gate, adj. taken together :\i. a 
sum taken together; a total: v. |ga- 
ted, -ga-ting),to collect together, ag- 
gre-ga'-tion, n. [L. aggrego<g\x, a 

ag-gress' (-gressed', -gross '-ing);. to 




make an attack (fi rs t) ; to begin a quarrel. 

ag-gres'-^Jon (-gresh'-un), n. a first 

attack oij4 no ther ; a breach of the peace ; 

an atjgck on privileges. ag-gres'-siYe, 

«^Tmaking the first attack, ag-gres'- 

,-sor, n. one who — . [L. aggredior< 

■' grddior, I step, walk.] 

ag-grieve' (-grev'), (-grieved', -grieY- 

ing), v. to offend ; to cause sorrow, pain, 

or injury to. [L. ad+ gravis, heavy.] 

a-ghast' \-gast'), adj. struck with wonder 

or fear. [A.S. a+gcestan, to terrify.] 
ag'-ile (dj'-il), adj. active; nimble. 

a-gil'-i-ty, n. [L. agilis, nimble.] 
ag'-i-tate («?'-), (-ta-ted, -ta-ting), v. 
to put in quick motion ; to disturb ; to 
stir violently ; to excite, ag-i-ta'-tion, 
| n. state of being agitated ; commotion ; 
a public excitement, ag'-i-ta-tor, n. 
(f. -trix), one who causes agitation (esp. 
by violent speeches). [L. aglto<ago, 
I do.] 
ag-nos'-tic, n. one who disclaims any 
knowledge of anything beyond the teach- 
ings of nature or experience : adj. ag- 
nos'-ti-cism (-tl-sizm), n. the doctrine 
of agnostics. [Gr. a + gignosko. I kwM" j 
DJt'-nus, n. the figure of.-r ILaI to repre- 
sent the fsav'^ui. Ag'-nus De'-i, Lamb 
of God. [L.] 
a-gog', adj. and adv. in a state of, great 

excitement ; eager. [O.F.] 
ag'-O-ny, n. great suffering of body or 
mind ; a violent struggle, ag'-o-ftize 
(-nized, -ni-zing), v. to suffer extreme 
pain or anguish ; to distress exceedingly. 
[Gr. agonia, a contest.] 
a-gra'-ri-an, adj. relating to fields or 
lands : n. one who is in favour of dis- 
tributing the land equally among the 
people, a-gra'-ri-an-ism (-tew), n. the 
doctrine held by agrarians, agrarian 
cutrage, wilful damage done to persons 
cr property by certain people who con- 
sider themselves oppressed by the land- 
Ws of the country (esp. in Ireland). 
|L. agrdrius<ager, a field.] 
a-;ree' (-greed', -gree'-ing), v. to be of 
<ue mind or opinion, a-gree'-ment, n. 
rate of being agreed ; a legal document. 
-gree'-a-ble, adj. pleasant ; quite 
illing. [F.<L. ad + grdtus, pleasing.] 
agri-cul-ture, n. cultivation of land. 
g-ri-cul'-tu-ral, adj. ag-ri-cul'-tu- 
ist, n. one engaged in agriculture. [L. 
tricultura<ager, field, + colo, I culti- 

a'-gue (-gu), n. a fever with shivering. 
a'-gu-ish, adj. having ague ; inclined 
to ague ; shivering. [L. aciltus, sharp.] 

A.H.G., Army Hospital Corps. 

aid, n. help ; assistance : v. (-ed, -ing), to 
help; to assist. [F.<L. adjuto, I help.] 

aide-de-camp' (dd-duh-koh'), n. (pi. 
aides-de-camp'), an officer attendant 
on the general. [F.] 

ai'-gret (a'-), or ai'-grette, n. a plume of 
feathers, often adorned with precious 
stones. £F.<Ic. hegri, a heron.] 

ai'-guille (d'-givil), n. a needle-shaped 
mountain peak ; a kind of drill. [F.] 

aileron (d-ler-oh'), n. a steadying wing of 
an aeroplane. [F.<L. did, a wing.] 

ail (dl), (ailed, ail'-ing), v. to be sick or 
ill. ail'-ing, adj. being ill, or sick. 
ail' -ment, n. illness. [A.S.] 

aim (dm), 7i. intention ; an object intended 
to be hit ; the line of fire (of a gun, etc.) ; 
the act of throwing : v. (aimed, aim'- 
ing) (usu. with "at "), to try to hit (an 
object or mark) ; to intend, aim'-less, 
adj. aim'-less-ly, adv. without aim or 
purpose. [F.<L. mtimo, I estimate.] 

A.I.M.E., Associate of the Institute of 
Mining (or Mechanical) Engineers. 

air (a/), n. the fluid we breathe ; the atmos- 
phere ; the bearing or appearance of a 
person or thing ; a tune or melody : v. 
(aired, air' -ing), to expose to air ; to dry ; 
to show off (as knowledge), air— gas, n. 
gas for lighting made by mixing petro- 
leum vapour with air. air— gun, n. a 
shooting instrument in which air is the 
force, air— pump, n. an instrument for 
pumping out air. air— ship, n. a dirig- 
ible balloon, i.e., one driven by a motor 
and having steering-apparatus, air- 
space, n. the cubic contents of a room 
with reference to the amount of air for- 
breathing contained in it. air— tight, 
adj. so tight or close that air cannot 
enter, air-way, n. a passage for air 
(esp. in a mine), air'-y, adj. well-sup- 
plied with air ; light ; sprightly ; unsub- 
stantial. [L.<Gr. aer, air.] 

aisle (U), n. a side passage (esp. of a 
church). [L. dla, a wing.] 

aitch'-bone (dch'-), n. the rump-bone (of 
an ox). [F.<L.] 

a-jar' (-jdr'), adv. a little way opened (as 
a door). [A.S. cierran, to turn.] 

a— kim'-bo, adv. with elbow pointed out- 
wards and hand on the hip. [Ic] 

a-kin', adj. and adv. related by blood ; 




nearly related ; of the same nature. 

al-, all-, pref. [A.S.] all. 

Ala., Alabama (U.S.A.). 

al'-a-bas-ter, n. a partly transparent 
stone of gypsum formation. [L.<Gr. 
alabastros."] [of fare. 

a la carte (d-ld-kdrt), [F.] as the bill 

al-ac'-ri-ty (-ak'-), n. liveliness of man- 
ner ; cheerfulness ; readiness ; quick- 
ness ; smartness. [L. alacer, cheerful.] 

a la francaise (d-ld-fran-sdz), [F.] in 
the French manner. 

a la mode' (d-ld-mod'), [F.] adv. in, 
or according to, the fashion, a-la- 
mode', n. a thin kind of silk. 

a-larm, n. sudden surprise with fright ; 
a feeling of unrest ; notice of danger ; a 
contrivance (usu. clock), made to ring 
loudly to waken from sleep ; an alarum : 
v. (-larmed',-larm'-ing),togivealarm; 
to call to arms, alarm'— bell, n. a bell to 
sound the alarm on. a-larm'-ing, adj. 
causing alarm, a-larm'-ist, n. one who 
gives an alarm needlessly, or for insuf- 
ficient reasons. a-Ia'-rum (-Id'- or 
(-Id'-) n. a signal of alarm ; an alarm- 
clock. [F.<L. ad arma, to arms.] 

Alas., Alaska (U.S.A.). 

Alb., Albania (U.S.A.). 

alb, n. a long, white robe worn by a priest. 
[L. albus, white.] 

al'-ba-tross, n. a large sea-bird frequent- 
ing the Southern Ocean. [Po.<Ar.] 

al'-bert, n. a short watch-chain worn 
across the breast. [From Prince Albert, 
the husband of Queen Victoria.] 

al-bi'-no (-bV- or -be'-), n. (pi. al-bi'-nos) 
a person (or animal) with white skin 
and the pupil of the eyes of a pink 
colour. [L. albas, white.] 

al'-bum, n. a book (blank when sold) for 
containing portraits, autographs, etc. 
[L. albus, white.] 

al-bu'-men, n. the white of an egg. al- 
bu'-min, n. any substance resembling 
white of egg in composition 6:. appear- 
ance, al-bu'-min-oid, adj. resembling 
albumen: n. al-bu'-min-ous (-us), 
adj. having the quality of albumin ; 
insipid. [L. albus, white.] 

al'-chem-y (-hem-), n. the pretended art 
of turning base metals into gold, al'- 
chem-ist, n. one who professes alchemy. 
[O.F.<Ar. al klmla<G.'] 

al'-co-hcl, n. a pure spirit (spirit of wine) 
obtained by distillation of saccharine 
matters, and of an intoxicating nature. 

al-co-hol'-ic, adj. al'-co-hol-ism, n. 

a diseased condition of the body caused 

by the continued and improper use of 

alcoholic liquors. [Ar.] 
al'-coye (-k5v), n. a spacious recess in a 

room ; a natural recess. [Sp. alcoba."] 
Aid., Alderman, a. v. 
al'-de-hydes, n. pi. volatile liquids, many 

having a suffocating smell, obtained 

from alcohol. 
al'-der,n. a well-known tree. [A..S. alor.^ 
al'-der-man, n. a city dignitary next in 

rank to the Mayor in English and Irish 

boroughs, al-der-man'-ic, adj. [A.S. 

ealdor, senior, chief -\-mann.'\ 
ale, n. an alcoholic drink brewed from 

malt with the addition of hops ; beer. 

ale'— house, n. a house where ale is 

sold. [A.S. ealu."] 
a-lert', adj. on one's guard ; watchful ; 

sprightly ; nimble, a-lert'-ness, n. 

[F. <I. <L. erectus, erect ; intent.] 
al'-fa, or hal'-fa, n. a kind of esparto 

grass from N. Africa from which paper 

is made. 
al f res' -co (fres'-ko), [I.] in the open air. 

An-..:' fresco painting is one on fresh 

plaster. Ofteix written alfresco, 
al'-gae (-je), a class of sea (and ires 1 ** 

water) weeds, al'-ga (g hard), n.s.% 

particular kind of such weeds. [L.j 
al'-ge-bra i-je-), n. the science of number 

and numerical computations in which 

letters express quantities, and signi 1 

operation. al-ge-bra'-ic-al,ac//. [Ar.] 
a'-li-as, adv. otherwise ; at another time : 

n. an assumed or additional name. pi. 

a'-li-as-es. [L. alius, another.] 
al'-i-bi (-i-bi), n. being somewhere else 

(a la w term) . [L . alius , other , i bi , there. ] 
a'-li-en (-U-), adj. foreign ; different in 

nature : n. a foreigner ; a Strang r. 

a'-li-en-a-ble, adj. able to b( 

over to another, a'-li-en-ate (-a-:ed. 

-a-ting), v . to make over to another ; 

to withdraw (as the affections) ; to 

estrange ; to make unfriendly, a-li- 

en-a'-tion, n. [F.<L. alienus, of 

another country.] 
a-light' (-light'-ed, -light'-ing), v. to 

come down (from a horse, etc.) ; to settle 

(on a flower, etc.). [A.S. alihtan.] 
a-light', ad;', lighted; kindled. [-See light.] 
a-lign' (-lin'), (-ligned', -lign'-ing), v. to 

form (esp. troops) in line, a-lign'- 

ment, n. [F.<L. ad + linea, a line.] 
al'-i-ment, n, nourishment ; food ; sup- 




port, al-i-ment'-ar-y, adj. aliment- 
ary canal, the great duct — mouth, 
gullet, stomach, intestines — by which 
food is passed through the body during 
the process of digestion. [See alimony.] 

al'-i-mon-y, n. allowance made to a wife 
when separated from her husband. 
[L. alimentum<dlo, I nourish.] 

al'-i-quot, adj. (a part) contained an exact 
number of times (in a whole). [L. 
aliquot, some, several.] 

al'-ka-li, n. a chemical substance (as 
potash, soda, etc.), of a neutralizing 
nature, al'-ka-line, adj. al'-ka-loid, 
n. a substance resembling an alkali, or 
having similar properties (often of vege- 
table origin). [Ar.] 

al'-ko-ran, n. the Koran, or Bible of the 
Turks and other Mohammedans. [Ar. 
al, the, qurdn, reading.] 

Al'-lah, n. the Arabic name for God. 

al-lay' (-la'), (-layed', -lay'-ing), v. to 
make light, quiet, or smooth ; to lessen 
(pain). [F.<L. levis, light.] 

al-lege' {-lef), (-leged', -leg'-ing), v. to 
assert ; to bring forward as a reason. 
al-le-ga'-tion, n. the act of paging; 
that which is alleged. [L. allego."} 

al-le'-gi-ance, n. loyal duty (esp. to the 
sovereign). [F. <L. ad + lego, I bind.] 

al'-le-go-ry, n. a figurative story (with a 
meaning), al-le-gor'-ic or al-le-gor'- 
ic-al, adj. al'-le-go-rist, n. a writer 
of allegory, al'-le-go-rize (-rized, -ri- 
zing), v. to turn into allegory ; to employ 
allegory. [Gr. allegoria.] 

al-le-gret'-to, n. a brisk movement (in 
music) not so fast as allegro. [I.<L.] 

al-le'-gro {-la'-), adj. and adv. brisk, 
lively (of music) : n. music with a lively 
movement. [I.<L. aldcer, lively.] 

aMe-lu'-jah (-ya), or al-le-lu'-ia(h), 
fat. See hallelujah. [H.] 

v»iMe'-yi*ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to make 
lighter ; to give ease to ; to lessen (as 
pain, sorrow). al-le-Yi-a'-tion, n. [L. 
allevo, I lighten.] 

al'-ley (-11), n. (pi. al'-leys), a narrow 
way or passage. [F. allee."] 

All— Fa'-ther, n. a title of Odin ; God. 

All-Fools' Day, n. the 1st of April. 

all— fours, n. the four legs of a quadruped, 
or the legs and arms of a person ; a 
game at cards. [salutation. 

All-hail' (-hdV), int. all-health ; a form of 

All-Hal' -lows, n. All Saints' Day, IstNov. 

al-li'-ance, n. See ally. 

al'-li-ga-tor, n. the American crocodile. 
[Sp.<L. lacerta, a lizard.] 

al-lit-er-a'-tion, n. repetition of the same 
letter at the beginning of two or more 
words or syllables next or near to each 
other, al-lit'-er-a-tiye (-a-tiv), adj. 
[L. ad + litera, a letter.] 

al'-lo-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to give 
each its piace or share ; to assign to. 
al-lo-ca'-tion, n. [L. ad + locus, a 

al-lop'-a-thy (-d-thi), n. the usual system 
of treating diseases by endeavouring to 
create a condition of the body contrary 
to that caused by the disease, al-lo- 
path'-ic, adj. al-lop'-a-thist, n. one 
who practises allopathy. [Gr. alios, 
other, pathos, feeling.] 

al-lot' (-lot' -ted, -lot-ting), v. to give 
as a lot, or share ; to divide and parcel 
out. al-lot -ment, n. that which is 
allotted (esp. land when divided into 
small portions for spade cultivation) ; 
the act of allotting. [O.F. allotir.] 

al-low' (-lou'), (-lowed', -low'-ing), v. 
to permit ; to own or admit ; to grant. 
al-low'-a-ble,adj. proper to be allowed. 
al-low'-ance, n. that which is allowed 
or granted ; a privilege. [L. ad-\-laudo, 
I praise.] 

al'-loy, n. a mixture of metals, esp. a baser 
with a more precious one : al-loy' 
(-loyed', -loy'-ing), v. to injure the 
purity or value of (by admixture) ; to 
moderate or modify, without alloy, 
without grief, sadness, or anything to 
spoil pleasure or happiness. [F.<L. 
ad -{-lex, law.] 

All-Souls' Day, n. the 2nd Nov. 

all'-spice, n. the berry of the pimento, or 
Jamaica pepper plant, said to combine 
the flavours of many other spices. 

al-lucle' (-lu'-ded, -lu'-ding), v. to refer 
(to) ; to hint at. al-lu'-sion (-zhun), n. 
al-lu'-siye, adj. referring to indirectly. 
[L. aliudo, I play to.] 

al-luro' (-lured', -lur'-ing), v. to draw 
on or tempt; to entice, al-lure'-ment, 
n. al-lur'-ing, adj. tempting; entic- 
ing. [O.F. alurer<d leurre, to the 
bait or lure.] 

al-Xu'-Yi-um, n. (pi. -yi-a or -yi-ums), 
soil, etc., deposited by river or flood. 
al-lu'-yi-al, adj. [L. alluvium."} 

al-ly' (-11'-), (-lied', -ly'-ing), v. to join 
or league in friendship or by marriage. 
al'-ly, n. (pi. al'-lies), one (person or 

Alma Mater 



state) leagued with another, al-li'- 
ance, n. being allied ; union by treaty. 
[O.F. alier<h. alligo, I bind to.] 

Al'-ma Ma'-ter, [L. fostering mother] 
a phrase applied by a student to his 
college or university. 

al'-man-ac, n. a yearly calendar of days, 
weeks, months, etc. [Sp.<Ar. (?)] 

al-might'-y, adj. having infinite power ; 
irresistible, the Almighty, n. a name 
for God. [A.S.] 

al'-mond (d'-mund), n. the nut (or its 
kernel) of the almond-tree, al'-mond— 
cake, n. the remains of the almond 
after the oil has been pressed out. [F. 
<Gr. amygdale, almond.] 

al'-mon-er, n. one who distributes alms. 
al'-mon-ry, n. the place where alms 
are distributed ; the residence of the 
almoner. [O.F.<L. eleemosyna < Gr.] 

al'-most, adv. nearly ; all but. 

alms (dmz), n. a charitable gift to relieve 
the poor, alms'— deed, n. an act of 
charity, alms'-giying, n. alms'- 
house, n. a house in which poor persons 
are provided for. [See almoner.] 

al'-oe {-o),n. (pi. al'-oes), a tropical plant 
from which a bitter drug is made. 
[Gr. aloe.] [a + loft.] 

a-loft', adv. on high ; to the sky. [E. 

a-lone', adj. and adv. by oneself ; single ; 
solitary, [all + one.] 

a-long', adv. in a line (with) ; together 
(with), a-long'-side, adv. and prep. 
by the side (of). [A.S. and-lang."} 

a-loof, adv. at a distance ; away (from). 
[E. a+D. loef, windward side.] 

a-loud', adv. with a loud voice. [E.] 

alp, n. a high mountain. [Ga. alp<l>. 
alius, white (with snow).] 

al-pac'-a (-pah'-), n. a Peruvian animal 
of the goat kind ; material made from 
its hair. [Peruvian al paco.J 

al' -pen-stock, n. a stick shod with iron 
used in climbing (the Alps or other) 
mountains. [G. Stock, stick.] 

al'-pha-bet {-fa-), n. the letters of a 
language arranged in order, al-pha- j 
bet'-i-cal, adj. in the order of the letters 
of the alphabet, [alpha and beta, the 1st j 
and 2nd letters of the Greek alphabet.] 

al'-pine, adj. belonging to the Alps' or 
other high mountains. [See alp.] 

al-read'-y,adu. by this time; now. [O.E.] 

al'-tar, n. an elevated stone or table on 
which sacrifices were offered ; (in 
churches) the Communion-table, al'- 

tar— cloth, n. the cloth which covers the 
altar, altar— piece, n. a decoration (often 
a picture) placed behind the altar in a 
church, high altar, n. the chief altar 
in a cathedral or church, led to the 
altar, married. [L. altdre < altus, high.] 

al'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to vary ; to 
change ; to make different, al-ter-a'- 
tion, n. change, al'-ter-a-tiye (-tiv), 
n. a medicine which alters (and so 
restores) the healthy functions of the 
body. [L. alter, another.] 

al'-ter-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), f. to 
dispute ; to wrangle, al-ter-ca'-tion, 
n. -£L. alter edtus < alter , another.] 

al'-ter e'-go, [L.] another myself. 

al'-ter i'-dem, [L.] another one exactly 

al-ter'-nate, adj. by turns, al'-ter-nate 
(-na-ted, -na-ting), v. to take or follow 
in turns (said of two), al-ter'-nate-ly, 
adv. in turns (of two), al-ter-na'- 
tion, n. the taking or coming by turns. 
al-ter'-na-tiYe (-na-tiv), n. a choice 
between two. [L. alter, another.] 

al-though', conj. be it so that. 

al'-ti-tude, n. height ; elevation. [L. 

al'-to, adj. high: n. (pi. al'-tos), the 
highest range of male voices in singing. 
[I.<L. altus, high.] 

al'-tru-ism (-izm), n. devotion to the 
interests of others ; the reverse of sel- 
fishness. al-tru-is'-tic,ad;'. [L. alter, 

al'-um, n. a mineral salt, a-lu'-mi-na, 
n. one of the mineral earths, a-lu'- 
min-ous (-us), adj. al-u-min'-i-um, 
n. a soft, bluish-white, light metal. 
[L. alumen, alum.] 

a-ium'-nus, n. (pi. -nl ; f. a, pi. «), 
a pupil (esp. at a university or public 
school). [L.] 

al'-ways, adv. unceasing ; at all times. 

A.M., Ar'-ti-um Ma-gis'-ter [L.]=Master 
of Arts (sometimes M.A.) : also an'-te 
me-rid'-i-em [L.] = before mid-day or 
noon : also an' -no mun'-di [L.] = in the 
year of the world. 

a-mal'-gam, n. a mixture of quicksilver 
and another metal, a-mal'-ga-mate 
(-ma-ted, -ma-ting), v. to mix; to 
combine ; to unite, a-mal-ga-ma'- 
tion,n. [L. <Gr. malagma, a softening.] 

a-man-u-en'-sis, it. a person who writes 
what another dictates. [L. manus, hand.] 

a-mass' (-massed', -raass'-ing), v. to 




collect in a mass. [F. amasser."] 

am'-a-teur (-tur, or -tiir), n. a lover of 
any art, sport, game, etc., but who does 
not practise it for gain only. [F.<L. 
amo, I love.] 

am'-a-tiye (-tiv), adj. full of love, am'- 
a-to-ry, adj. relating to love ; loving. 
[L. amo, I love.] 

a-maze' (-mazed', -ma'-zing), v. to 
astonish greatly, a-maze' -ment, n. 
a-ma'-zing, adj. causing astonishment 
or bewilderment. [E. a -f maze.] 

am'-a-zon, n. one of a fabled race of 
female warriors ; a tall, strong, or bold 
masculine woman. [Gr. amazon."} 

am-bas'-sa-dor, n. one who represents 
a sovereign (or state) in another country. 
[F. <L. ambactus, a vassal, adependent] 

am'-ber, n. a pale yellow fossil resin. 
[F. am&re<Ar.] 

am'-ber-gris (-gres), a solid, fragrant 
substance of a grey colour obtained from 
the spermaceti whale. [F. ambre+gris, 
grey.] [about ; both. 

ambi-, amb-, am-, pref. [L.] round 

am-bi-dex'-trous, adj. able to use either 
hand with equal readiness. [L. ambi + 

 dexter, the right hand.] 

am-big'-u-ous (-us), adj. indefinite; 
doubtful ; having more meanings than 
one. am-bi-gu'-i-ty, n. [L. ambiguus, 
moving from side to side.] 

am-bi'-tion (-bish'-un), n. a strong desire 
to rise in the world, or for power, fame, 
honour, or distinction, am-bi'-tious 
(-~bish' -us) , adj. [L. ambitio<ambio, I 
go round (to solicit votes).] 

am'-ble (-bl), (-bled, -bling), v. to go 
between a walk and a trot (of a horse) ; 
to move at an easy pace : n. [L. ambulo, 
I walk.] 

am-bro'-si-a (-bro'-zhi-d), v. the food of 
the (Greek) gods (it gave immortality 
to those who ate of it) ; something plea- 
sant to the taste and smell, am-bro'- 
si-al, adj. very fragrant. [Gr. ambrotos, 

am'-bu-lance, n. a kind of carriage used 
as a moveable hospital. [F. See amble.] 

am'-bus-cade, n. a lying in ambush. 
am '-bush, n. a secret waiting to surprise 
(esp. in military affairs). [F.<Late L. 
boscum, a bush.] 

a-meer', or a-mir', n. a ruler in some 
Eastern countries (esp. Afghanistan) ; 
an emir. [Ar.] 

a-me'-li-o-rate (-ra-ted, -ra-ting), v. 

to make better ; to improve a bad con- 
dition, a-me-li-o-ra'-tion, n. [L. 
melior, better.] 

a-men', n. and int. verily ; so be it (at the 
end of a prayer). [H.] 

a-me'-na-ble (-nd-bl), adj. easy to be led 
or governed ; submissive ; liable to be 
called to account. [F. amener, to lead 
<L.L. minare, to conduct.] 

a-mend' (-ed, -ing), v. to make or grow 
better; to correct, a-mend' -ment, n. 
improvement, a-mends', com- 
pensation for loss or injury ; repara- 
tion. [F.<L. emendo, I correct.] 

amende honorable (a-mand' on-o- 
rdbV), [F.] a frank apology ; reparation. 

a-men'-i-ty (-i-tl),n. (pi. -ties) pleasant- 
ness or agreeableness (as of situation, 
climate, manners, disposition). [L. 
amcenitas<amanus, pleasant.] 

am'-e-thyst (-thist), n. a precious stone 
of a violet-blue colour, a kind of quartz. 
[Gr. amethystos."] 

a'-mi-a-ble, adj. lovable ; of pleasing 
disposition, a-mi-a-bil'-i-ty, n. a'- 
mi-a-bly, adv. [L. amo, I love.] 

am'-ic-a-ble (-ik-d-), adj. friendly ; peace- 
able, am'-ic-a-bly, adv. [L. amicus, 
a friend.] 

A.M.I.C.E., Associate Member of the 
Institute of Civil Engineers. 

A.M.I.E.E., Associate Member of the 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

am'-i-ty (-i-tl), n. friendship ; friendly 
relationship. [L. amo, I love.] 

am-mo'-ni-a, n. a strong-smelling gas 
used in medicine and the arts, am-mo- 
ni'-a-cal, adj. sal ammoniac, smel- 
ling-salts ; ammonium chloride. [Gr. 
Ammon, a god near whose temple in 
Libya this substance was first obtained.] 

am'-mo-nite, n. the fossil shell of an 
extinct species of fish. [See preceding- 
word. The shell was supposed to re- 
semble the horn in Ammon's head.] 

am-mu-ni'-tion (-nish'-uri), n. gun- 
powder, shells, cartridges, and other 
military and naval stores. [L. ad + 
munio, I wall round, fortify.] 

am'-nes-ty, n. a general pardon (esp. of 
political offenders). [Gr. amnestos, not 

a-mok' or a-muck' (to run), adv. to rush 

frantically about, attacking all who come 

in the way. [Malay.] [I love.] 

am'-or-ous (-ws), adj. loving. [L. amo, 

a-mor'-phous (-f us), adj. shapeless ; with- 




out regular form or shape ; uncrystal- 
lized. [Gr. amorphos, without form.] 

a-mour' (d-moor'), n. a love affair. [F. < 
L. amo, I love.] 

amour propre (d-moor' prop'r), [F.] 
vanity ; self-love. 

am-pere' or am-pere' (-par'), n. the unit 
of current (in electricity) ; the measure- 
ment denoting the rate of flow or volume 
of a current. [From Amp&re, a French 
electrician, b. 1775, d. 1836.] 
tphi-, pref. [Gr.] round about. 
i-phib'-i-ous (-Jib' -l-us) , adj. able to 
live either on land or in water, am- 
phib'-i-an, n. (pi. -i-a or -i-ans), an 
amphibious animal : adj. [Gr. amp Id 
-\-bios, life.] 

am-phi-the'-a-tre (-fi-the'-a-te'r), n. an 
ancient theatrical building of an oval or 
irregular shape, with seats in tiers all 
round, and space for the entertainers in 
the middle. [Gr. amphi + theatron, a 

■pie (-pi), adj. large ; abundant ; more 
than sufficient ; extended, am'-pli- 
tude, n. ampleness; extent, am '-ply 
(-pli), adv. am'-pli-fy (-fled, -fy-ing), 
v. to make ample ; to enlarge. [L. 
amplus, large.] 

am'-pu-tate (-ta-ted, -ta-ting), v. to cut 
off (esp. a limb), am-pu-ta -tion, n. 
[L. amputo, I cut away.] 

a-muck'. See amok. 

am'-u-let, ft. a jewel or ornament worn as 
a charm against sickness or other evil. 

a-muse' (-muz'), (-mused', -mu'-sing), v. 
to divert; to entertain, a-muse -ment, 
n. a-mu' -sing, adj. [L.musa, amuse.] 

ana-, pref. [Gr.] up ; back. 

a'-na (d'-na or an' -a), n. a collection of 
sayings, or gossiping anecdotes. [L. 
neut. pi. termination -ana."] 

an-a-bap'-tist, n. one who believes that 
baptized infants should be re-baptized 
when grown up. [Gr. ana + baptist.] 

an-ach'-ro-nism (-ak'-), n. an error by 
which an event or circumstance is 
assigned to a time (earlier or later) to 
which it cannot possibly belong. [Gr. 
ana + chronos, time.] 

an-a-con -da, n. a large South American 
water-snake of the boa family. [?] 

an-ae'-mi-a or an-e'-mi-a (-e'-mi-a), n. a 
want of blood in the body, or poorness of 
blood. an-8B'-mic (-e'- or a-nem'-), adj. 
wanting blood. [Gr. a + liaima, blood.] 

an-aes-thet'-ic (-es-), adj. causing insensi- 
bility (esp. to pain) : n. a drug or other 
substance used to produce insensibility 
to pain. [Gr. an+aisthesis, sensation.] 

an'-a-gram, n. a transposition of letters 
or words so as to form a new word or sen- 
tence [as " time" or " mite " = " emit."] 
[Gr. ana + gramma, a letter.] 

a-nal'-o-gy (-ji), n. a relation or likeness 
of one thing to another in some points ; 
similarity, an-a-log'-i-cal (-loj'-l-), 
adj. a-nal'-o-gous (-gus) , adj. bearing 
an analogy or resemblance (to). [F.< 
Gr. analogia, proportion.] 

an'-a-lyse (-d-llz), (-lysed, -ly-sing), v. 
to separate into natural parts or ele- 
ments ; to trace to its source, an-al'- 
y-sis (-i-), n. (pi. -y-ses), the act or pro- 
cess of analysing, an'-al-yst (-ist), n. 
an-a-lyt'-i-cal, adj. of or belonging to 
analysis. [Gr. ana + luo, I loosen.] 

an'-ar-chy (-kl), n. absence of rule or 
government ; a state of lawlessness ; 
political confusion. an-ar'-chi-cal, 
adj. an'-ar-chist (-kist), n. one who 
advocates anarchy, or aims at the over- 
throw of the civil government of his 
country. [Gr. an-\-arche, government.] 

an-ath'-e-ma, n. a solemn curse, an- 
ath'-e-mat-ize, v. to pronounce an 
anathema on. anathema maran- 
atha (i. Cor. xvi. 22)=Let him be ac- 
cursed, for the Lord cometh to execute 
judgment: ft. a thing accursed or to be 
shunned. [Gr. anathema, anything 
devoted to evil.] 

an-at'-o-my, n. the art of cutting a body 
(animal or vegetable) to see its structure ; 
the science or the study of the structure 
of a body ; the way in which the parts 
of a body are arranged, an-a-tom'- 
ic-al, adj. an-at'-o-mize (-mized, 
(-miz-ing), v. an-at'-om-ist, n. [Gr. 
ana + tome, a cutting.] 

an'-ces-tor (ses-), n. (fern, -tress), a 
forefather ; one from whom a person is 
descended, an-ces'-tral, adj. an'-ces- 
try (-trl), n. a line of ancestors. [L. 
ante + cedo, I go.] 

an'-chor (-k8r), n. an instrument with a 
hook for stopping the motion of a ship 
or boat by gripping the ground ; any 
firm support, an'-chor (-chored, -chor- 
ing), v. to cast anchor and so stop a 
vessel, at anchor, at rest (held by an 
anchor), an'-chor-age, n. place where 
a vessel can lie (or is lying) at anchor. 




to weigh anchor, to raise the anchor 
so as to be able to set sail. [L. ancora."} 

an'-chor-ite (-kor-it) or an'-cho-ret 
(-ko-), n. one who lives a very retired or 
solitary life ; a hermit ; a recluse. 
[Gr. anachoreo, I retire.] 

an-cho'-yy (-cho'-vl), n. (pi. -Yies), a 
small fish of the herring family caught in 
the Mediterranean. [Sp. anchova."] 

an'-cient (dn'-shent), adj. of olden times; 
old : n. a very old person, an'-cient- 
ly, adv. [L. ante, before.] 

an'-cient, n. an ensign or flag ; a standard- 
bearer. [See ensign.] 

an-ci-eri re-glme' (ah-syati ra-zhem'), 
[F.] the old order of things. 

an-dan'-te, adj. (in mus.) moderately slow 
in movement : n. [I.] 

and'-i-ron (-i-erri), n. a fire-dog, i.e., a j 
raised horizontal bar in a fireplace to ' 
support burning wood. [O.F. andier."\ 

an'-ec-dote, n. a very short story or nar- 
rative, an'-ec-do-tal, adj. [Gr. anek- 
dotos, not given out.] 

a-nem'-o-ne, n. a well-known flower 
easily moved by the wind (lit. the wind- 
flower). [Gr. anemos, the wind.] 

a-nent', prep, on a line with ; against ; 
towards; concerning. [A.S. on-efen, 
close by.] 

an'-e-roid, adj. not employing fluid, an 
aneroid barometer is one in which the 
pressure of the air is measured without 
quicksilver or other fluid. [Gr. a+neros, 
liquid + eidos, form.] 

an'-eu-rism (-u-rizm), n. a disease caused 
by the swelling of an artery. [G. ana+ 
eurus, wide.] 

an' -gel, n. a messenger from heaven ; an 
old English coin (value about 10s.) bear- 
ing the figure of an angel, an-gel'-ic 
(-al), adjs. of or like an angel. [Gr. 
a.ngelos, a messenger.] 

an' -gel-us (-jel-), n. the "Hail Mary," a 
prayer to the Virgin ; a E. C. service in 
memory of the Annunciation (St. Luke, 
i. 28), said at morning, noon, and sun- 
set, at which times a bell is rung to 
invite the faithful to say the prayer. 

an'-ger, n. wrath ; passion : v. (-gered, 
-ger-ing), to make angry ; to enrage. 
an'-gry, adj. in a state of anger, an'- 
gri-ly, adv. [L. ango, I choke, press.] 

an'-gi-na pec'-to-ris (an'-ji-, or an-ji'-), 

n . a very dangerous affection of the heart, 

• causing intense pain in the breast. [L.] 

an'-gle, n. a corner; the figure made by 

two lines which meet ; the inclination 
of two lines to each other, an'-gu-lar, 
adj. an-gu-lar'-i-ty, n. [L. angulus, 
a corner.] 

an'-gle, n. a fishing-hook ; a rod and line 
for fishing : v. (-gled, -gling), to fish 
with a rod, line, and hook ; to fish for. 
an'-gler,n. [A.S. angel, a fish-hook.] 

An'-gli-can, adj. English ; belonging to 
the English church, an'-gli-ce (ang'- 
gli-se), adv. in English ; after the Eng- 
lish style, an'-gli-cize (siz), (-cized, 
-ci-zing), v. to make English. [L. 
anglicdnus< Angles, the English.] 

An'-glo-, a prefix, denoting English ; as 
in the following compounds : — an-glo- 
raa'-ni-a, n. a passion for imitating 
English customs, goods, etc. an-glo- 
pho'-bi-a (-/o'-), n. an excessive dread 
of (or aversion to) the same. An'-glo— 
Sax'-on, adj. Old-English ; pertaining 
to the old English race and language. 

an-go'-la, or an-go'-ra, n. a silky wool 
got from the Angora goat. [Angora, a 
town in Asia Minor.] 

an'-guish, n. great pain (of body or mind). 
[F. < L. angustus, narrow < ango, choke] 

an'-i-line (-1-), n. a product of coal-tar 
from which several beautiful dyes are 
obtained. [F. < S. < Ar. anil, indigo.] 

an'-i-mal, n. a living, feeling creature : 
adj. having the life of an animal, an- 
i-mal'-cule,w. (#Z.-culesor-cu-la),an 
exceedingly small animal, an'-i-mal- 
ism (-izm), n. the state of being an ani- 
mal, animal spirits, good health and 
energy, animal kingdom, one of the 
three great divisions (animal, vegetable, 
mineral) of natural objects. [L. anima, 
life, a living thing.] 

an'-i-mate (-ma-ted, -ma-ting), v. to 
give life, spirit, or vigour to : adj. having 
life ; living, an'-i-ma-ted, adj. brisk ; 
lively; vigorous. an-i-ma'-tion,n.. life. 
[L. aniriw, I animate.] 

an-i-mos'-i-ty, n. great hatred ; strong 
ill-feeling. [F.<L. animositas, vehe- 
mence.] [[L-] 

an'-i-mus, n. a feeling against (any one). 

an'-ise (-iss), n. a plant with aromatic 
seeds (aniseeds) used for flavouring. 
[L. anisum.2 [(wine) gallons. [D.] 

an'-ker, n. a Dutch liquid measure of 10 

an'-kle (ang'-kl), n. the joint connecting 

the foot and leg. an'-klet, n. a ring for 

wearing on the ankle. [A.S. ancleow.J 

an'-na, n, an Indian coin (^ of a rupee) 




worth now about l%d. 

an'-nals, ft. pi. a history of events 
arranged in years. an'-nal-i3t, ft. a 
writer of annals. [L. annus, a year.] 

an'-nates or an'-nats, the first- 
year's income (or portion thereof) of a 
bishop, etc., originally (in Eng.) paid to 
the Pope, after 1543 paid for the benefit of 
the Church of Eng. [X. annus, a year.] 

an-neal' (-nealed,' -neal'-ing), v. to 
temper (glass and steel) by heat. [A.S. 
oncelan, to inflame.] 

an-nex' (-nexed', -nex'-ing), v. to join 
or add one thing to another: n. some- 
thing annexed. an-nex-a'-tion,ft. an- 
nexe' (-nex') [F. form] , n. an added 
portion (esp. of a building) ; a wing (of 
a building) . [F. < L. annecto, I tie to.] 

an-ni'-hil-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
entirely destroy ; to bring to nothing. 
an-ni-hil-a'-tion, n. [L. annihilo< 
ad+nihil, nothing.] 

an-ni-yer'-sa-ry,n. (pi. -ries), the return 
of a day year after year on which an event 
occurred and (frequently) is celebrated. 
[L. a7inus, a year, verto, I turn.] 

an'-no-tate (-ta-ted, -ta-ting), v, to 
make notes on. an-no-ta'-tion, n. 
an'-no-ta-tor, n. one who — . [L. 
annoto<an+noto, I mark.] 

an-nounce' (-nounced', -noun'-cing), v. 
to give public or first notice of ; to make 
known, an-nounce' -ment, ft. some- 
thing announced ; the act of — . [F. < 
L. annuncio <ad+nuncio, I report.] 

an-noy' (-noyed', -noy'-ing), v. to dis- 
turb or irritate ; to tease ; to vex ; to 
trouble ; to molest : ft. an-noy'-ance 
(-ans), n. that which — . an-noy '-ing, 
adj. [F.<L. ad + odium, hatred.] 

an'-nu-al, adj. yearly ; happening every 
year : n. a plant which lives only one 
year or season, an'-nu-al-ly, adv. 
yearly, an-nu'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. a sum of 
money paid (per year) to a person for life 
or for a fixed term of years, an-nu'-i- 
tant, ft. the receiver of an annuity. 
[F.<L. annus, a year.] 

an-nul' (-nulled', -nul'-ling), v. to bring j 
to nothing ; to make null and void ; to | 
do away with. [L. ad + nullus, none.] 

an'-nu-lar, adj. ring-shaped, annular 
eclipse, an eclipse of the sun in which 
a ring-shaped portion of its disc is visi- 
ble, the remainder being obscured by 
the moon passing in front of it. [L. 
annulus, a ring.] 

an-nun'-ci-ate (-si-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), 

v. to proclaim ; to give tidings of. an- 
nun-ci-a'-tion, n. announcement ; esp. 
the announcement by the angels to the 
Virgin Mary of the coming birth of 
Christ (St. Luke i. 31). The day on 
which this event is celebrated is 25th 
March, commonly called Lady Day. 
[L. annuntio, I announce.] 

an'-ode, n. the positive pole of an electric 
cell or battery ; the way by which elec- 
tricity enters substances through which 
it passes (opposed to cathode, q.v.). 

an'-o-dyne (-din), n. a medicine used to 
deaden pain. [Gr. an-\-odune, pain.] 

an'-nus mi-ra'-bi-lis, [L.] the won- 
derful year. In English History often 
applied to the year 1666. 

a-noint' (-ed, -ing), v. to smear with 
ointment or oil ; to consecrate by apply- 
ing or pouring on oil. [F.<L. unguo, 
I anoint.] 

a-nom'-a-ly, ft. (pi. -lies), a deviation 
from rule; an irregularity, a-nom'-a- 
lous (-lus), adj. irregular, [Gr. an-f 
homalos, even.] 

a-non', adv. presently ; immediately. 
[A.S. on an' , in one (moment).] 

anon'., a contracted form of anonymous. 

an-on'-y-mous (-i-mus), adj. nameless ; 
of unknown name, an-on-ym'-i-ty 
(-im'-i-ti), n. [Gr. an + onoma, name.] 

an-oth'-er (-uth'-),adj. not the same ; one 
more, another place, the House of 
Lords is often so spoken of in the House 
of Commons. [A.S.] 

an'-swer (-sei-), (-swered, -swer-ing), v. 
to reply (to a question, charge, etc.) ; to 
suit ; to succeed : n. a reply ; a solution 
(as in arith., etc.). an'-swer-a-ble, 
adj. having to give account (of an action) . 
an'-swer-er, ft. [A.S. andswerian.] 

ant, w. a small insect ; an emmet, ant'— 
eat-er, w. a quadruped that feeds on 
ants and other insects, ant'— eggs, n. 
pi. the larva or pup» of ants, ant'— 
hill, ft. the mound raised by ants in 
making their dwelling-place. [A.S. 

an-tag'-o-nist, n. a person who opposes ; 
an opponent or adversary, an-tag-o- 
nis'-tic, adj. opposing, an-tag'-o- 
nism (-nizm),n. the act or state of being 
in opposition. [Gr. antagonistes, a com- 
batant, rival.] 

ant-arc'-tic, adj. opposite the arctic ; 
near the south pole. [Gr. anti + arktos, 




a bear ; the north.] 

ante-, anti-, pre/. [L.] before. 

an-te-ce'-dent, adj. going before in time, 
place, rank, etc. : n. something or some- 
one going before : in pi. previous con- 
duct or history. [L. antecedo < ante -f 
cedo, I go.] 

an'-te-cham-ber, n. a room before and 
leading to another. [L. ante -f cham- 

an'-te-date (-da-ted, -da-ting), v. to 
date before the actual day ; to give an 
earlier date to. [L. ante + date.] 

an-te-di-lu'-Yi-an, adj. before the Flood 
(Noah's) : n. one who lived before the 
Flood ; a very aged person. [L. ante-\- 
diluvies, a flood.] 

an'-te-lope, n. a small, swift animal of 
the deer kind. [O.F < L. < Gr.] 

an-te-me-rid'-i-an, adj. before noon. 
[L. ante -f me r idles, midday.] 

an-ten'-nse (-ne), n. pi. the feelers or 
horns of insects and crustaceans. [L. 
antenna, a sail-yard.] 

an-te'-ri-or, adj. before (in place or time) . 
[L. ante, before.] 

an'-te-room. See antechamber. 

an' -them, n. a sacred song or hymn set 
to music, and sung in parts, sometimes 
with solos. [Gr. anti+phone, voice.] 

an'-ther, n. that part of the stamen of n 
flower containing the pollen or fertili- 
zing dust. [Gr. anthos, a flower.] 

an-thol'-o-gy (-ji), n. a collection of 
beautiful passages of poetry or prose. 
[Gr. anthos, a flower, lego, I collect.] 

an'-thra-cite (sit), n. a kind of coal 
which burns with scarcely any flame, 
smell, or smoke, and gives off intense 
heat ; smokeless coal. [Gr. anthrax, 

an'-thrax, n. a carbuncle ; a fiery boil ; 
an infectious disease of cattle and sheep, 
which may be communicated to man by 
inoculation ; wool-sorters' disease. [Gr.] 

an-thro-pol'-o-gy (-££), n. that branch of 
natural history which treats of mankind 
as human and social beings, an'-thro- 
poid, adj. resembling man, applied to 
certain man-like apes, as the orang and 
gorilla, an-thro-po-log'-i-cal (-loj'-l-), 
adj. [Gr. anthropos, a man, logos, dis- 

anti-, pre/. [Gr.] opposite to ; against. 

an'-tic, adj. odd ; ridiculous in dress, 
shape, etc. : n. a buffoon ; a clown ; (jpl.) 
funny tricks; capers. [L. antiquus, 


An' -ti— Christ, n. the great enemy of 
Christ. [Gr. anti, against.] 

an-tic'-i-pate (-tls'-l-), (-pa-ted, -pa- 
ting), v. to be or take beforehand ; to 
take or do before another so as to pre- 
vent him ; to foresee, an-tic-i-pa'- 
tion, n. [L. antic ipo<capio, I take.] 

an-ti-cli'-max, n. the opposite of climax ; 
a descent or fall following a previous 
rise. [Gr. anti + klimax, a ladder.] 

an-ti-cy' -clone, n. a state of the atmos- 
phere in which there is an outward flow 
of air, with a rotary motion, from an 
area of high pressure. [Gr. anti + 

an'-ti-dote, n. a remedy against poison 
or other evils. [Gr. anti + dotos, given.] 

an-ti-ma-cas'-sar, n. an ornamental 
covering for chairs, sofas, etc., to keep 
them from being soiled. [Gr. anti ; 

an'-ti-mon-y, n. a whitish, brittle metal 
used in the arts and in medicine. [L.] 

an-tip'-a-thy, n. a feeling against ; dis- 
like ; repugnance, an-ti-pa-thet'-ic, 
adj. [Gr. anti + pathos, feeling.] 

an-tip'-o-des (-o-dez), n. pi. people or 
countries situated on directly opposite 
sides of the globe ; anything opposite 
or contrary. [Gr. anti+pddes, feet.] 

an-ti-py'-rin, n. a medicine obtained 
from coal-tar and used for reducing 
fever. [Gr. anti-]- pur, fire.] 

an'-ti-qua-ry (-kwa-rl), n. (pi. -ries), 
one who studies or who is interested in 
ancient matters or things, an-ti-qua'- 
ri-an, adj. relating to ancient times or 
things : n. an antiquary (N.B. — This is a 
wrong use ; the icord is an adj.). an'-ti- 
qua-ted (-kicd-), adj. old-fashioned; 
out of date. [F. < L. antiquus, ancient.] 

an-tique' (-tek'), adj. old ; ancient in age 
or style ; old-fashioned ; the antique, 
ancient works of art ; the stylg of ancient 
art. an-tiq'-ui-ty (-tik'-wl-), n. ancient 
# times ; -ties, n. pi. relics of olden times. 
*[F.<L. antiquus, ancient.] 

an-ti-Sem'-ite, n. a modern opponent 
to the Jews in Central and Eastern 
Europe generally, an-ti-se-mit'-ic, 
adj. [Gr. an«i + L.L. Seviites, the des- 
cendants of Shem, son of Noah, from 
whom the Jews are descended.] 

an-ti-sep'-tic, adj. resisting putrefaction : 
n. a substance which prevents or retards 
putrefaction or decay. [Gr . anti + septos, 




rotten, putrid.] 

an-tith'-e-sis, n. (pi. -ses), opposition ; 
contrast ; a figure of speech by which a 
strong contrast is expressed . [Gr . an ti + 
thesis, a placing.] 

an-ti-tox'-in, n. a substance which taken 
into the blood by inoculation neutralizes 
the action of certain toxins or poisons 
there present, or renders the person 
immune from the effects of such poisons. 
[Gr. anti + toxikoji, poison.] 

an'-ti-type (-ii-tip), n. that which is rep- 
resented or figured by the type or symbol. 
[Gr. anti + tupos, a type.] 

ant'-ler, n. the horn or branch of a horn 
(of a stag, etc.). ant'-lered (-lerd), adj. 
having antlers. [F. origin doubtful.] 

an'-vil, n. the iron block on which a 
smith hammers. [A.S. anfilte.] 

anx-i'-e-ty, n. (pi. -ties), uneasiness of 
mind; eager desire, anx'-ious (ank'- 
shus), adj. having anxiety ; troubled in 
mind. [L. anxius, troubled.] 

an'-y (en'-ni), adj. some (one or more). 
an'-y-bod-y, n. any one person, any 
body (two icords), any number of per- 
sons, an'-y-how, adv. in any manner. 
an'-y-one, pron. anybody. an'-y- 
where, adv. in any place, an'-y-wise, 
adv. in any case or manner. [A.S.] 

a-or'-ta,n. the main artery which conveys 
the blood from the left side of the heart. 
[Gr. aeiro, I raise.] 

a ou trance (d oo-trans'), [F.] to the 
last extremity (esp. in a duel). [Not 
a Voutrance, which is bad French.] 

a-pace' (-pas'), adv. at a quicker pace ; 
swiftly. [E. a + pace.] 

k-jia,ch'-e(d-pdch'-a),n. (in France) alaw- 
less hooligan. [< the Red-Indian tribe.] 

a-part'-ment, n. a room in a house. 
[E. a + part.] 

ap'-a-thy (-d-thl), n. absence or want of 
feeling ; indifference, ap-a-thet -ic, 
adj. [Gr. a-\-pathos, feeling.] 

ape, n. an animal of the monkey kind ; an 
imitator : v. (aped, a' -ping), to imitate 
(esp. in a slavish manner) [A.S. apa.] 

a-pe'-ri-ent, adj. opening: n. a medicine 
which opens the bowels ; a laxative. 
[L. aperio, I open.] [aperio.] 

ap'-er-ture, n. an opening ; a hole. [L. 

a peu pres (d puh pro), [F.] nearly. 

a'-pex, n. (pi. a'-pex-es, or a'-pi-ces), 
the highest point; the summit of any- 
thing. [L. apex, the top (point).] 

a-phe'-li-on (d-fe'-), n. the most distant 

position from the sun of a planet, or 
comet; the opposite to perihelion. [Gr. 
apo-\-helios, the sun.] 

a'-phis, n. (pi. aph'-i-des), the wine- 
fretter or plant-louse ; the green-fly ; the 
ant-cow, etc. [L.] 

aph'-o-rism (af -o-rizm) , n. a short, wise 
saying ; a maxim. [Gr. aphorizo, I 
define, set boundaries to.] 

a'-pi-a-ry (-pi-), n. (pi. -ries), a bee- 
house, a'-pi-a-rist, n. a person who 
keeps bees, a'-pi-cul-ture, n. the 
keeping of bees. [L. apis, a bee.] 

a pied (dpyd), [F.] on foot. 

a-plomb' (a-plom'), adj. and adv. being 
perpendicular : n. self-possession. [F.] 

apo-, aph-, pref. [Gr.] from. 

a-poc'-a-lypse (-lips), n. revelation; dis- 
closure ; the Book of Revelation (B.). 
a-poc-a-lyp'-tic, or -tic-al, adj. [Gr. 
apo-\-kahipto, I reveal.] 

a-poc'-ry-pha (-ri-fa), n. certain books, 
not generally considered to be inspired 
writings, sometimes placed in Bibles at 
the end of the Old Testament, a-poc'- 
ry-phal, adj. belonging to the apocry- 
pha ; of doubtful authority or credit. 
[Gr. apo + krupto, I hide.] 

ap'-o-logue (-log), n. a fable or other 
similar story conveying some moral 
meaning ; an allegory. [Gr. apo-]- logos, 
a discourse.] 

a-pol'-o-gy (-jl), n. (pi. -gies), a speech 
made in excuse (for) ; a poor substitute ; 
a make-shift, a-pol-o-get'-ic (-jet'-), 
adj. a-pol'-o-gist, n. one who makes 
an apology, or defence, a-pol'-o-gize 
(-gized, -gi-zing), v. to make an apol- 
ogy (for). [L. < Gr. apologia."] 

ap'-o-phthegm or -o-thegm (-them), n. a 
short, wise saying ; a maxim. [Gr. apo 
-\-phthegma, a word.] 

ap'-o-plex-y, n. a fit or stroke caused by 
brain disorder. ap-o-plec'-tic, adj. 
and n. [Gr. apo-\-plesso, I strike.] 

a-pos'-ta-sy (-cy is wrong), n. (pi. -sies), 
forsaking one's religious principles or 
party, a-pos'-tate, n. one guilty of — . 
a-pos'-ta-tize (-tized, -ti-zing), v. to 
forsake a former belief or profession. 
[L. < Gr. apostasia, a standing from.] 

a pos-te-ri-o'-ri, [L.] reasoning (or 
drawing conclusions) from effects to 
causes, [c/. a priori."] 

a-pos'-tle (-pos'-l), n. one sent (to preach 
or teach) ; one of the twelve apostles of 
Christ ; a devoted follower (of) ; one who 




champions or supports any great cause 
or movement, a-pos -tie-ship, n. the 
office or work of an — . a-pos- tol'-ic, 
or a-pos-tol'-i-cal, adj. apostolic 
church, the Christian Church of the 
early ages, founded by the apostles. 
apostolic fathers, early Christian 
writers born during the time of the 
apostles, apostolic see, the Church of 
Eome governed by the Pope. [Gr. apo 
+ stello, I send.] 

a-pos '-tro-phe (-fe), n. a turning away to 
address someone or something ; a mark 
( ' ) denoting possessive case, or the omis- 
sion of a letter, a-pos' -tro-phize (-fiz), 
(-phized, -phi-zing), v. to address 
(someone) in an apostrophe. [Gr. 
apostrophe, a turning from.] 

a-poth'-e-car-y (-kdr-l), n. one who pre- 
pares and sells drugs for medicine. [Gr. 
apotheke, a store-room.] 

ap'-o-thegm, n. See apophthegm. 

ap-o-the'-o-sis (or -5' -sis), n. (pi. -ses), 
the making a god (of) ; a deification. 
ap-o-the'-o-size (-sized, -si-zing), v. 
[Gr. apo+Theos, God.] 

ap-pal' (paZ'), (-palled', -pall'-ing), v. 
to dismay ; to fill with dread, ap-pall - 
ing, adj. dreadful ; shocking. [O.F.< 
L. pallidas, pale.] 

ap'-pan-age or ap'-an-age, n. the pro- 
vision made (originally for food) for the 
maintenance of the younger children of 
kings, princes, etc. ; a perquisite ; a 
dependency. [F. < L. ad +panis, bread.] 

ap-pa-ra'-tus \-pd-rd'-), n. s. or pi. things 
prepared ; a collection of tools or means 
for doing work ; appliances. [L.] 

ap-par'-el, n. dress; clothing: v. (-elled, 
-el-ling), to clothe ; to adorn. [F.<L. 
ad {par, like.] 

ap-pa'-rent (-pa'- not -par' -rent) , adj. 
visible ; evident ; seeming, heir ap- 
pa'-rent, one who is at present the heir. 
ap-pa'-rent-ly, adv. seemingly. [F. < 
L. appdrens, appearing.] 

ap-pa-ri'-tion (-rish'-un), n. an appear- 
ance ; a ghost. [L. appdreo, I appear.] 

ap-par'-i-tor, n. an officer (or messenger) 
of a court of justice. [L.] 

ap-peal' (-pel 1 ), (-pealed', -peal' -ing), r. 
to call upon ; to refer one's cause to a 
higher court : n. a reference to a higher 
court, ap-pel'-lant, n. one who — . 
[F.<L. appello, I name ; I call.] 

ap-pear' (-per'), (-peared', -pear'-ing), 
v. to become visible ; to be in sight ; to 

show oneself ; to seem, ap-pear'- 
ance, n. the act or state of appearing ; a 
thing seen ; resemblance, to keep up 
appearances, to keep up an outward 
show (esp. of better circumstances). 
[F.<L. appdreo, I appear.] 

ap-pease' {-pez'), (-peased, -peas'-ing), 
v. to make quiet ; to pacify ; to dispel 
(as hunger, anger, fear, etc.). [F.<L. 
ad -{-pax, peace.] 

ap-pel-la'-tion, n. that by which any- 
thing is called ; a name. [See appeal.] 

ap-pend (-pend'-ed, -pend'-ing), v. to 
hang to ; to add Jo. ap-pend'-age, n. 
something hung on or added to. ap- 
pen'-dix, n. (pi. -dix-es or -di-ces), 
something placed at the end or added to 
(esp. of a book), ap-pen-di-ci'-tis 
(-si'-), n. a disease of that part of the 
large intestine called the vermiform 
 appendix. [F.<Ii.pendo, I weigh.] 

ap-per-tain' (-tained', -tain'-ing), v. to 
belong (to), ap-pur'-ten-ance, n. ap- 
per'-tin-ent, or ap-pur'-ten-ant, adj. 
belonging (to). [F.<L. ad-\-pertineo, I 
hold or relate to.] 

ap'-pe-tite, n. a natural desire or craving 
for food and drink ; any strong desire, 
longing, or eagerness (for), ap'-pe- 
ti-zing (-tiz-), adj. causing appetite, 
desire, or longing for. [F.<L. ad + 
peto, I seek.] 

ap-plaud (-piaud'-ed, -plaud'-ing), v. 
to show approval of (esp. by clapping 
the hands) ; to approve, ap-plause' 
(-plauz'), n. act of — ; open praise. [L. 
ad-\-plaudo, I clap the hands.] 

ap'-ple, n. a well-known tree and its fruit ; 
the pupil of the eye. apple of discord, 
any thing that causes envy, contention, 
or disagreement, apple— pie order, a 
state of great neatness. [A.S. ceppel."] 

ap-pli-que' (ap-ple-kd' , not ap-plek'), n. 
an ornamental pattern cut out and 
applied to, or sewn on, another material : 
adj. [F. appliquer, to apply.] 

ap-ply' (-plied', -ply'-ing), v. to put one 
thing to another ; to employ ; to make 
a request ; to fix the mind on. ap-pli'- 
ance, n. something applied ; means 
used, ap'-pli-ca-ble (not d-plik'-), adj. 
able to be applied, ap-pli-ca'-tion, », 
the act of — ; diligence ; the moral of 
a fable, etc. ; a request, ap'-pli-cant, 
n. one who applies (for something). 
[F.<L. ad+plico, I fold.] 

ap-point' (-ed, -ing), v. to fix (a time, 




place, or person) ; to put into an office ; 
to settle ; to grant, ap-point'-ment, 
n. the act of appointing ; an office to 
which some one is appointed ; an engage- 
ment for meeting (with) : in pi. equip- 
ments. [F. <L. ad+punctum, point.] 

ap-por'-tion (-por' -shun) , (-por -tioned, 
-por'-tion-ing), v. to share or divide 
out in due proportion, ap-por'-tion- 
ment,n. [F. <L. ad +portio, a portion.] 

ap'-po-site (-zit), adj. fitting; suitable; 
pat; to the point. ap-po-si'-tion 
(-zish'-un), n. a placing (or being placed) 
together side by side. Nouns in appo- 
sition explain each other. [L. ad + 
pono, I place.] 

ap-praise' (-praised', -prais'-ing), v. to 
set a price on ; to estimate the worth of. 
ap-prais'-er, n. one who — ; a profes- 
sional valuer. [F.<L. (see next word).] 

ap-pre -ci-ate (-shi-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), 
v. to put a right or just estimate or value 
on ; to value highly ; to rise in value. 
ap-pre'-ci-a-ble, adj. able to be — ; 
considerable. ap-pre-ci-a'-tion, n. 
ap-pre'-ci-a-tiye (-a-tiv), adj. capable 
of or showing appreciation. [L. ad + 
pretium, a price.] 

ap-pre-hend' (-ed, -ing), v. to seize ; to 
understand ; to fear ; to anticipate. 
ap-pre-hen'-sion, n. ap-pre-hen - 
siye {-sir), adj. quick to apprehend ; fear- 
ful (of). [F.<L. ad +prehendo, I seize. 2 

ap-pren'-tice (-tw), (-ticed, -tic-ing), v. 
to put out (a young person) to learn a 
trade, or profession : n. a young person 
so put out ; a novicfe ; a* learner, ap- 
pren'-tice-ship, n. the state of an — ; 
time of being an — . [F. apprendre, to 
learn <L. apprehendo, I seize.] 

ap-prise' (-priz'), (-prised', -pri'-sing), 
v. to give notice (of) ; to inform. [F. < 
L. apprehendo, I seize.] 

ap-proach' (-proached', -proach'-ing), 
v. to draw or come near ; to make ad- 
vances : n. a drawing near ; a path or way 
towards. [F.<L. ad+prope, near.] 

ap-pro-ba'-tion, n. approval ; sanction ; 
commendation. [L. ad+probo, I prove.] 

ap-pro -pri-ate (-pri-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), 
v. to take for one's own ; to set apart 
for the use of a particular person or sub- 
ject : adj. proper; suitable, ap-pro-pri- 
a'-tion,n. [L. ad+proprius, one'sown] 

ap-proye' (-proov'), (-proved', -proY- 
ing), v. to think or speak well of ; to be 
pleased with ; to sanction, ap-pro'- 

Yal (-proo'-), n. agreement with ; appro- 
bation. ap-pro'-Yer, n. one who ap- 
proves ; one who confesses to a crime 
and also informs against others. [F.< 
L. ad+probo, I try ; test.] 

ap-prox'-i-mate (•*•), (-ma-ted, -ma- 
ting), v. to come near or very near (to) ; 
to grow like : adj. coming very near (in 
place, manner, or resemblance) ; nearly 
correct. ap-prox'-i-mate-ly, adv. 
ap-prox-i-ma'-tion, n. [L. ad-\-prox- 
imus, next.] 

ap-pur'-te-nance, n. that which pertains 
or belongs to some person or thing ; an 
appendage or accessory, ap-pur' -te- 
nant, adj. [F. <L. ad+pertineo, I be- 

a'-pri-cot (-pri-), n. a rich fruit of the 
plum kind. [F.<L. prcecoquus, cooked 
(or ripened) beforehand.] 

A'-pril, n. the opening month of Spring; 
the fourth month of our year. April- 
fool, one who is sportively imposed upon 
on the 1st of April. [L. aperio, I open.] 

a pri-o'-ri, [L. from something coming 
before] , reasoning from the cause to the 
effect ; the converse of a posteriori, q.v. 

a'-pron (-prun), n. an article of clothing 
worn in front to protect the clothes from 
dust or injury, tied to the apron- 
strings of, unduly controlled by. 
[O.F. naperon<Jj. nappa, a cloth.] 

ap-ro-pos' (ap-ro-po' not a-pro'-po), adj. 
to the purpose : n. something said to the 
purpose. [F. apropos."} 

apse (aps), n. (pi. ap'-ses), a semicircular 
recess such as is found at the east end 
of some churches, ap'-si-dal, adj. [L. 
<Gr. apsis, a joining; an arch.] 

apt, adj. fit ; ready ; open to impressions ; 
quick to learn ; inclined or disposed (to). 
apt'-ly, adv. ap'-ti-tude (-tl-), n. 
apt'-ness, n. [L. qptus, fit.] 

a'-qua (a'-kwa or hk'-xva), n. water. 
aqua fortis, strong water (nitric acid) ; 
aqua Yitae, strong spirits (esp. brandy). 

a-qua'-ri-um (d-kwa'-), n. (pi. -urns or 
-a), a vessel or tank for holding aquatic 
animals or plants. [L. aqua, water.] 

a-quat'-ic (-kwat'-),adj. relating to water; 
growing or living in water : sports 
in or on water, as swimming, etc. [L.] 

aq -ue-duct (ak'-wl-), n. a channel (often 
on a bridge) made for conveying water. 
[L. aqua, water, duco, I lead.] 

aq'-ue-ous (ak'-we-us), adj. of water; 
watery. [L. aqua, water.] 




aq'-ui-line (ak'-wi-lin or -liri), adj. of an 
eagle ; hooked like an eagle's beak (esp. 
the nose). [F.<L. aqulla, an eagle.] 

A.R.A., Associate of the Royal Academy. 

Ar'-ab, n. a native of Arabia : adj. 

ar-a-besque' (-besk'), n. a kind of very 
rich ornamentation, either painting, 
inlaying, or carving. 

Ar-a'-bi-an, Ar'-a-bic, adjs. of Arabia. 

ar'-a-ble (-bl), adj. (land) fit for ploughing 
or cultivating. [F.<L. dro, 1 plough.] 

A.R.A.M., Associate of the Royal Academy 
of Music. 

Ar-a-ma'-ic, adj. of the group of langua- 
ges anciently spoken in Asia Minor and 
other eastern Biblical countries. [Aram, 
a descendant of Shem (Gen. x. 22).] 

ar'-bi-ter (-hi-) (modern form arbitra- 
tor), n. one selected to judge or decide 
in a disputed case between two parties ; 
an umpire, ar'-bi-tra-ry, adj. depend- 
ing on the will (acting as a judge) ; 
despotic. [L. arbiter, a judge.] 

ar'-bi-trate,t>. (-tra-ted,-tra-ting),t> . to 
act as arbiter or judge ; to decide, ar- 
bit'-ra-ment, n. decision, ar-bi-tra'- 
tion, n. ar ' -bi-tra-tor, n. one who — . 
[See arbiter.] 

ar-bo-re'-tum, n. (pi. -ta or -turns), a 
place where trees are classified and culti- 
vated for scientific purposes, ar ' -bor-i- 
cul-ture, 7i. the scientific culture of trees. 
[L. arbor, a tree, colo, I cultivate.] 

ar'-bour (-ber), n. a bower; a place 
shaded by trees. [F. < L. arbor, a tree.] 

ar-bu'-tus, n. a class of shrubs resembling 
the strawberry. [L. arbutus, the wild 

arc (ark), n. part of the circumference of 
a circle, ellipse, or other curve, ar- 
cade', n. an arched-over walk (often 
with shops). [F.<L. arcus, a bow.] 

Ar-ca'-di-an, adj. of Arcadia, a rural dis- 
trict in Greece ; rural ; rustic ; pastoral. 

arch, n. a part of a circle or curve ; a 
structure in the form of a curve over an 
opening or supporting a wall, arch 
(arched, arch'-ing), v. to cover with 
a-n arch ; to form an arch : adj. sly ; 
waggish ; roguish. Court of Arches, 
an ecclesiastical court of the province of 
Canterbury, arch'-way, n. a way under 
an arch. [L. arcus, a bow.] [first. 

arch-, arche-, archi-, pre/. [Gr.] chief ; 

ar-chae-ol'-o-gy (not -che-) (-ke-ol'-o-ji), 
n. the science which treats of ancient 
times and things or the knowledge of 

such things, ar-chae-o-log'-i-cal, adj. 
ar-chae-ol'-o-gist (-jist),n. one devoted 
to or skilled in archaeology. [Gr. 
archaios, old, logos, a word or discourse.] 

ar-cha'-ic (-ka'-), adj. ancient ; anti- 
quated ; obsolete, ar'-cha-ism (-izm), 
n. an antiquated manner, style, or ex- 
pression. [Gr. archaios, old.] 

arch-an'-gel (ark-), n. an angel of the 
highest rank. 

arch-bish'-op, n. a chief bishop, arch- 
bish'-op-ric,w. the office or dignity of — . 

arch-dea'-con (-de'-), n. the chief deacon; 
the person of ecclesiastical rank having 
supervision over a diocese, next under 
the bishop, arch-dea'-con-ry, n. the 
office, or the residence, of an archdeacon. 

arch'-duke, n. (fem. arch-duch'-ess), a 
duke of the highest rank (esp. in the 
Austrian royal family). 

ar'-cher, n. one skilled in the use of bow 
and arrows, ar'-cher-y, n. the art of 
the archer. [F. <L. arcus, a bow.] 

ar'-che-type (-ke-tip), n. the form or 
model from which the type is formed. 
[F.<L.<Gr. arche, beginning, tiipos, 
form, type.] [bishop. 

ar-chi-e-pis'-co-pal (-H-), adj. of arch- 

Ar-chi-me'-di-an (-H-), adj. of Archi- 
medes, a famous ancient philosopher 
and mathematician. Archimedian 
screw, an apparatus for raising water 
by means of a revolving screw. 

ar-chi-pel'-a-go(-&i-^'-a-),w. (pi. -gos) 
a part of the sea containing many 
islands (esp. the iE-ge'-an Sea, in the 
Mediterranean, the chief sea of the 
ancient Greeks) ; a group of many islands 
in the sea. [I. < Gr. arch -\-peldgos, sea.] 

ar'-chi-tect (-H-), n. a master-builder ; 
one skilled in planning out and erecting 
buildings; any contriver, ar'-chi-tec- 
ture, n. the art and profession of an — . 
ar-chi-tec'-tu-ral, adj. [F. < L. < Gr. 
arch+tekton, a workman.] 

ar'-chiyes (-klvz), ancient records 
or documents ; the rooms in which public 
records or historic documents are kept. 
[F. <L. < Gr. archeion, a public office.] 

arc'-tic, adj. relating to the North Pole or 
the regions near it ; northern ; frigid. 
[O.F.<L.<Gr. arktos, a bear.] 

ar' -dent, adj. burning; eager, ar'-dour 
(-der), n. heat; warmth of feeling; zeal. 
ardent spirits, distilled spirits, as 
whiskey, brandy, etc. [F.<L. ardeo, 
I burn.] 




A.R.C.M., Associate, Royal College of 
Music. [Organists. 

A.R.G.O., Associate, Eoyal College of 

ar'-du-ous, adj. laborious ; difficult to ac- 
complish. [L. arduus, steep ; difficult.] 

a'-re-a, n. surface measurement ; an 
enclosed place ; the site on which a 
building stands ; a sunken space around 
a building ; extent ; scope ; range (of 
thought). [L. area, an open space.] 

a-re'-na (-na),n. an open space for public 
contests or shows (esp. as in the Roman 
amphitheatre) ; any place of public con- 
test or sphere of action . [L . arena , sand .] 

ar'-gon, n. an inert gas discovered in the 
atmosphere in 1894 by Profs. Rayleigh 
and Ramsey. [Gr. a + ergon, work.] 

ar'-go-sy {-si), n. (pi. -sies), a'merchant 
ship laden with a rich cargo. [I. < Ragusa 
once a famous port in Dalmatia.] 

ar'-gue (-gu), (-gued, -gu-ing), v. to 
' debate or discuss ; to try to prove, ar'- 
gu-ment, n. something brought forward 
in order to prove ; a discussion ; a sum- 
mary (as of a book), ar-gu-men'-ta- 
tiYe, adj. relating to arguing. [F. < L. 
argiio, I prove.] 

Ar'-gus, n. in Greek mythology a being 
who had a hundred eyes. Ar'-gus— 
eyed, adj. very watchful or vigilant. 

A.R.I.B.A., Associate, Royal Institute of 
British Architects. 

ar'-id (ar'- not a' -rid), adj. very dry. 
a-rid'-i-ty, ar'-id-ness, ns. state of 
being dry or parched. [L. dridus, dry.] 

v. to rise to a higher place ; to ascend ; 
to get up (as from bed) ; to spring up. 
[A.S. arisan."] 

ar-is-toc'-ra-cy (-ra-si), n. the nobles or 
chief persons in a state ; the upper 
classes generally; government by the 
nobles, ar'-is-to-crat, n. a person of 
good birth ; a haughty person, ar-is- 
to-crat'-ic, adj. [Gr. aristos, best, 
kratos, rule.] 

a-rith'-me-tic,n. the science of numbers. 
ar-ith-met'-i-cal, adj. a-rith-me-ti'- 
cian (-tish'-un), n. one skilled in arith- 
metic. [F. < L. < Gr. arithmos, number] 

ark, n. a chest ; a large floating vessel 
[Gen. vi., etc ) ; any place of refuge. 
[L. area, a chest.] 

arm, n. a limb of the body ; an inlet of 
thesea. arm'-ful, n.(pZ. -fuls). [A.S] 

arm, n. a weapon : pi. weapons ; warfare ; 
devices or symbols used in heraldry. 

man-at-arms, w. a fully- equipped and 
skilful soldier, small-arms, n. those 
which can be carried in the hand (as 
rifle, sword, etc.). stand of arms, a 
complete set of arms for one soldier. 
to arms ! a summons to fight, under 
arms, in readiness for fighting, arm 
(armed, arm'-ing), v. to provide with 
arms ; to fortify ; to take up arms. [F. 
<L. arma, arms.] 

ar-ma'-da (-ma'- not -md'-), n. a fleet of 
armed vessels. [Sp. < L. arma.] 

ar-ma-dil'-lo, n. a small quadruped 
covered with a horny shell. [Sp.<L.] 

ar'-ma-ment, n. a body of armed forces 
prepared for war; all the cannon, small- 
arms, etc., provided for a man-of-war. 
[L. arma, arms.] 

ar'-ma-ture, n. armour which defends ; 
a piece of soft iron used to connect the 
two poles of a magnet, and forming an 
important part in electric motors. [F. 
<L. arma, arms.] 

ar'-mis-tice (-tit)', n. a short cessation of 
fighting ; a truce. [F. <L. arma, arms, 
sisto, I stop.] 

ar-mo'-ri-al (-ri-), adj. relating to arms 
(in heraldry), armorial bearings, the 
heraldic figures or symbols on a "coat- 
of-arms." [F.<L. arma, arms.] 

ar'-mour (-mur), n. defensive arms or 
dress for the body ; defensive plating for 
a ship of war. ar'-mour-er, n. a maker 
of armour, ar'-mour-y, n. place where 
armour and arms are made or stored. 
[F.<L. arma, arms.] 

Arm '-strong-gun, n. a breech-loading, 
wrought-iron, rifled cannon invented by 
Baron Armstrong (1810-1900). 

ar'-my (-mi), n. (pi. -mies),alarge body of 
men armed and ready for war ; a large 
number, army corps (-kor), a main 
division of an army ; several divisions, 
forming a miniature army, complete 
with every requisite for war. [F. armee 
<L. arma, arms.] 

ar'-ni-ca (-ka),n. or" mountain-tobacco," 
a plant producing a useful medicine. [?] 

a-ro'-ma (a-), n. (pi. -mas), a sweet 
smell ; an agreeable odour ; a subtle 
quality, ar-o-mat'-ic, adj. aromatic 
vinegar, a powerful scent made from 
acetic acid and various perfumes, used 
to relieve headache and fainting fits. 
[L.<Gr. aroma."} 

ar-peg'-gi-o (-ped'-ji-o), n. (in music) the 
«M*«g of a chord struck very rapidly one 




after the other. [I. <arpa, a harp.] 

ar'-que-buse (-kwe-bus), n. an old-fash- 
ioned fire-arm, fired from a rest. [F. < 
D. haakbus, a gun with a hook.] 

ar'-rack, n. an intoxicating liquor dis- 
tilled from rice and other East Indian 
plants. [Ar. araq."] 

ar-raign' {-ran'), (-raigned', -raign- 
ing), v. to summon and accuse before a 
court of justice. [O.F. <L. ad + ratio, 
an account.] 

ar-range' (-ranged', -ran'-ging), v. to 
set in order; to settle, terms, ar- 
range' -ment, n. [F.<L. ad + range.] 

ar'-rant, adj. downright (in a bad sense) ; 
thorough. [F.<L. erro, I wander.] 

ar'-ras, n. tapestry hangings, made first 
at Arras in France. 

ar-ray', n. order [esp. of battle) ; dress ; 
regular arrangement : v. (-rayed', 
-ray'-ing), to place in order (esp. in 
battle) ; to dress. [L. ad -f root of ready.] 

ar-rear', n. state of being behind : pi. 
money due, but not paid. [F. < L. ad •+- 
retro, behind.] 

ar-rest' (-ed, -ing), v. to seize (esp. by 
legal warrant) ; to stop ; to catch the 
attention ; to check or hinder the motion 
of : n. a stop ; a seizure. [F. <L. ad-f 
resto, I remain.] [mental reservation. 

arriere pensie (ar-rydr' pan-su'), [F.] 

ar-riye' (-rived', -ri'-ying), v. to come ; 
to reach a place ; to attain an object. 
ar-ri'-val,n. [F.<L. ad + ripa, bank.] 

ar'-ro-gant, adj. assuming too much ; 
demanding too much ; haughty, ar'- 
ro-gance, n. unbearable pride, ar'-ro- 
gate (-ga'-ted, -ga'-ting), v. to claim 
too much; to be arrogant. \L.arrogans.] 

ar'-row (-ro), n. a pointed weapon made 
to be shot from a bow. ar'-row-y, adj. 
broad arrow, a mark, thus /|v, placed 
by the government on moveable stores, 
or in the ordnance survey, on places from 
which measurements are made (see 
bench-mark). [A.S. arwe."] 

A.R.8.A., Associate of the lloyal Scottish 

ar'-se-nal, n. a place for making or stor- 
ing things required for the army and 
navy in time of war. [Sp. arsenal < Ar.] 

ar'-sen-ic, n. a metal, and a mineral 
oxide, the latter a powerful poison, ar- 
sen'-ic-al, adj. [F.<Gr. arsen, male 
(so called from its strength)."] 

ars lon'-ga, vi-ta brev'-is, [L.] art 
is long, life is short. 

ar'-son, n. the crime of wilfully setting 
fire to a place. [F. <L. ardeo, I burn.] 

art, n. acquired skill or knowledge ; cun- 
ning, black art, magic ; sorcery, fine 
arts, those which gratify the cultivated 
taste or the sense of beauty, as painting, 
sculpture, music, architecture, art'- 
ful, adj. cunning, art'-ful-ly, adv. 
art'-ful-ness, n. art'-less, adj. with 
out art ; simple. [L. ars, art.] 

ar'-ter-y, n. a vessel carrying blood from 
the heart, ar-te'-ri-al, adj. [L.<Gr. 

ar-te'-si-an (-«£■) well, n. a very deep 
well bored in the ground until water 
flows from internal pressure. [From 
Artois, a province in Northern France, 
where first made.] 

ar'-ti-choke, n. an edible vegetable some- 
what resembling a thistle. Jerusalem 
artichoke, a kind of sun-flower whose 
tuberous root is eaten. [I. < Ar.] 

ar'-ti-cle, n. a thing ; a distinct part ; a 
member ; apoint (of doctrine, duty, etc.); 
a clause in a treaty, etc. ; a literary 
composition : v. (-cled, -cling), to bind 
(by indenture), articles of war, the 
official regulations for the rule and dis- 
cipline of the British army and navy. 
the Thirty-nine Articles, the summary 
of the doctrines of the Church of Eng- 
land. [F. <L. articulus, a joint.] 

ar-tic'-u-late, adj. jointed; distinct; 
clearly expressed (of words in a speech) : 
v. (-la-ted, -la-ting), to speak dis- 
tinctly ; to joint (in anatomy), ar-tic- 
u-la'-tion, n. speech ; a joint (in anat- 
omy). [L. articulus, a joint.] 

ar'-ti-fice (-ti-fis), n. a contrivance ; a 
trick, ar-tif'-i-cer (-l-ser), n. a work- 
man (at a common art), ar-ti-fi'-cial 
(~fish'-al)y adj. made by art, not by 
nature ; unreal. [F. < L. ars, art, fdcio, 
I make.] 

ar-til'-ler-y, n. guns and cannon ; the 
body of soldiers which works them. 
artilleryman, n. a soldier of the artil- 
lery, horse-artillery, ». light field- or 
machine-guns (generally accompanying 
cavalry) of which the artillerymen are 
mounted on horseback. [F. <L. ars."] 

ar'-ti-san (-tl-zari), n. one who works at 
a trade ; a mechanic. [F. < L. ars, art.] 

ar'-tist, n. one skilled in a fine art (esp. 
painting, sculpture, music). The F. 
form artiste (ar-iest') is generally em-. 
ployed in England with reference to 

ad + salio, I leap.] • 
in, n. one who kills, or attempts 
, secretly or by surprise ; a mur- 
as-sas'-si-nate (-na-ted, -na- 
, v. as-sas-sin-a'-tion, n. [Ar.] 
it' (salt'), (-ed, -ing), v. to attack 
ntly ; to try to take (a fort) by 
». : n. assault-at-arms (not -of-), 
hibition or show of military exer- 
ts (esp. fencing). [F.<L. ad + saltus, 
ap. Compare assail.] 
y' (scV), (-sayed', -say'-ing), v. to 
to examine ; to prove : n. trial ; 
<of purity, genuineness). [F.<L. 
um, a weighing.] 
-ble (-bl), (-bled, -bling), v. to 
or call together ; to meet together ; 
Ject. as-sem'-blage (-blaj), n. 
'-bly, n. General Assembly 
land, Ireland, and the U.S.A.), 
30urt of the Presbyterian Church. 
itiYe Assembly, in some British 
)S the lower house of the legisla- 
National Assembly, the first of 
'rench revolutionary assemblies, 
sat 1789-91. [F.<L. ad + simul, 


ed, -ing), agree to ; to con- 

;dmit as true : n. as-sent'-er 

»r), n. as-sen'-tient (shent), 

ting. Royal assent, the assent 

l»xitish Sovereign to bills passed 

ooth Houses of Parliament. [F.< 

L. ad -{-sent I feel.] 

as-sert' (-ed, -ing), n. to declare strongly ; 

to state positively ; to affirm, as-sert '- 

-er (in law -or), n. one who — . as- 

ser'-tion,u. as-ser'-tiYe,adj. strongly 

averting. [L. ad-\-sero, I join.] 

as-s^s' (-sessed', -sess'-ing), v. to fix a 

value on (for taxing or rating purposes) . 

•^ss'-ment,.;. as-sess'-or,n. [F. 

t + sedeo, 1 sit.] 

one article of value in the 

" a person's property as com- 

lis debts ; usu. in pi. as'- 

ire^ property of a person. 

satis, enough.] 

(-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 

•t very strongly, as-sev- 

r L. ad + severus, severe.] 

?), adj. diligent ; atten- 

. as-sid-u'-i-ty(-t-M), 

o, I sit.] 

ied', -sign' -ing), v. 

ny one) ; to allot. 

>ns to whom proper- 

ty or an interest is transferred, as-sign'- 
ment, n. as-sig-na'-tion (-%-), n. a 
meeting by appointment, as-sign-ee' 
(-sm-e'), n. one to whom property is 
assigned (by law). [F. < L. ad + signum, 
a sign.] 

as-sim'-i-late (-£-), (-la- ted, -la-ting), 
v. to make similar (or like) ; to absorb 
(as food into the body), as-sim-i-la'- 
tion, n. as-sim'-i-la-tive (-tiv), adj. 
[L. ad + similis, like.] 

as-sist' (-ed, -ing), v. to help ; to aid ; to 
be present (at a ceremony), as-sist - 
ance, n. as-sist'-ant, n. one who — ; 
a helper. [F. <L. ad + sisto, I stand.] 

as-size',n. {usu. in pi. as-si'-zes),acourt 
of justice with judge and jury. [F. < 
L. ad + sedeo, I sit.] 

as-so'-ci-ate (-ski-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. 
to join or be joined in company (with) . 
n. one who is so joined : adj. closely 
connected with, as-so-ci-a'-tion, n. 
"association," football played under 
the rules of the Football Association 
(formed 1863) , in which the ball must not 
be handled. [L. ad + socius, a friend.] 

as-sort' (-ed, -ing), v. to arrange in kinds 
or classes ; to agree, as-sort'-ed, adj. * 
selected ; classified, as-sort' -ment, n. 
[F.<L. ad-\- sors, a lot.] 

as-suage' (-swaj'), (-suaged', -sua'- 
ging), v. to soften ; to abate ; to allay. 
[F.<L. ad + suavis, sweet.] 

as-sume' (-sumed', -su'-ming),u. to take 
on oneself ; to claim more than is due ; 
to take for granted or without proof. 
as-sump'-tion (-sum' -shun), n. As- 
sumption of the Virgin, a festival of 
the E.C. Church held on the 15th 
August. [L. ad + sumo, I take.] 

as-sure' (-shoor'), (-sured',-sur'-ing),v. 
to make sure or secure ; to tell positively ; 
to confirm, as-sur'-ance, n. confident 
assertion ; confidence ; impudence ; in- 
surance (as applied to lives), as-sur'- 
ed-ly (-slioor'-), adv. most positively or 
certainly. [F. < + securus, certain.] 

as'-ter, n. a family of plants bearing star 
shaped flowers. [Gr. aster, a star.] 

as'-ter-isk, n. a star- shaped mark of rr 
erence (-* ). [Gr. asteriskos, a little sta 

a-stern', adv. in the stern or rear (esp 
a ship) ; behind. [Scand.] 

as'-ter-oid, n. one of the minor pla 
(whose orbits lie between those of 
and Jupiter). [Gr. aster, a star, < 

public singers and actors, ar-tis '-tic, 
adj. showing taste or skill. [See art.] 

a -rum, n. a class of plants represented by 
the arum lily, the wake-robin, and other 
examples. [L.<Gr. aron."] 

A.R.W.S., Associate of the Royal Water- 
Colour Society. 

A'-ry-an (a'-ri-), adj. and n. a term des- 
cribing a great family of languages and 
races of Asia and Europe ; Indo-Euro- 
pean. [Sa.] 

A.S., Anglo-Saxon. 

as-bes'-tos, n. a fibrous, mineral, fire- 
proof substance. [Gr asbestos, un- 

A.S.C., Army Service Corps. 

as-cend' (-ed, -ing), v. to go up ; to rise. 
as-cend'-ant, adj. rising ; being over or 
superior : n. higher or superior position. 
as-cend'-an-cy, n. higher or superior 
position ; great power or influence. 
as-cen'-sion (-sen' -shun), n. the act of 
ascending (esp. into heaven). As-cen'- 
sion— Day, n. the day on which Christ's 
ascension is commemorated, always the 
Thursday but one before Whit-Sunday. 
as-cent', n. an upward slope ; the act of 
ascending, to be in the ascendant, to 
he predominant ; to have great power or 
influence. N.B. — Endings -ence, -ency, 
-ent, are now incorrect. [L. ascendo, I 
climb up.] 

as-cer-tain' (-tained', -tain'-ing), v. to 
make (oneself) certain ; to find out or 
learn about something. [F.<L. ad + 
certus, sure.] 

as-cet'-ic (-set'-), adj. extremely rigid in 
self-denial or devotions : n. one who 
denies himself every kind of pleasure 
for the sake of duty or religion, as- 
cet'-i-cism (-l-sizm), n. the system or 
kind of life of an ascetic. [Gr. askeo, I 
exercise or practise.] 

as-cribe' (-cribed', -cri'-bing), v. to at- 
tribute or impute (to) ; to assign. [L. 
ascribo, I write down.] 

a-sep'-tic, adj. not liable to putrefaction 
or decay. [Gr. a-\-septos, rotten.] 
,sh, n. (pi. ash'-es), the remains of any- 
thing burnt; remains, ash '-en, ash'-y, 
adjs. pale, like ashes. Ash— Wednes- 
day, n. the first day of Lent, when ashes 
vere formerly sprinkled on the heads of 
enitents. [A..S. sesce, ashes.] 
amed', adj. feeling, or smitten with, 
ame ; confused by guilt. [A.S.] 
lar (less correctly -ler), n. a hewn or 

squared stone (for building). 
axilla, a chip or splinter.] 
as'-i-nine (-1-), adj. of or like 
very stupid. [L. asinus, an a? 
as-kance', adv. sideways; awr^ 
disdain, envy, or suspicion. [?. 
as-kew', adv. in a slanting or 
direction. [?] [[L.<Gr. 

asp, or asp'-ic, n. a poisonom 
as-par'-a-gus, n. a well-known g 
vegetable. [L.<Gr. asparagos."} 
as'-pect, n. a view; look; mien; pos 

prospect. [L. aspectus.~\ 
as'-pen, n. a kind of poplar tree 
leaves tremble greatly in a slight 
[A.S. aspe.] 
as-per'-i-ty, n. roughness (of ta 
face, or sound) ; harshness (of i 
[F.<L. asper, rough.] 
as-perse' (-pers'), (-persed', -] 
v. to bring foul or injurious a 
against ; to slander. as- 
(-shun), n. false reports or 
slander. [L. ad-\-spargo, I su 
as-phalt' (not -phalte ) (-fait'), 
of pitch used for cement, at 
asphaltos."] H 

as-phyx'-i-a (-fix'-i-a), n. app 
or suspended animation ; 
state of unconsciousness (tl 
page of breathing) ; suffot 
phyx'-i-ate (-a-ted, -a-tm 6 ), 
into a state of asphyxia. [O 
sphuzo, I throb.] 
as '-pic, n. a kind of savoury jelly contain 

ing meat, eggs, etc [F<L. ?] 
as-pi-dis'-tra, n. the "parlour palm," i 
species of Chinese lily. [<Gr. aspis 
a shield < the shape of the flower.] 
as-pire' (-pired', -pi'-ring), v. tc~efein 
earnestly ; to strive to reach ^to). # as' 
pi-rant, n. one who — . as'-'oi- 
(-ra-ted, -ra-ting,, v. to > 
with full breath : n. the let' 
sounded, as-pi-ra'-tior 
act of aspiring ; intense 
something good or notV 
tor, n. an apparatus for 
(or gas). [F.<L. ad+s 
A.S.R.S., Amalgamated S 

as'-sa-gai (less corre- 
as'-se-gay) (-get 01 
spear used by the F 
as-sail' (-sailed', - 
to assault, as-s 
attack, as-sai) 




asth'-ma (ast'-md, or as'-md),n. a disease 
causing great difficulty in breathing. 
asth-mat'-ic, adj. and n. asth-maf - 
i-cal, adj. [Gr. asthma, shortness of 

a-stig'-ma-tism, n. a disease of the eyes 
in which the rays of light from a point 
are not brought all to the same focus. 
[Gr. a + stigma, a point.] 

as-ton'-ish (-ished, -ish-ing), v. to sur- 
prise greatly ; ip amaze, as-ton'-ish- 
ment, n. [F. <L. ex + tono, I thunder.] 

as-tound' (-ed, -ing), v. to astonish 
greatly ; to amaze. [See astonish.] 

as-tra-khan' (-kan'), n. the furry skins of 
young lambs (got from Astrakhan in 
Kussia) ; a fabric imitating the fur : adj. 

as-trin'-gent, adj. binding (usu. said of 
the body or its tissues) ; of a peculiar taste 
produced by astringent substances : n. a 
medicine (as alum) that contracts or 
draws together muscular fibres, as- 
trin'-gen-cy, n. [L. ad+stringo, I 

as-trol'-o-gy (-ji), n. the art of foretelling 
future events by the stars, as-trol'-o- 
ger, n. one who practises — . [F.<L. 
<Gr. astron, a star, logos, a discourse.] 

as-tron'-o-my,n. the science which treats 
of the stars and other heavenly bodies. 
as-tron'-o-mer, n. one who studies or 
is versed in — . as-tro-nom'-i-cal, adj. 
Astronomer Royal, the title of the head 
of the Eoyal Observatory at Greenwich. 
[Gr. astron, a star, nomos, a law.] 

as-tute', adj. cunning; shrewd, as-tute'- 
ly, adv. as-tute'-ness,n. [L. astutus.l 

a-sun'-der, adv. apart ; into separate 
pieces. [See sunder.] 

a-sy'-lum, n. a place of refuge ; an insti- 
tution where persons (as the blind, 
lunatics, etc.) live secluded lives. [L. 
<Gr. asiilos, under protection from 
violence.] [artist). [F.] 

a-tel-ier' (-yd'), n. a workshop (esp. of an 

a tempo, [I.] in time ; in the original 
time (of music). 

a'-the-ism, n. disbelief in the existence of 
God. a'-the-ist, n. one who so dis- 
believes. [Gr. a + theos, God.] 

ath'-el-ing, n. a prince in Anglo-Saxon 
times. [A.S. cethel, noble.] 

ath'-lete, n. one trained in wrestling and 
other exercises of bodily strength, agil- 
ity, and skill ; one active and strong by 
such training, ath-let'-ic, adj. strong 
and well-exercised (of body), ath-let- j 


ics, exercises, games, and sports 
requiring bodily strength, agility, or 
skill. [L.<Gr. dthlnn, the prize of a 
contest ; the contest itself.] 

a-thwart', adv. across. [See thwart.] 

at'-las, n. a collection of maps in a book. 
"Atlas" was one of a race of giants 
(Titans), and was said to support the 
earth on his shoulders. 

at'-mos-phere (-jer), n. the whole body 
of air surrounding the earth ; any sur- 
rounding influence, at-mos-pher'-ic 
(-al), adjs. [Gr. atmos, vapour, sphaira, 
a sphere.] 

a'-toll (or at'-), n. a ring-shaped coral 
island (in the Pacific Ocean) enclosing a 
lagoon. [Malay.] 

at'-om, n. the very smallest particle of 
matter; anything exceedingly small. 
a-tom'-ic, adj. [F.<L.<Gr. atomos, 
not able to be cut or divided.] 

a-tone' (-toned', -to'-ning), v. to make 
amends; to give satisfaction (for). 
a-tone' -ment, n. [at+one.] 

at-ra-bil'-i-ous, adj. in a depressed or 
melancholy state. at-ra-bil'-i-ous- 
ness, n. [L. dtra bills, black bile.] 

a-tro'-cious (-shus), adj. very cruel or 
wicked ; abominable. a-troc'-i-ty 
(-tros'-) , n. [F. < L. atrox, fierce, cruel.] 

at'-ro-phy or a-tro'-phi-a (ph=f), n. a 
wasting away (esp. from want of nourish- 
ment). [Gr. a + trophe, nourishment.] 

at-tach' (-tached', -tach'-ing), v. to bind, 
fasten, tie, or connect together; to take 
by legal authority, at-tach'-e (-task' -a), 
[F.] n. a person attached to a foreign 
embassy, at-tach '-ment, n. a fasten- 
ing ; very great affection. [F. attacher."] 

at-tack' (-tacked', -tack'-ing), v. to fall 
upon with violence ; to assault : n. an 
assault ; unfriendly criticism or dis- 
cussion ; a fit of sickness ; a setting to 
work on some task. [See attach.] 

at-tain'(-tained',-tain'-ing),v. to reach; 
to come to or arrive at ; to achieve, at- 
tain' -a-ble, adj. at-tain'-ment, n. 
something attained ; esp. knowledge 
gained. [F.<L. ad-\- tango, I touch.] 

at-tain'-der, n. loss of civil rights through 
conviction of certain crimes (esp. treason 
or felony), at-taint' (-ed, -ing), v. to 
make subject to attainder : n. act of at- 
tainting : adj. attainted. [See attain.] 

at' -tar (also written of -to and of -tar), 
n. a perfume obtained from flowers, esp. 
attar of roses. [P. and Ar.] 




at-tempt' (-ternf), (-ed, -ing), v. to try 
(to do something): n. [F.<L. ad+ 
tento, I try.] 

at- tend' (-ed, -ing), v. to wait on or for ; 
to be present ; to give heed ; to care for 
or look after, at-tend'-ance, n. — ; 
persons attending, at-tend'-ant, n. 
one who — . at-ten'-tion, n. at-ten'- 
tiye (-t7,v), adj. [F.<L. ad + tcndo, I 

at-ten'-u-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
make thin or slender ; to lessen ; to 
weaken, at-ten-u-a'-tion, n. [L. ad 
■+ tenuis, thin.] 

at-test' (-ed, -ing), v. to bear witness to ; 
to affirm solemnly ; to certify, at-tes- 
ta'-tion, n. testimony, at-test'-er or 
-or, n. [L. ad -f testis, a witness.] 

at '-tic, ad;', of Attica, aprovincein Greece : 
n. a room in the roof of a house ; a garret. 

at- tire' (-tired', -ti'-ring), v, to dress ; 
to adorn : n. clothes. [O.F. atirier, to 
adorn, to arrange.] 

at'-ti-tude,n. posture (of aperson'sbody) ; 
state or condition (of mind or of things). 
[I.<L. aptus, fit.] 

at-tor'-ney (-tur'-nl), n. one who acts 
legally for another ; an agent, attor- 
ney—general, n. the chief law-official of 
the British crown, letter or power of 
attorney, a written authority from one 
person authorizing another to transact 
certain business for him. [F.<L. ad 

at-tract' (-ed, -ing), v. to draw to; to 
allure ; to entice, at-trac'-tion, n. — ; 
that power in nature which causes the 
particles of bodies to be drawn to each 
other, at-trac'-tiye, adj. having the 
power to draw ; pleasing ; charming. ; 
at-trac'-tor (not -er), n. [L. ad+ ; 
trdho, I draw.] 

at-trib'-ute (-u-ted, -u-ting), v. to ! 
ascribe; to speak of as belonging (to). 
at'-tri-bute, n. what is ascribed ; a 
quality, at-trib'-u-tive, adj. [L. ad 
-f- tribuo, I grant.] 

at-tri'-tion (-trish'-un), n. the act or pro- 
cess of rubbing ; wearing down or away, j 
[L. ad + tero, I rub.] 

at-tune' (-tuned', -tu'-ning), v. to put in j 
tune ; to make in tune (with) ; to cause 
to agree. [L. ad + tune.] 

au'-berge (o-berzh'), n. an inn. au-ber- j 
giste' (-ber-z hest '),/(. an innkeeper. [F.] 

au'-burn, adj. of a reddish-brown colour 
(said especially of the hair). [F.<L. 

alburnus<albus, white.] 

A.U.C., [L.] an' -no ur'-bis con'-di-tae, in 
the year from the building of the city 
(of Rome). 

au contraire, [F.] on the contrary. 

au courant (o coo-rang'), [F]. fully 
acquainted (with). 

auc'-tion (dk'-shun), n. a public sale to 
the highest bidder ; the goods sold : v. 
(-tioned, -tion-ing), to sell by auction. 
auc-tion-eer', n. a person who sells 
things by auction. Dutch auction, a 
public sale at which the auctioneer starts 
at a high price, and lowers it till he meets 
a bidder. £L. auctio < augeo, I increase.] 

au-da'-cious (-shus), adj. very daring or 
bold ; impudent or insolent, au-dac'- 
i-ty (-das'-), n. [F. <L. audax, bold.] 

au'-di-ble (-di-bl), adj. able to be heard; 
loud enough, au-di-bil'-i-ty, n. au'- 
di-bly, adv. [L. audio, I hear.] 

au'-di-ence, n. a hearing; a body of 
hearers. [See audible.] 

au'-dit, n. an official examination of 
accounts: v. (-ed, -ing). au'-dit-or, 
11. one who audits accounts. [L.auditus, 
a hearing.] 

au-di-to'-ri-um (-to'-rl-), n. the space in 
a public hall or theatre occupied by the 
audience. [See audible.] 

au'-di-tor-y, adj. relating to the sense of 
hearing : n. an audience. [See audible.] 

Au-ge'-an (aw-je'-an), adj. exceedingly 
filthy or corrupt ; arduous. [From the 
stables of Augeas cleansed by Hercules.] 

au fait (ofd), [F.] well acquainted (with). 

au'-ger (-yer), n. an instrument for boring 
holes of a considerable size (esp. in 
wood). [A.S. nafugar."} 

aught (aut), n. anything. N.B. — Dis- 
tinguish from ought = should. [A.S.] 

aug-ment' (-ed, -ing), v. to increase ; to 
make or become larger, aug'-ment, «. 
aug-raen-ta'-tion, n. increase, aug- 
men'-ta-tiye (-tiv), adj. increasing. 
[F.<L. augeo, 1 increase.] 

au'-gur, n. one who foretold events (among 
the Romans) from the flights of birds, 
omens, and other circumstances ; a 
soothsayer: v. (-gured, -gur-ing), to 
practise augury ; to foretell, au'-gu- 
rer, n. au'-gu-ry, ». the art of an 
augur ; that which is foretold. [L. avis, 
a bird.] 

au-gust', adj. grand ; majestic ; impos- 
ing. [L. augeo, I increase.] 

Au'-gust, n. the 8th month of the year. 




[L. < Augustus, a Eoman emperor.] 

auk, n. a swimming-bird frequenting the 
northern British seas. [Ic.] 

au nature! (o nat-oo-reV), [F.] in the 
natural state. [the ear.] 

au'-ral, adj. relating to the ear. [L. auris, 

au-re'-o-la, or au'-re-ole (-51), n. a 
circlet of rays or halo of light (in paint- 
ing) surrounding the head of Christ, a 
saint, etc. [L. <aurum, gold.] 

au revoir (5 ruv-wdr'), [F.] till we 
meet again. 

au'-ri-cle (-ri-kl), n. the part of the ear 
which stands out from the head ; one 
of the two ear-like cavities of the heart. 
au-ric'-u-lar, adj. relating to (or spoken 
to) the ear. auricular confession, con- 
fession of sins made in the ear of the 
priest (ix. privately). [L. auris, ear.] 

au-rif -er-ous (-us), adj. containing or 
producing gold. [L. aurum, gold, fero, 
I bear.] 

au'-rist, n. a doctor who attends specially 
to diseases of the ear. [L. auris, ear.] 

au-ro'-ra, n. the dawn of day. au-ro'-ra 
bo-re-a'-lis, n. the northern lights 
(seen mostly in the sky in northern 
latitudes). [L. aurora, dawn, morning, 
borealis, northern.] 

aus-cul-ta'-tion, n. (in medicine) the 
tracing of disease (esp. in the chest) by 
the application of the ear (sometimes 
aided by the stethoscope). [L. ausculto, 
I listen.] 

aus'-pi-ces (-piste), n. pi. influence; 
patronage ; care and protection, as 
under the auspices of. aus-pi'- 
cious (-pish' -us), adj. of good omen; 
favourable ; happy. [F. <L. auspicium 
<avis, a bird.] 

aus-tere', adj. severe in judging, living, or 
acting; harsh; stern, aus-ter'-i-ty, 
to. [F. <L. austerus< Gr. austeros."] 

aus'-tral, adj. southern. [L. ouster, the 
south wind.] 

au-then'-tic (-then'-), adj. true ; credible ; 
real, au-then'-ti-cate (-ca-ted, -ea- 
ting), v. to prove to be genuine ; to give 
authority to. au-then-tic'-i-ty (-tis'-), 
n. [F.<L.<Gr. authentikos.] 

au'-thor,n. (/. -ess), the beginner, former, 
or first mover of anything ; an originator ; 
a writer (of a book), au-thor'-i-ta- 
tiye (-ta- not -ta-), adj. having author- 
ity, au-thor'-i-ty, n. power ; right (to 
do so and so) ; an expert : n. pi. the 
persons or the body exercising power or 

command, au'-thor-ize (-ized, -i- 
zing), v. to give authority to. Author- 
ized Yersion, the translation of the 
Bible made by order of King James I. in 
1011. lF.<lt.auctor<au(ieo,l increase] 

auto-, auth-, pref. [Gr.] self. 

au-to-bi-og'-ra-phy (-fi), n. the life of 
a person written by him ;elf . au-to-bi- 
o-graph'-i-cal, adj. [Gr. autos, self + 

au'-to-car, n. a carriage which contains 
its own motive power (esp. on a railway). 
[Gr. autos, self -f car.] 

au'-to-crat, n. one who rules by himself ; 
an absolute ruler ; one who exercises his 
authority in an overbearing or harsh 
manner, au-toc'-ra-cy (si),n. abso- 
lute rule by one person ; unlimited 
authority, au-to-crat'-ic, adj. [Gr. 
auto + kraios, power.] 

auto— da— fS (o-to-dd-fd'),h {pi. autos—) 
the public execution (usu. by burning) 
of heretics. The Sp. form is auto— 
de-fe. [Po . = act of faith .] 

au'-to-graDh (-graf), n. a person's own 
handwriting ; a signature : adj. [Gr. 
autos, self, grdpho, I write.] 

au-to-mat'-ic (-al), adj. self-acting; 
having the power of action in itself ; 
carried on unconsciously, au-tom'-a- 
ton, n. (pi. -tons or -ta), a self-moving 
machine or one moved by invisible 
means ; a person acting like such a 
machine. [Gr. automdtos, self-acting.] 

au-to-mo'-bile (-heel), acfi. self-moving: 
n. a vehicle moving on common roads 
and containing its motive power within 
itself ; a motor-car. au-to-mo'-bil-ist, 
n. [Gr. autos, self, L. mobllis, moveable] 

au-ton'-o-mous (-o-mus), adj. possessing 
its own laws ; self-governing, au-ton'- 
om-y, n. [Gr. autos, self, nomos, a law.] 

au'-top-sy (si), n. personal observation 
(esp. in the examination of a body after 
death). [Gr. autos, self, opsis, sight.] 

au'-tumn (-turn), n. the third season of 
the year, au-tum'-nal, adj. [F.< 
L. au(c)tumnus <aug o, I increase.] 

aux-il'-ia-ry (aug-zil'-ya-ry), adj. help- 
ing : n. (pi. -ries), a helper, auxilia-. 
ries, foreign troops in the service 
of a nation at war. auxiliary forces, 
troops (volunteers) not forming part of 
the regular army. [L. auxilium, help.] 

A.Y., Authorized Version (of the Bible). 

a-vail' (-Yailed', -Yail'-ing), p. to be of 
use or advantage ; to answer the purpo se ; 




n. value ; power ; effect. a-Yail'-a-ble 
(-a-bl), adj. able to be employed ; acces- 
sible. [F.<L. ad-\-vdleo, I am strong.] 

ay'-a-lanche (-d-lansh), n. a vast, falling 
mass of snow and ice. [F.<L. ad 
vallem, to the valley.] 

avant—courier (a-vati -koo-rer'), [F.] a 
messenger sent on before to announce the 
arrival of some personage : pi. —cou- 
riers, the advance guard of an army. 

av'-a-rice (-d-ris), n. eager desire for 
gain; greediness after wealth, aY-a-ri'- 
cious (-rish'-us),adj. [F. <L. avaritia."\ 

a'-ve (d'-ve or d'-), int. hail! A' -ye 
Ma-rf-a! (-re'-) [L.] Hail Mary ! ; a 
salutation and prayer to the Virgin Mary. 

a-venge' (-Yenged', -Yen'-ging), v. to 
take satisfaction for injury. a-Yen'- 
ger, n. [F.<L. vindlco, I avenge.] 

av'-e-nue (-nil), n. a way or passage (esp. 
one under trees) ; a broad street. [F. 
<L. advenio, I come to.] 

a-ver' (-YerrecT, -Yer'-ring), v. to assert 
positively. [F. <L. ad- + verus, true.] 

aY'-er-age,n. a mean or middle ; a middle 
value of two or more numbers or sums ; 
a general statement based on a compari- 
son of different cases : adj. : v. (-aged, 
-ag-ing), to take or find an — . [F.< 
L. hfibeo, I have.] 

a-Yerse' (correctly with " from," but now 
usu. with "to "), adj. unwilling ; disin- 
clined ; unfavourable (to). a-Yer'-sion 
(shun), n. a great dislike (to) ; hatred. 
[L. aversus*.a- + verto, I turn.] 

a-Yert' (-ed, -ing), v. to turn away or 
aside (esp. some evil or calamity) ; toward 
off or prevent. [L. a- + verto, I turn.] 

a'-Yi-a-ry (-vi-d-rl), n. (pi. -ries),aplace 
for keeping birds ; a large cage. [L. 
avis, a bird.] 

a'-Yi-a-tion (a' -vt-d-shun, or dv'-i-), n. 
the science and practice of flying in an 
aeroplane. a'-Yi-a-tor («'-, or &v'-)> n. 
one who manages (or uses) an aeroplane. 
[F.<L. avis, a bird.] 

a-Yid'-i-ty (-l-tl), n. eager desire. [F. 
<L. avidus, greedy.] 

aY-o-ca'-tion, n. profession ; business ; 
usual employment. [L. a- + voco, I call.] 

a-Yoid' (-ed, -ing), v. to keep away from ; 
to try to escape from ; to shun, a- 
Yoid'-ance, n. [F.<L. a--\-viduus, 

aY-oir-du-pois' (Sr-du-poiz'),n. srndadj. 
a common system of weight in which 
the pound (lb.) is of 16 ounces (oz.). 

[F. <L. hdbeo, I have, pensum, weight.] 
a-YOuch' (-vouched', -vouch '-ing), v. to 
declare strongly and openly ; to assert : 
n. [F.<L. ad + voco, I call.] 

a-YOw' (-Yowed', -Yow'-ing), v. to 
declare openly ; to confess ; to own. 
a-YOw'-al,n. a-YOwed', adj. declared; 
open. a-YOw'-ed-ly, adv. in an open 
or declared manner. £F.<L. ad-f- 
votum, vow.] 

a-wait' (-ed, -ing), v. to wait for; to 
expect. [L. ad + wait.] 

a-wake', adj. not asleep ; vigilant : v. 
(a-woke' or a-waked', a-wa'-king): 
also a-wa'-ken (-kened, -ing), to rouse 
from sleep or from inaction ; to stir up 
to activity. a-wa'-ken-ing,w. a rous- 
ing into activity ; a revival of interest. 
to be wide awake, to be on the alert ; 
to be cute. [Gr. a + wake.] 

a-ward' (-ed, -ing), v. to make over (to) ; 
to sentence (in law) : n. a final decision. 
[L. ad + ward.] 

a-ware', adj. knowing; informed; watch- 
ful; vigilant. [A.S. ge%vcer ; aware.] 

awe (a), n. fear mingled with reverence ; 
dread : v. (awed', awe'-ing or aw'-), 
to strike with awe. aw'-ful, adj. causing 
awe ; terrible ; dreadful, aw'-ful-ness, 
n. awe' -some, adj. stand in awe of, 
to fear greatly. [A.S. ege, fear.] 

a- while', adv. for a time. [E. a + while.] 

awk'-ward, adj. clumsy ; wanting in 
grace ; embarrassing ; difficult to deal 
with, awk'-ward-ly, adv. awk'- 
ward-ness, n. [Scand. and A.S.] 

awl, n. a shoemaker's pricker. [A.S. awel."\ 

awn'-ing, n. a covering (usu. of canvas) 
to shelter persons or things from the 
sun's rays. [?] 

a- wry' (-rl'), adv. turned or twisted to 
one side ; not even. [A.S. a+wry.] 

ax'-i-om (-l-um), n. a self-evident and 
universally accepted proposition or prin- 
ciple. [Gr. axioma."] 

ax'-is, n. (pi. ax'-es), a straight line (real 
or imaginary) on which a body rotates ; 
the stem of a plant. [L. axis. - } 

ax'-le or ax'-le-tree, n. the pin, rod, or 
bar on which a wheel revolves ; a pivot. 
[? Scand.] 

ay or aye (i), int. yes. the Ayes, those 
who vote in favour of a motion. [?] 

a'-yah, n. a Hindu waiting-maid or nurse. 

aye (d), adv. ever; always. [A.S.] 

a-za'-le-a, n. a genus of shrubs bearing 
beautiful flowers. [Gr. azalea, dry (as 




the plants grow best in dry soil).] 
az'-i-muth, n. an arc of the horizon 
between the meridian of a place and a 
vertical circle passing through a celestial 
body and the zenith. [Ar.] 
a'-zure (d'-zhur or azh'-ur), adj. sky- 
blue : n. the blue sky. az'-u-rine, n. 
a blue-black aniline colour: adj. [F. 

B.A., Bac-ca-lau' -re-us Ar'-ti-um, [L.] = 
Bachelor of Arts. 

bab'-ble (-bl), (-bled, -bling), v. to talk 
in an idle or unintelligible manner ; to 
chatter ; to make a constant murmuring 
sound : n. \_<bd, the cry of a lamb or 
of an infant.] 

ba'-bel, n. confused noisy talk ; noisy 
confusion. [H. the Tower of Babel, 
where the confusion of languages took 
place. — Gen. xi.] 

ba-boo' or ba-bu', n. a title of respect 
among the Hindus ; Sir. 

ba-boon', n. a large animal of the monkey 
kind. [F. babouin."] 

ba'-by, n. an infant, ba'-by-hood, n. 
the time or state of being a baby, ba'- 
by-ish, adj. baby-farm, n. a place 
where babies are put out to nurse for 
gain. [?] [F.] 

bac'-car-at (-at or -a), n. a game at cards. 

bac'-chan-al (-ban-), n. one who indulges 
in noisy and drunken revels, bac-chan- 
a'-li-an, adj. bac-chan'-te, n. a 
female reveller ; a priestess of Bacchus. 
[L.<Gr. Bacchos, the god of wine.] 

hachelier es arts (or lettres) (bdsh-li- 
d' d-zdr' [or a-ldt'r']), [F.] Bachelor 
of Arts (or Letters). 

bach'-e-lor, n. a man who has not been 
married ; one who has taken a first degree 
at a university. [F.<L. baccalarius, a 
small farmer <vacca, a cow.] 

ba-cil'-li (-sll'-ll), n. pi. (sing, -lus), 
microscopic, rod-like germs present in 
the blood and tissues of diseased animals 
and in milk, certain of which are the 
cause of such diseases in man as tuber- 
culosis, diarrhoea, leprosy, etc. [L. 
bacillus, a small staff.] 

back (bak), n. the hinder or (in beasts) 
upper part: v. (backed, back'-ing), to 
encourage ; to support ; to force back. 
back' -bite, v. to speak evil (of an absent 
person), back'-bone, n. chief bone of 
tbe back ; the spine ; the chief support 

of anything ; grit ; firmness of purpose 
or will, back'-ground, n. the ground 
behind ; the back part of a picture. 
back' -set, n. a check ; a set-back ; 
something kept back for future use or 
benefit, back'-ward, adj. and adv. 
towards the back ; slow in intellect. 
back' -wards, adv. towards the back. 
back' -wash, n. a backward current ; 
the motion of a receding wave : v. 
to backwater, to stop or steady the 
motion of a boat by resting the oars in 
the water ; to reverse the direction of 
a boat without turning it round, to be 
on one's back, to come to the end of 
one's resources, to break the back 
of, to complete the hardest part of a 
task or duty. [A.S. bac."] 

back'-gam-mon, n. a game played by two 
persons on a board with dice and men 
(pieces). [Dan.] 

back' -sheesh or -shish, n. See baksheesh. 

back'-slide (-sli-ded, -sli-ding), v. to 
slide back ; to fall away from religion 
or from good to bad. back'-sli-der, n. 
one who — . [back + slide.] 

back'-stairs, n. a flight of stairs in the 
back part of a house ; a private or in- 
direct way : adj. underhand ; not open 
and straight-forward. 

back' -stitch, n. a stitch made by setting 
the needle back at the previous stitch. 

back'-woods, the less settled, and 
so wilder, parts of a colony. 

ba'-con, n. swines' flesh salted and dried. 
[O.F.<O.D. bak, a pig.] 

bac-te'-ri-a {-rl-), n. pi. (sing, -um), very 
minute, vegetable, rod-like organisms, a 
kind of fungus, often present in water 
and other fluids, the cause of fermenta- 
tion and of certain infectious diseases. 
[Gr. bakterion, a little rod.] 

badge, n. a mark or a sign by which a 
person or thing is distinguished. [Low 
L. bagia.] 

badg'-er, n. a burrowing quadruped of the 
bear family: v. (-ered, -er-ing), to tease ; 
to worry ; to annoy. [?] 

bad'-i-nage (bad'-l-ndzh), n. playful, 
teasing talk ; banter. [F.] 

baf'-fle (-fi), (-fled, -fling), v. to cheat; 
to confound ; to perplex so as to cause 
to fail ; to check. [O.F.] 

bag, n. a small sack ; a pouch : v. (bagged, 
bag'-ging), to put into a bag ; to shoot 
or kill game ; to hang loosely, bag'- 
pipe, ». a Scottish musical wind-instru- 





ment, consisting of a leathern bag serv- 
ing as bellows and fitted with pipes. 
bag' -piper, n . a player on a — . [Ga.] 

bag-a-telle'(-^i'j, n. a mere trifle ; a game 
played with balls and a cue on a board 
with nine holes at one end. [F.<I.] 

bag'-gage {-gaj), n. luggage (esp. of an 
army) ; a low, idle, worthless woman. 
[F. bapage."] 

bail {Ml), n. a surety or security (esp. in 
a court of justice) ; one who procures 
the release of a prisoner by becoming 
surety for his appearance in court : v. 
(bailed, bail'-ing), to give bail (to or 
for), bail-ee', n. one to whom goods 
are delivered in trust or on bail. [F.] 

bail (bailed, bail'-ing), v. to clear (a 
boat) of water by buckets, or other 
means. [F. bailie, a bucket.] 

bail, n. a barrier ; a small bar placed on 
the tops of the stumps in cricket. [F. 
bailie, a staff.] 

bail'-ie or bail -lie, n. in Scotland, an 
alderman ; the magistrate of a borough. 

bail '-iff, n. a sheriff's officer ; a steward ; 
an agent. [F.<L. bajulus, a porter.] 

bain-marie (bah-md-re'), n. (pi. bains-), 
a water-bath used in cooking ; a kind of 
double saucepan. [F.] 

bait, n. food used to allure (esp. wild 
animals and fish); an enticement: v. 
(-ed, -ing), to use bait (on) ; to harass 
or provoke wild animals (for sport), esp. 
the bear, with dogs, etc. ; to stop (on a 
journey) for refreshments. [Scan.] 

baize, n. a coarse kind of woollen cloth. 
[F.<L. badius, brown, chestnut 

bake (baked, ba'-king), v. to dry or 
harden by heat ; to cook by heat, ba'- 
ker, n. bake'-house, n. ba'-ker-y, n. 
baker's dozen, n. thirteen, baking- 
powder, n. a substance used instead 
of yeast for making bread and pastry 
light. [A.S. bacan.~\ 

bak'-sheesh or -shish, n. (in Turkey and 
Egypt) a gratuity ; a gift of money. [P.] 

bal'-ance, n. an instrument for weighing 
(often in pi.) ; a pair of scales; a sum j 
of money required to make the two sides i 
of an account equal ; the sum due on a ! 
partly-paid account, bal'-ance-a-ble, 
adj. bal'-ance-sheet, n. a statement i 
of accounts showing profit and loss. 
balance-wheel, n. a wheel which regu- 
lates the going of a watch, balance of 
trade, the difference between imports 

and exports, v. (-anced, -anc-ing), to 
compare ; to equal in number, weight, 
force, or proportion ; to support on a 
narrow base ; to settle and adjust (as an 
account). [F.<L. bilanx, having two 

bal'-a-ta, n. the dried juice or gum of the 
West-Indian bully-tree, used as a sub- 
stitute for gutta-percha for covering 
electrical wires. [?] 

bal'-co-ny (-n't), n. a projecting platform 
or gallery. [I. balcone."] 

bald (bcild), adj. having no hair (esp. on 
the head) ; bare, bald'-ness, n. [C. 
bal, a white spot.] 

bale, n. a package of goods ; a bundle of 
raw cotton, wool, or hides. [Another 
form of ball.] 

bale, n. misery ; calamity, bale'-ful, 
adj. causing hurt ; woefui. [A.S. bealo, 

bale (baled, ba'-ling). See bail. 

balk, n. a beam: v. (balked, balk'-ing), 
to check ; to foil. [O.E.] 

ball (bal), n. any spherical object ; a small 
globe or sphere ; a bullet, ball— bear- 
ing, a support for an axle, etc., contain- 
ing small steel balls for lessening friction . 
ball— cock, a valve which is opened or 
closed by the fall or rise of a hollow 
metal ball attached to a lever and float- 
ing on the water, ball of the eye, the 
whole eye within the socket. [F. balle; 
of Scand. origin.] 

bal' -lad, n. any simple (and often popular) 
song (often danced to) or a poem in which 
a story is told ; a simple air. bal'-lad- 
ist, n. a writer of ballads, bal '-lad— 
mon'-ger, n. a writer of, or a dealer in, 
ballads ; a poet of little merit. [F. < 
L.L. ballare, to dance.] 

bal'-last, n. heavy material (stones, sand, 
etc.) put into a ship (when not carrying 
cargo), or into the car of a balloon, to 
give steadiness ; broken stones, gravel, 
etc., laid on the bed of a railway to give 
solidity ; anything that gives steadiness : 
v. (-ed, -ing), to steady by weight. 

bal '-let (-M or -let), n. a theatrical enter- 
tainment in which dancing is the chief 
feature. [F.<L.L. ballare, to dance.] 

bal-loon', n. a large bag (generally of silk) 
filled with gas, or with light air (an air— 
balloon), or with heated air (a fire- 
balloon), so as to rise and float in the 
atmosphere, bal-loon' -ist,«. one who 




ascends in the car attached to a balloon. 
[O.F. balon<balle, a ball.] 
bal'-lot, ft. a mode of voting secretly by 
means of a ball, a ticket, etc. ; the full 
amount of votes cast or given : v. (-ed, 
-ing), to vote by ballot, ballot— box, 
n. the closed box into which the ballot 
balls or tickets are placed by the voters. 
[I. ballotta<balle, a ball.] 
balm (bdm), n. a healing or soothing oint- 
ment ; anything that eases or soothes 
pain or suffering of mind or body. 
balm'-y, adj. mild ; genial (of air and 
weather). [F. baume <Gr. balsdmon, 
bal'-sam, n. a fragrant, resinous sub- 
stance from plants ; anything that heals, 
soothes, or restores. [Gr. balsamon.] 
Bait., Baltimore, U.S.A. 
bal'-us-ter, ft. a small column or pillar. 
bal-us-trade', ft. a row of such pillars 
joined by a top-rail. [F. < Gr. balustion , 
a pomegranate flower.] 
bam-bi'-no (-be'-), n. the figure of Christ 
as an infant (in Kom. Cath. churches). 
[I. bambino, a child.] 
barn-boo', ft. a gigantic Indian grass with 

reedy, hollow stem. [Malay.] 
ban, ft. a proclamation ; a denunciation ; 
a sentence of outlawry ; a curse : v. 
(banned, ban'-ning), to curse ; to pro- 
hibit. [A.S.] 
ban'-al {ban'- or bd'-nal), adj. common ; 
vulgar. ba-nal'-i-ty,ft.common-place- 
ness ; triviality. [F.] 
ba-na'-na (-nd'- not -nd'-), n. a tropical 
plant of the plantain family bearing 
nutritious fruit. [Sp.] 
band, n. a strip of material for binding or 
for ornament ; a means of joining ; a 
company of persons joined for some 
common purpose ; a body of musicians 
(conducted by a band'-master) : v. 
(-ed, -ing). band'-age, ft. a band for 
binding up a wound : v. to apply a 
bandage to a wound, band '—box, n. a 
slight box, usu. of cardboard, for hold- 
ing bonnets, hats, and other light 
articles, band'— saw, a long flexible saw 
running on a pulley. [A.S. bend< 
bindan, to bind.] 
ban-dan' -na or -da'-na, n. handkerchief 
(usu. silk or cotton) printed with a ground 
all one colour, originally from India. 
ban-deau' (-do'), n. (pl.-dea.ux') (-doz'), 
a narrow band worn by women round 

the hair ; a narrow band of material as 
a trimming. [F. < bande, a band.] 

ban'-dit, w. (pi. -dits or -dit'-ti), an out- 
law ; a highwayman ; a brigand. [I. 
bandito <L.L. bannire, to proclaim.] 

ban-do-leer', n. a large leathern belt worn 
across the shoulder and right breast to 
carry cartridges. [Sp. bandolera.] 

ban'-dy, n. a club bent at the end for 
striking balls ; the game with a ball 
played with it : v. (-died, -dy-ing), to 
strike backwards and forwards ; to ex- 
change angry words : adj. bent (esp. of 
the leg), as in bandy-legged. [F. 
bande, bent.] 

bane, w. mischief, or ruin, or any cause of. 
these, bane'-ful, adj. ruinous ; hurt- 
ful. [A.S. bana, a murderer.] 

ban'-gle (-gl), »• an ornamental ring (esp. 
for arm or ankle). [Hindu bangri."] 

ban'-i-an, see banyan. 

ban'-ish (-ished, -ish-ing), v. to expel 
from a country or society ; to exile ; to 
drive away, ban'-ish-ment, ft. [F.< 
L.L. bannire, to proclaim.] [^.r. 

ban'-is-ter, n. a corruption of baluster, 

ban'-jo, ft. (pi. -jos), a musical stringed 
instrument of the guitar kind, played 
with the fingers. [I.<L. pandura, a 
kind of harp.] 

bank, ft. a heap of earth, or of mud, or 
sand in the sea, etc. ; a steep slope ; the 
margin of a river or lake ; a place for 
depositing money : v. (banked, bank'- 
ing), to heap up (earth, etc.) ; to put 
money into a — ; to have dealings with a 
— . bank' -book, ft. the book held by the 
customer in which deposits and with- 
drawals (at a bank) are entered, bank'- 
er, n. one who keeps a bank ; a game 
at cards, bank— hoi' -i-day, n. one of 
the four days on which the banks are 
closed by law. bank'-ing, n. the busi- 
ness of a bank, bank' -note, «. a note 
(which passes as money) issued by a 
banker promising to pay on demand the 
sum of money stated on the note, bank 
rate, the price per cent, at which the 
Bank of England will lend money, to 
break the bank, to win (in gambling) a 
fixed sum of money which the keeper of 
a gaming-table is prepared to lose. 
[A.S. bene, bench.] 
bank'-rupt, ft. one who is insolvent, or 
unable to pay what he owes ; one de- 
clared legally to be so in default : adj. 
insolvent, bank'-rupt-cy, n. [bank 




+L. rumpo, I break.] 

ban'-ner, n. a military standard ; a kind of 
flag. [F. < L. bandum, a strip of cloth.] 

ban'-ner-et, n. a knight ranking next 
below a baron. The order is not now in 
use. [banner + dim. et.~\ 

ban'-nock, n. a flat cake made out of 
oat- or barley-meal. [Ga. bannach.~\ 

banns, n. pi. public notice in church of an 
intended marriage. to forbid the 
banns, to make formal objection to an 
intended marriage. [See ban.] 

ban'-quet (-kivet), n. a rich feast or enter- 
tainment: v. (-ed, -ing), to feast, ban'- 
quet-ing hall, n. a room for holding 
banquets in. [F.<I. banchetto <G . 
bank, a bench.] 

ban'-shee, n. a kind of Irish or Scotch 
fairy spirit said to warn of the approach- 
ing death of a person by wailing. [Ga.] 

ban' -tarn, n. a kind of small domestic 
fowl : adj. absurdly self-important, 
combative, fussy, or pompous. [Bantam, 
a town in Java.] 

ban'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to jeer at ; 
to tease with words ; to make fun of : 
n. raillery ; jest. [?] [Sa.] 

ban'-yan, n. a large Indian fig-tree. 

ban-zai' \-zl'), int. hurrah ! long live the 
emperor ! [Japanese = 10,000 years.] 

ba'-o-bab, n. a West-African tree, with 
an immense trunk, and bearing soft, 
pulpy fruit. [African.] 

bap-tize (-tized', -ti'-zing), v. to admit 
into the Christian church by immersion 
in, or sprinkling with, water ; to christen. 
bap'-tism (-tizm), n. the act of — . 
bap'-tis-mal, adj. bap'-tist, n. one 
who administers baptism ; short for 
an'-a— bap-tist, n. one of a religious 
sect which objects to infant baptism. 
bap'-tis-ter-y (or -try), n. a conse- 
crated place in which the sacrament of 
baptism is administered. [F.<Gr. 
baptizo<bapto, I dip.] 

bar (bar), n. a rod; a bolt; a bank of 
sand at the mouth of a river ; anything 
which obstructs or hinders ; a barrier ; 
a division in music ; the place where a 
prisoner stands in a court of justice ; 
any tribunal (as the bar of public 
opinion) ; the room or counter in, or 
over, which liquors are served in a 
public-house: v. (barred, bar' -ring), 
to fasten with a bar ; to exclude, bar'- 
maid, n.f., bar'-man, n. m., one who 
serves out liquor at the bar of a public- 

house, to be called to the bar, to 
become a barrister, to cross the bar, 
to die. a trial at bar, a trial before 
all the judges of a court. [F. barre."] 

barb, n. a jag or notch at the point of an 
arrow or a hook: v. (barbed, barb'- 
ing), to put barbs to. barbed wire, 
wire for fencing, single or in twisted 
strands, having barbs or sharp points on 
it. [F.<L. barba, a beard.] 

barb, n. a swift kind of horse from Barb- 
ary, in N. Africa. 

bar-ba'-ri-an (-rl-), adj. savage; uncivi- 
lized : n. a savage, bar'-bar-ous, adj. 
savage and cruel, bar-bar'-ic, adj. un- 
civilized, bar' -bar-ism, n. state of 
being a barbarian, bar-bar'-i-ty (-i-ti), 
n. great cruelty. [L. barbdrus <Gr. 
barbdros, not Greek ; foreign.] 

bar'-be-cue (-ku), n. a large framework 
for roasting ; a hog, or any large animal 
roasted whole. [North American.] 

bar'-ber, n. one who shaves the beard 
and cuts the hair, barber— surgeon, n. 
formerly a barber who drew teeth and 
bled people for certain illnesses. [L. 
barba, a beard.] 

bar'-ber-ry,n. a thorny shrub with yellow 
flowers and red berries, common in 
hedges. [F.<Ar.] 

bar-bette' (-bet'), n. a mound of earth, or 
a platform (in a fortification or a man- 
of-war) on which heavy guns are 
mounted. [F. <L. barba, a beard.] 

bar'-bi-can (-bi-), n. an outlying part of 
a fortress guarding a gate or drawbridge. 
[F. barbacane <Ar.] 

bard, n. an old Celtic minstrel ; a poet. 
bard'-ic, adj. [C. bardd.] 

bare, adj. uncovered ; naked ; plain ; poor. 
bare' -ly, adv. in a bare manner ; scarce- 
ly, bare' -faced, adj. with face un- 
covered ; shameless ; impudent, bare'- 
foot (-ed), adj. with bare feet, bare'- 
ness, n. bare (bared, bar'-ing), v. to 
strip or uncover, under bare poles, (of 
a ship) with no sails set. [A.S.] 

bar-ege' (-dzh'), n. a thin, gauzy, woollen 
material for ladies' dresses. [ < Bareges, 
in S. France, where first made.] 

bar'-gain (-gin), n. a contract ; an agree- 
ment ; a good purchase : v. (-gained, 
-gain-ing), to make a bargain or agree- 
ment; to barter; to trade, into the 
bargain, over and above what is agreed 
on. to strike a bargain, to come to 
terms. [F.<L.L. barca, a bark.] 


barge (barj), n. a large freight-boat with 
flat bottom ; a large rowing-boat used 
for state purposes ; a house-boat, bar- 
gee' {-je'), n. one of the crew of a barge. 
[F. <L.L. barca, a bark.] 

bar'-i-tone (bar 1 -), adj. and n. male voice 
ranging between tenor and bass. [Gr. 
barus, heavy, tonos, tone.] 

ba'-ri-um, n. a rare kind of metal. [Gr. 
bants, heavy.] 

bark, n. the rind of a tree : v. (barked, 
bark'-ing), to strip off bark from (a 
tree) ; to rub off (as skin), bark— pit, 
a pit for tanning. [Dan. bark."] 

bark or barque, n. a kind of ship with 
three masts. [F.<L.L. barca, a bark.] 

bark, n. the cry of the dog, wolf, etc. : 
v. (barked, bark'-ing). [A.S.] 

bar'-ley, n. a kind of edible grain (from 
which malt is made), bar' -ley-corn, 
n. a grain of barley ; a very small weight. 
bar-ley-meal', n. flour ground from 
barley, bar-ley— sug'-ar, n. a sweet- 
meat made from sugar and barley-water, 
candied, pearl— barley, barley with the 
husk taken off. barley— water, a de- 
coction of pearl-barley. [A.S. bere, 

barm (barm), n. the froth of beer, etc. ; 
yeast ; leaven. [A.S. beorma.'] 

barn, n. a storehouse for corn, hay, etc. 
[A.S. beren, barley-house; barn.] 

bar'-iia-cle {-kl), n. a kind of small shell- 
fish ; a species of goose, bar'-na-cles, 
n. pi. a comic word for a pair of spec- 
tacles. [F. bernacle."\ 

bar-om'-e-ter, n. an instrument for 
measuring the weight or pressure of the 
atmosphere, and so assisting in judging 
probable changes in the weather, or find- 
the height of an ascent, bar-o-met'- 
ric (-al), adj. [Gr. baros, weight, 
me tron, measure.] 

bar'-on, n. in. a title of rank (lowest of the 
lords or peers), bar'-on-ess, n.f. the 
wife of a baron, ba-ro'-ni-al, adj. 
bar'-o-ny,n. the title, dignity, or estate 
ofabaron. [F. baron< O.G. k/r,aman.] 

bar'-o-net, n. a title next below a baron 
and above a knight, [baron + dim.-et.] 

ba-rouche' (-roosW), n. a small four- 
wheeled (originally two-wheeled) car- 
riage with a falling top. [G.<L. bi- 
rotus, two- wheeled.] 

barque (bark), n. See bark. 

bar' -racks (-raks), a residence for a 
number of soldiers and their officers. 

87 Base 

[F. baraque."] 

bar' -rage (-rej or -raj), n. an artificial 
bar or dam built across a river to give a 
greater depth of water above the bar. 
[F. bar re."} 

bar'-rel, n. a cask ; 36 gallons (of beer) ; 
a long, straight tube (of a gun) ; a 
cylinder, bar'-rel— or'-gan,?t. an instru- 
ment for producing music by means of 
a revolving cylinder set with pegs. 
double-barrelled, adj. having two 
barrels (as a gun), [O.F. baril.] 

bar'-ren, adj. unfruitful ; unproductive ; 
without ideas. bar'-ren-ness,n. [O.F.] 

bar-ri-cade', n. a temporary fence or 
fortification : v. (-ca'-ded, -ca'-ding), 
to put up a fence or barrier to. [F. < Sp.] 

bar'-ri-er, n. a fence ; a boundary, bar'- 
ri-er— reef, n. a reef (usu. coral) running 
parallel with the coast. [F. barriere< 

bar'-ring (bdr'-),prep. excepting ; leaving 
out of the question, bar'-ring— out, n. 
an old school-boy frolic of shutting out 
the schoolmaster from his school-room. 

bar'-ris-ter, n. a lawyer who is qualified 
to plead at the bar in a court of justice. 
[F. barre, a bar<L.L.] 

bar' -row, it. a hand-carriage, wheel- 
barrow, n. a hand-carriage with one 
wheel. [A.S. beran, to bear.] 

bar' -row, n. a mound of earth, esp. over a 
grave in ancient times. [A.S. beorh, a 

Bart., baronet. 

bar'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to change 
one thing directly for another (without 
use of money) : n. a direct exchange ; 
things given in exchange. [O.F. bareter"] 

ba-salt' (ba-sawW), n. a dark-coloured 
rock of igneous origin, and often found 
in the form of columns, ba-salt'-ic, 
adj. [L. basaltes, an African word.] 

bas-bleu' (ba-bluh'),n. [F.] a blue- stock- 
ing ; a learned and literary lady. 

bas'-cule-bridge, n. a kind of draw- 
bridge working on a horizontal pivot, in 
which one part is raised by the balan- 
cing weight of the other. [F. bascule, 
see- saw.] 

base, n. foundation ; bottom or lowest 
part ; support ; a fundamental or essen- 
tial part of a thing ; the points from 
which the operations of a campaign are 
conducted ; a line from which to measure 
distances, base' -less, adj. without 
foundation, base'-ment, t*. a lowest 




storey (underground or partly so) of a 
building. {See basis.] 

base, adj. low in place, value, or estima- 
tion ; mean ; worthless, base'-born, 
adj. of low or illegitimate birth, base'- 
ly, adv. base'-ness, n. [F. bas<L.h. 

bash'-ful, adj. subject to the feeling of 
shame or shyness. [O.F.;c/. abashed.] 

bash'-i ba-zouk' (-zook'), n. an irregular 
soldier (in Turkey). The — have often 
acted with great cruelty. [T.] 

bas'-il (baz'-), n. an Indian plant, culti- 
vated in Europe and used for flavouring 
purposes. [O.F.<Gr. basillkos, royal.] 

bas'-il, n. the skin of a sheep tanned for 
bookbinding. [F.] 

bas-il'-i-ca (baz -), n. a hall among the 
Romans used for public meetings ; a 
building of similar shape used by the 
early Christians as a church. [L. < Gr. 
basilikos, royal.] 

ba'-sin (-en), n. a vessel with a wide, full 
opening ; the land drained by a river and 
its tributaries ; a dock. [O.F. bacin.] 

ba'-sis, n. (pi. ba'-ses), foundation ; base. 
base— ball, a game at ball, the U.S. 
national game, basic slag (bd'- or bas'-), 
a slag produced in steel-making, much 
used as manure. [F. base <Tu. basis < 
Gr. basis, a going ; base.] 

bask (basked, bask'-ing), v. to lie in the 
warmth (esp. of the sun). [Scand.] 

basque, n. the continuation of the bodice 
of a lady's dress, forming a kind of short 
skirt just below the waist. [F.] 

bas— re-lief (bd- or bds-), n. figures (in 
sculpture) which stand out only a little 
from the surface. [F. bas, low, I. 
rilievo <L. relevo, I raise again.] 

bass (bds), n. the lowest part in music. 
bass— viol (bus or bds), n. a violoncello. 
{See base.] 

bass (bds), n. a kind of fish ; a mat ; a 
hassock; a flat, plaited bag. [A.S.] 

bas'-si-net (-nette is incorrect), n. a 
wicker basket with a hood over one end 
in which children are placed as in a 
cradle ; a perambulator of the same 
shape. [F. dim. of basin.] 

bas-soon', 11. a musical wind instrument 
producing low notes. [F. <I. basso, low.] 

bast, n. the inner bark of the lime and 
other trees ; matting, cordage, etc., made 
from it. [A.S.] 

bas'-tard, n. a child of illegitimate birth : 
adj. not genuine ; false ; of abnormal 

shape. [O.F.] 

baste (bast), (bas'-ted, bas'-tingj, v. to 
moisten (in meat-roasting) with fat ; to 
beat ; to sew with large stitches. [O.F. 

bas-ti-na'-do (-nd'-), n. (pi. -dos), a beat- 
ing with a stout stick (esp. on the soles 
of the feet) : v. (-doed, -do-ing). [Sp. 
<baston, a stick.] 

bas'-ti-on, n. a tower in a line of fortifi- 
cation. [O.F. bastir, to build.] 

bat, n. a small animal with a body like a 
mouse and leathery wings. [Dan bakke."] 

batch, n. a quantity (as of bread baked at 
the same time), of troops, of letters, etc. 
[From bake.] 

bate (ba'-ted, ba'-ting), v. to abate ; to 
lessen, with bated breath, with the 
breathing restrained from fear, awe, etc. 
[From abate.] 

bath '-brick,??, a kind of earth made into 
the form of a brick and used for polishing 
metals, etc. [<Bath, where first sold.] 

bath' -chair, n. a large chair on wheels for 
invalids. [<Bath.] 

ba-tiste' (-test'),n. a kind of fine linen, 
cambric, or cotton, formerly made in 
N.E. France. {<Baptiste, the name 
of the inventor.] 

bat-on, n. a staff of office, as of a police- 
man, a marshal, or a musical conductor 
(with which he beats time). [F. baton."} 

bat-tal'-ion (-yun), n. a large company of 
soldiers, especially if drawn up in battle 
array. [F. bataillon< the root of battle.] 

bat'-ten (-tened, -ten-ing), v. to grow fat 
(esp. in ease and luxury) ; to make fat. 

bat'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to beat 
down or together ; n. a mixture (esp. of 
flour and water) well beaten up. bat'- 
ter-ing— ram, n. a machine with a large 
strong beam used in ancient warfare for 
beating down walls, bat'-ter-y, w. a 
violent beating ; a collection of guns in 
fighting position ; a fort. [F. battre< 
L. batuo, I beat.] 

bat'-tle, n. a fight on a large scale ; a 
struggle or contest : v. (-tied, -tling), 
to carry on such a fight, bat'-tle— axe, 
n. an ancient weapon of Avar in the form 
of an axe. bat'-tle-ment, n. the top 
of a wall, or of a tower or fort, with 
openings, line of battle, troops or 
ships arranged for battle, pitched 
battle, a battle planned before-hand and 
fought on chosen ground ; a fierce fight 




at close quarters, battle— royal, n. a 

general melee. [F. battre<L. batuo, 
I beat.] 

bat'-tle-dore (-door is incorrect), n. a 
child's toy, consisting of a light flat bat 
for striking a ball or shuttlecock. [Sp. 
batidor <L. batuo, I beat.] 

bat-tue' (-too' or -tu 1 ), n. the driving of 
game from cover (by beating the bushes, 
etc. , in which they lodge) to a point where 
men wait to shoot them ; the game 
driven ; wholesale slaughter. [F. battre 
<L. batuo, I beat.] 

bau'-ble (-bl), n. a child's toy ; something 
very trifling or of very small value. [F. 
babiole."] [in pi. money. [?] 

baw-bee', n. a halfpenny (in Scotland) ; 

bawl (bawled, bawl'-ing), v. to cry out 
loudly : n. a loud cry. [An imitative 

bay, adj. reddish-brown (inclining to 
chestnut colour). [F.<L badius, chest- 
nut-coloured (used only of horses)."} 

bay, n. an arm of the sea, or indentation 
of the land, bay'— salt, n. salt obtained 
from sea- water by evaporation, bay- 
window, n. a window projecting out- 
wards so as to form a kind of bay or 
recess in a room. [F. baie< baia, 
a bay.] 

bay, n. the laurel tree (from which crowns 
and garlands were made). [F. baie< 
L. biica, a berry.] 

bay (bayed, bay'-ing), v. to bark; to 
bark at : n. at bay, (stag, etc.) sur- 
rounded by the dogs (barking) and so 
unable to escape ; at close quarters ; in 
great straits or distress. [O.F.<L. 
baubor, I bark, yelp.] 

bay-a-dere' (-dar') or -deer', n. a Hindu 
dancing-girl. JT.<Po.] 

bay'-o-net, n. a short spear at the end of 
a musket or rifle : v. (-net-ed, -net- 
ing). [F. < Bayonne, where first made.] 

ba-zaar' (-zdr'), n. an Eastern market- 
place ; a collection of small shops (esp. 
for selling fancy articles) ; a fancy fair to 
raise money for charitable purposes. [P.] 
B.C., Before Christ ; Board of Control ; 

British Columbia. 
B.C.L., Bachelor of Civil Law. 
B.D., Bachelor of Divinity. 
Bd., Board, bd., bound. 
be-, pre/. [A.S.] forming verbs. 
beach (beck), n. the shore of a sea or lake : 
v. to run, haul up, or strand (a vessel) 
on shore. [Scand.] 

bea'-con (be'-) , n. a signal-fire, or light (on 
a height) ; anything that directs, guides, 
or warns of danger. [A.S. beacn, a sign ; 
a beacon.] 
bead (bed), n. a small ball (esp. of glass), 
pierced for threading, and worn for 
ornament or used in a rosary for count- 
ing prayers, as by Roman Catholics and 
Mohammedans ; the sight of a gun ; a 
drop of liquid, bead'-ing, n. a narrow 
moulding: v. (bead'-ed, bead'-ing), to 
furnish with beads, beads' -man, n. one 
employed in prayers (esp. for others) ; an 
alms-man. to say, tell, or count one's 
beads, to offer prayers. [A.S. bed, a 
bea'-dle (be'-dl), n. a mace-bearer; an 
inferior officer of a court, a parish, a 
college, etc. [A.S. bydel."} 
bea'-gle (be'-gl), n. a small hunting-dog 
formerly used for hunting hares, etc., by 
scent. [?] 
beak, n. the bill of a bird ; a projecting 
point; a magistrate (slang), beaked, 
adj. having a beak. [F. bee."] 
beak'-er,n, a large drinking-cup ; a vessel 
of thin glass used by chemists. [Gr. 
bikos, a wine-jar.] 
beam, n. a long piece of timber or iron 
forming a main support of a building, 
ship, loom, plough, etc. ; the pole of a 
balance; a ray of light; the greatest 
width of a vessel : v. (beamed, beam'- 
ing), to emit rays ; to shine ; to look 
cheerful, on the beam-ends, said of 
a ship when forced so much to one side 
that the beams which should be hori- 
zontal have taken a vertical position or 
nearly so ; to be in sore straits. [A.S. 
beam, a tree ; a beam.] 
bean, n. a kind of vegetable of which the 
seed (and sometimes the seed-pod) is 
eaten by man and beast, e.g. the kidney- 
bean, the French-bean, etc. bean'- 
feast, n. an annual outdoor feast given 
by an employer to his workpeople. 
bean' -goose, n. a wild goose which 
winters in Britain. [A.S. bean."] 
bear (bore, borne or born, bear'-ing), v. 
to carry or support ; to endure ; to con- 
duct oneself ; to bring forth or produce. 
bear'-a-ble, adj. able to be borne. 
bear'-er, u. one who carries (a message, 
etc.). bear'-ing, n. behaviour; manner. 
bear'-ings,*/i..pL the points of the com- 
pass on which any object appears ; the 
 position of any object with reference to 




a ship, etc. ; the part upon which a shaft 
or axle rests in machinery, bearing- 
rein, n. a check-rein; a fixed rein for 
holding up a horse's head, very cruel in 
use. to bear down, to approach ; to 
sail with the wind, to bear out, to con- 
firm (a statement), to bring to bear, 
to bring into operation or use. [A.S. 
be ran. 2 

bear, n. a quadruped with shaggy hair 
found wild in various countries ; one of 
the groups of stars, bear, n. one who 
sells stock for delivery at a future date 
expecting a fall in price so that he may 
buy in the meantime at an advantage. 
bear'— bait-ing, n. the cruel sport of 
setting on dogs to worry a bear chained 
to a stake, bear'-garden, n. a garden 
in which bears are kept ; a place of great 
disorder or riot, bear'-ish, adj. rough 
in manner or behaviour, bear's'— 
grease, n. a preparation for the hair 
from the fat of the bear. [A.S. bera."] 

beard, n. hair growing on the chin of men 
and some animals ; the long, stiff hairs 
of some plants (as corn, barley, etc.) ; 
the gills of oysters : v. (-ed, -ing), to take 
by the beard; to defy. [A.S. beard."} 

beast, n. a four-footed animal, esp. an ox ; 
a low, rude, brutal person, beast'-ly, 
adj. of low, filthy nature or habits. [F. 
<L. bestia."] 

beat (beat or beat'-en, beat'-ing), v. to 
strike or strike upon ; to overcome ; to 
be too difficult for ; to mark time (in 
mus.) ; to spread flat or thin with a tool : 
n. a stroke or sound recurring at regular 
intervals ; the round or course (esp. of a 
policeman) : adj. weary ; quite tired out. 
beat'-en, adj. done up; exhausted; 
overcome, beat'-ing, n. (of a ship) sail- 
ing against the direction of the wind ; 
punishment by blows, to beat about, 
to try to find or to search for by various 
ways, to beat about the bush, to 
approach a matter in a round-about or 
cautious way. to beat down, to try and 
make a seller lower the price of goods. 
to beat a retreat, to retire hurriedly. 
dead beat, completely exhausted. [A.S. 

be -at -i-fy (-fied, -fy-ing), v. to make 
blessed or happy, be-a-tif'-ic, adj. 
blessing or blessed, be-at-i-fl-ca'-tion, 
n. the act of blessing. [F.<L. beatus, 

be-at'-i-tude, n. blessedness; a blessing 

(esp. one of those in Christ's Sermon on 
the Mount, St. Matthew, v.). [F.<L. 
beatitudo< beatus, blessed.] 

beau (bo), [F.] n. a smart, well-dressed 
man; a fop; a dandy, beau— i-de'-al 
(-l-de'-al or -e-dd-al'), [F.] the perfect 
conception of anything (esp. of a thing 
of beauty), beau—monde (bo-mond), 
[F.] fashionable society. [F. < L. bellus, 

beau'-ty (bu'-), n. loveliness or pleasing- 
ness to the sight or mind ; fineness ; a 
beautiful woman, beau -te-ous (-us), 
beau -ti-ful, adjs. beau'-ti-fy (-fled, 
-fy-ing), v. to make beautiful. [F.< 
L. bellus."] 

bea'-Yer (be'-), n. an amphibious, rodent 
quadruped covered with thick fur ; the 
fur of the animal, or something made 
from it. [A.S. befer<L>. fiber."] 

bea'-Yer (be 1 -), n. that part of a helmet 
which could be drawn down over the 
face. [F. baviere.] 

bech'-a-mel (besh'- or bdsh'-),^. a rich, 
white sauce thickened with cream. 
[< Louis de Bechamel, the inventor.] 

beck'-on (-oned, -on-ing), v. to make a 
sign (to any one) with the finger or the 
head. [A.S. beacn, a sign ; a beacon.] 

be-come' (-came', -come', -com'-ing), 
v. to be made ; to fit ; to suit, be- 
com'-ing, adj. fitting; suitable to; 
graceful ; proper. [A.S. becuman.] 

Bec-quer-el' rays (bck-er-), invisible 
radiations from certain radio-active sub- 
stances (as radium, etc.), having many 
curious properties. \_< Henri Becquerel 
(1820—1891), a French scientist.] 

bed, n. furniture for sleeping on. bed'— 
cham-ber, n. bed'-room, n. bed'- 
ding, n. articles to make up a bed. bed 
of roses (or down), a very easy, com- 
fortable position, bed'— plate, n. the 
foundation plate of an engine, lathe, 
etc. bed'-rid (-den), adj. confined to 
one's bed. bed'— rock, n. the solid ro"ck 
underneath superficial formations ; a 
firm foundation, bed'-stead (-sted), n. 
the frame (wood or metal) of a bed. 
[A.S. bedd.] 

be-dew' (-dewed', -dew'-ing), v. to 
sprinkle or cover with dew. [A.S.] 

be-di'-zen (-zened, -zen-ing), v. to deck 
out ; to ornament (esp. in a gay, showy 
manner and in bad taste). [?] 

bed' -lam, n. an asylum for lunatics; a 
place of uproar. [ < the name of a mon- 


Iastery (St. Mary of Bethlehem, London), 
changed into a lunatic asylum.] 

Bed'-ou-in, n. one of a tribe of wandering 
Arabs, living in tents. [F.<Ar.] 

Beds., Bedfordshire. 

bee, n. a four-winged insect which makes 
bees-wax and honey, bee'-bread, n. 
the pollen of flowers gathered by bees as 
food for their young, bee'-hiye, n. an 
artificial house for bees, bee'-line, n. 
the shortest (straight) line between two 
places, bee-master, n. a person who 
keeps bees. [A.S. beo.~\ 

beech, n. a large forest tree, providing a 
hard timber, and nuts called beech '- 
mast. [A.S. bece."] 

beef, n. the flesh of the ox. beeyes (bevs), 
n. pi. oxen, beef — eat-er, n. a popular 
name for a yeoman of the royal guard. 
beef-steak' (stale'), n. a slice of beef. 
[F. bceuf <L. bos, bovis, an ox.] 

beer, n. a liquid brewed from malt and 
hops ; ale. small beer, weak beer ; 
trifling matters, beer and skittles, 
pleasure, happiness, and satisfaction. 
black— beer', a beer of dark colour 
brewed originally at Dantzig, in Ger- 
many, and taken as a tonic, beer'-y, 
adj. partly drunk with beer. [A.S. beor."] 

beet, n. a plant, beet'-root, with a large, 
carrot-shaped root, used for food and for 
making sugar. [A.S.<L. beta, beet.] 

bee' -tie, n. a general name for insects 
having a horny wing-cover. [A.S. bitel 
<bitan, to bite.] [A.S. bytel.~\ 

bee' -tie, n. a kind of heavy wooden mallet. 

bee'-tle (-tied, -tling), v. to hang or jut 
over, bee'-tle— browed, adj. having 
prominent brows ; sullen. [A.S. bitel/} 

be-fall' (-fell', -fallen', -fall'-ing), v. to 
happen to. [A.S. see fall.] 

be-fit' (-fit'-ted, -fit'-ting), v. to be suit- 
able. [A.S. be + fif] 

be-fore', prep, in the presence of ; in front 
of : adv. in front ; previously : conj. 
sooner than, be-fore'-hand, adv. at 
an earlier time. [A.S. be-foran."} 

beg (begged, beg'-ging), v. to ask alms 
or charity ; to entreat, beg'-gar, n. 
beg'-gar-ly, adj. like a beggar ; mean. 
beg'-gar-li-ness, n. to beg the ques- 
tion, to take the matter (in question) 
for granted. [O.F. begard."] 

be-gin' {-gin'), (-gan', -gun', -gin'-ning), 
v. to commence, be-gin'-ning, n. be- 
gin' -ner, n. one who — ; a learner. 
[A.S. beginnan."} 



be-go'-ni-a, n. a genus of tropical plants 
bearing beautiful flowers, cultivated in 
hot-houses. [ < M. Begon (1638—1710) , 
a French botanist.] 

be-grudge' (-grudged', -grudg'-ing), v. 
to grudge ; to envy anyone the posses- 
sion of. [A.S.] 

be-guile' (-gW), (-guiled', -guil'-ing), v. 
to deceive ; to while away or pass (time) . 
be-guile' -ment, n. [A.S.] 

be-half, n. part ; side ; favour. [A.S.] 

be-haye' (-hiiv'), (-haYed',-ha'-ving),v. 
to act ; to conduct oneself, be-hay'- 
iour (-hav'-yer), n. conduct ; manner 
of behaving. [A.S. be-\- have.] 

be-hest', n. a command ; a charge. [A.S. 
behces, a vow.] 

he-hind', prep, and adv. in the rear ; later. 
be-hind'-hand, adj. and adv. in a state 
of being behind, or backward, or late. 
[A.S. be-hindan."} 

be-hold' (-held', -hold'-ing), v. to look 
upon ; to see. be-hold' -en, adj. in 
debt ; under obligation (to some one). 
be-hold'-er, n. one who — . [A.S. be- 
healdan, to hold ; to guard.] 

be-hoof,w. benefit; profit. [A.S. behoj."] 

be-hoYe', v. to be fit, right, or necessary 
for (now used only after " it ".) [A.S.] 

beige (bdzh), n. a woollen fabric for ladies' 
dresses. [F.] 

be-la'-bour (-boured, -bour-ing), v. to 
beat soundly ; to work diligently upon. 
[A.S. be + ~L. labor, labour.] 

be-la'-ted, adj. caught by night ; very 
late ; behindhand. [A.S. be-\-lcet, late.] 

be-lay' (-layed', -lay'-ing), v. to fasten 
a rope by winding it round a be-lay'- 
ing-pin or cleat, belay there ! hold ! 
that is enough. [A.S.] 

belch (belched', belch'-ing), v. to throw 
up (esp. wind from the stomach, or 
smoke, etc., from the mouth of a vol- 
cano, cannon, etc.). [A.S. bealcian.'} 

be-lea'-guer (-le'-gSr), (-guered, -guer- 
ing), v. to lay siege to ; to besiege. 
[A..S. 6e + D. leger, a camp.] 

bel esprit' (es-pre'),pl. beaux esprits 
(bo-zes-pre'), [P.] (a fine spirit), a person 
of wit or fine genius. 

bel'-fry {-frl), n. a room (usually in a 
steeple or tower) for bells. [O.F. berfroi, 
a watch tower.] 

be-lie' (-1*0, (-lied', -ly'-ing'), v. to tell 
lies of ; to present a false representation 
of. [A.S. be-\-leogan, to lie.] 

be-lief {-leef), n. faith; trust; strong 




feeling that a thing is true. The Belief, 
the Creed (esp. The Apostles' Creed). 
{See belieye.] 

foe-lieye' (-lev'), (-lieved', -lieY'-ing), v. 
to look upon as true ; to trust (esp. the 
word of any one) ; to have faith in. 
be-lieY'-a-ble, adj. be-liey'-er, n. 
one who — . [A.S. geliefan.~\ 

be-lit'-tle (-tied, -tling), v. to make 
small ; to disparage. [A.S. be + little.] 

bell, n. a hollow vessel of metal, which 
sounds when struck with a clapper or 
tongue ; anything in the form of a bell, 
as the cup or calyx of a flower ; a bell 
rung to tell the time on board ship. 
bell'— hang-er, n, one who sets up or 
fixes bells, bell-man, n. a man (often 
the town-crier) who goes about with a 
bell to make announcements, bell'— 
metal, n. an alloy of tin and copper 
from which bells are cast, bell'— ring- 
er, n. one who rings (a peal of) bells. 
bell'— tent, n. a tent shaped like a cone. 
bell'— tower, or —turret, n. a tower (or 
turret) in which one or more bells are 
hung, pass'-ing-bell, n. a bell sounded 
at the death or funeral of a person, to 
bear the bell, to be the leader or first 
(as the leading sheep, the bell-wether, of 
a flock). [A.S. belle, a bell.] 

bel-la-don'-na,w. the deadly nightshade, 
a plant, every part of which is poisonous, 
used as a medicine ; the drug prepared 
from the root and leaves. [I. bella 
donna, beautiful lady.] 

belle, n. a fair or beautiful (young) lady. 
[E. belle, beautiful.] 

belles-lettres' (bel-lettW), n. pi. light 
literature (prose and poetry) of a high 
class. [F. beautiful letters.] 

bel'-li-cose, adj. inclined to war or 
quarrelling ; pugnacious. [L. bellicosus 
<bellum, war.] 

bel-lig'-er-ent (-Hj'-), adj. carrying on 
war : n. a power engaged in war. [L. 
bellum, war, gero, I carry on, wage.] 

bel'-low (-lowed, -low-ing), v. to roar 
like a bull : n. [A.S. bellan, to roar.] 

bel'-lows (bel'-loz), an instrument 
producing a current of air (as for blow- 
ing a fire, organ, etc.). [A.S.6eZ<7,abag.] 

be-long' (-longed', -long'-ing), v. to be 
the property or part of ; to go along with ; 
to be native to or an inhabitant of. be- 
long'-ings, what belongs to a 
person. [A.S. fo-flong.] 

be-10Y'-ed,orbe-loYed',ad;'. much loved; 

dear. [A.S. &e+loYe.] 

belt, n. a band ; a girdle ; a broad strip 
of anything : v. (-ed, -ing), to surround 
with a belt ; to encircle, belt'-ed, adj. 
wearing a belt as an emblem of rank (as 
a knight, an earl), belt' -ing, n. the 
material of which belts are made ; belts 
for the transmission of power in machin- 
ery. [A.S. belt<h. baltetis, a belt.] 

bel'-Ye-dere (-der), n. a tower on the top 
of a house erected for the sake of the 
view. [I. bel, beautiful, vedere, to see.] 

be-moan' (-moaned', -ing), v. to moan or 
lament over greatly. [A.S. fo+moan.] 

bench, n. a long seat or form ; a work- 
table ; the body of judges, or bishops ; 
the seat where judges sit in court. 
Bench of Bishops, the whole body of 
bishops in the House of Lords. King's 
Bench, the name of one of the High 
Courts of Justice, bench'-er, n. one of 
the superior ruling barristers of an Inn 
of Court, bench'-marks, marks thus ^, 
cut by (the ordnance) surveyors for future 
reference. [A.S. bene."} 

bend (bent, bend'-ing), v. to curve or 
bow ; to become curved or bowed ; to 
subdue ; to direct to a certain point (as 
the wind) : n. a curve ; a turning, bend'- 
ing, n. bent, adj. : n. turn ; inclina- 
tion. [A.S. bendan, to bend.] 

Ben-e-dic'-i-te (-dis'-), [L. bless ye] the 
first word (in Latin) and name of an old 
canticle in the English Prayer Book, 
(Morning Prayer) ; the blessing (grace) 
before a repast. 

ben'-e-dict, n. a newly-married man. 
[< Benedick, a character in Shakes- 
peare's Much Ado About Nothing.] 

ben-e-dic'-tine (-tin), adj. the name of 
an old order of monks founded by St. 
Benedict in the 6th century, a.d. 

ben-e-dic'-tion, n. a solemn blessing ; the 
short prayer with which public worship 
is usually closed, ben-e-dic'-to-ry, 
adj. [F.<L. benedictio<bene, well, 
dico, I speak.] 

Ben-e-dic'-tus, n. the first word (in Latin) 
and the name of a canticle used in the 
Morning Prayer in the Church of Eng- 
land and the Rom. Cath. Church, taken 
from the New Testament, St. Luke, i. 

ben-e-fac'-tion, n. an act of goodness or 
kindness. ben-e-fac'-tor,n. (/.-tress) 
one who performs such an act. [L. bene, 
well, fdcio, I do.] 

ben'-e-fice (-fis), n. a favour or benefit; 



Bessemer process 

a church living, ben'-e-ficed, adj. [F. j 
<L. bene, well, fdcio, I do.] 

be-nef'-i-cence, n. goodness (to others) ; i 
kindness, be-nef'-i-cent, adj. doing j 
good ; charitable. [See benefice.] 

ben'-e-fit, n. an advantage; an act of j 
kindness or favour ; a performance ! 
(theatre, concert, football, etc.), the pro- ! 
fits of which are given to a particular 
person or charitable object : v. (-fit-ed, 
-fit-ing). ben-e-fi'-cial (-jish'-al),adj. 
causing benefit ; useful . ben-e-fic'-i-a- 
ry (-fish'-), n. (pi. -ries), one who bene- j 
fits or who may benefit. [See benefice.] 

be-ney'-o-lence, n. good will ; kind dis- 
position ; formerly, a forced gift to kings 
from their subjects, be-ney'-o-lent, 
adj. [F.<L. bene, well, volo, I wish.] 

Ben-gal'-i (or -ee') (-gaw'-lee),n. a native 
of, or the language of, Bengal (India). 

be-night'-ed (-nit'-), adj. overtaken by 
night ; ignorant. [A.S. be+niht, night.] 

be-nign' (-nin'), adj. kind; gracious; 
mild, be-nig'-nant (-nig'-), adj. kind ; 
favourable, be-nig'-ni-ty, n. [F.<L. 
benignus, kind.] 

ben'-i-son (-zn), n. a blessing; a bene- 
diction. [F. < L. benedictio, a blessing.] 

bent or bent'-grass, n. a flexible, tough 
kind of grass. [A.S. beonet."} 

be-numb' (-num'), (-numbed', -numb'- j 
ing), v. to make numb or without feel- | 
ing. [A.S. be + numb.] 

ben'-zene (-zeen) or ben'-zol, n. a highly 
inflammable liquid (obtained from the 
naphtha produced by distilling coal-tar), 
which readily dissolves oils, waxes, and 
resins. [F.<I.<Ar.] 

ben'-zine (-zin) or ben'-zo-line (-lin), n. 
petroleum spirit, a liquid obtained from 
American, Kussian, or Scotch shale-oil, 
and used for lighting purposes and for 
removing grease spots, etc. ; often used 
as a substitute for turpentine. [F. 
benzoin <I.<Ar.] 

be-queath' (-queathed', -queath'-ing), 
v. to leave (property) by will, be-quest' 
(-kiccst'), n. something left by will. 
[A.S. becwethan."} 

be-reaye' (-rev!), (-reayed', -reft', 
-reay'-ing), v. to strip ; to deprive (esp. 
by death). [A.S. bereafian."] 

ber'-i-ber-i (or less correctly beri— beri ), 
n. a very dangerous wasting disease 
common in the Tropics. [Singalese.] 

Berks., Berkshire. 

ber-lin', n. an old-fashioned four-wheeled , 

vehicle, first manufactured at Berlin. 
Berlin wool, fine wool for knitting, etc. 

ber'-ry, n. a small juicy fruit, containing 
seeds, ber'-ried, adj. [A.S. bene."} 

berth, n. a small sleeping-room (esp. in a 
ship) ; a place where a ship lies at anchor, 
or at a wharf ; a situation (for work) . [A 
form of birth.] 

ber'-tha or ber'-the, n. a woman's 
shoulder-cape or deep falling collar. 
[< Bertha, a girl's name.] 

Ber-til-lon' system, a system of measure- 
ments of a person (sometimes with 
photographs), as of eyes, ears, nose, 
hands, height, etc., with any physical 
peculiarities, as an aid to identification 
(esp. of criminals). [KAlfonse Bertillon, 
the inventor, born 1853.] 

be-seech' (-sought', -seech'-ing), v. to 
ask earnestly ; to implore. [A.S. be + 
M.E. sechen, to seek.] 

be-seem' (-seemed', -ing), v. to suit ; to 
befit ; to be worthy of. [A.S. foe + seem.] 

be-set' (-set', -set'-ting), v. to surround ; 
to waylay ; to besiege ; to perplex, be- 
set'-ting, adj. habitual (esp. of "sin"). 
[A.S. besettan."} 

he-side', prep, at the side of. to be beside 
oneself, to be out of one's senses, be- 
sides', adv. and prep, in addition ; over 
and above. [A.S. be -f side.] 

be-siege' (-seej'), (-sieged', -sieg'-ing), v. 
to lay siege to ; to beset ; to throng 
round, be-sieg'-er, n. one who — . 
[A.S. be+ F. siege, a sitting; a siege.] 

be-smear' (-smeared', -ing), v. to smear 
over; to soil. [A.S. be+ smear.] 

be-smirch' (-smirched', -ing), v. to soil 
(as with dirt or smoke) ; to tarnish (the 
reputation of some one). [A.S. be + 
smirian, to anoint.] 

be'-som (-zum), n. a brush made of twigs ; 
a broom. [A.S. besma."] 

be-sot' (-ted, -ting), v. to make sottish (by 
drink) ; to make dull or stupid. [A.S.] 

be-spang'-le (" g " hard), v. to sprinkle 
or adorn with spangles. [A.S.] 

be-spat'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to 
sprinkle with dirt (mud). [<spit.] 

be-speak' (-spoke', -spo'-ken, -speak'- 
ing), v. to speak for beforehand; to 
engage, be-spoke', be-spo'-ken, adj'ti 
(goods) ordered beforehand. [ < speak.] 

Bes'-se-mer process, a method (invented 
1856) of making steel direct from cast 
iron, for rails, tyres, ship-plates, etc., by 
forcing a blast of air through the molten 




metal in order to burn out the impurities. 
[<Sir Hy. Bessemer, the inventor. ] 

best, adj. superl. of " good" : adv. superl. 
of " well ", in the highest degree, best 
man, the man who attends on the bride- 
groom at a wedding. [A.S. betest."} 

bes'-ti-al (bes'-), adj. of a beast ; brutish. 
bes-ti-al'-i-ty, n. [L. bestia, a beast.] 

be-stir' (-stirred', -stir'-ring), v. to cause 
to stir or move, to bestir oneself, to 
be very active. [A.S. be + stir.] 

be-stow' {-st5'), (-stowed', -stow'-ing), 
v. to place ; to lay up. to bestow on, to 
give to. [A.S. be + stow, a place.] 

be-strew' (-stroo'), (-strewed', -strew' - 
ing), v. to scatter about or over ; to be- 
sprinkle. [A.S. be + strew.] 

be-stride' (-strode', or -strid', -strid'- 
den, -stri'-ding), v. to stride over or 
across. [A.S. bestrldan.'] 

bet, n. a wager ; something staked to be 
lost or won on the result of an uncer- 
tainty, as a race, etc. bet, (bet'-ted, 
bet'-ting), v. to make (or lay) a bet. 
bet'-ter, n. one who — . [<abet.] 

be-take' (-took', -ta'-ken, -ta'-king), v. 
(only with " self "), to move or go (to a 
place). [A.S. be + take.] 

bete noire (bat nwar), [F. black beast], 
an object of dread, or strong dislike ; 
something which presents persistent 

be-think' (-thought', -think'-ing), v. to 
call to mind. [A.S. be + think.] 

be-tide'(-ti'-ded,-ti'-ding),t>. to happen; 
to befall. [A.S. be+tide.] 

be-tise' (bd-tez'), n. stupidity; a foolish 
action. [F.] 

be-to'-ken (-kened, -ken-ing), v. to act 
as a sign or token of. [A.S. fee -(-token.] 

bet'-o-ny, n. a plant formerly used as a 
medicine and as a yellow dye. [F. <L. 

be-tray' (-trayed', -tray '-ing), v. to 
prove false to ; to deliver over by treach- 
ery ; to show sign of ; to disclose or dis- 
cover, be-tray'-al, ft. be-tray'-er, 
n. one who — . [A.S. be + O.F. tralr< 
L. trddo, I give up.] 

be-troth' (-troth', or -troth'), (-trothed', 
-troth'-ing), v, to contract or to promise 
in order to marriage, be-troth '-al, n. 
[A.S. be-\-treowth, truth.] 

bet'-ter, adj. compar. of "good " : of sup- 
erior value or use ; larger ; greater : adv. 
compar. of " well," in a higher degree : 
v. (-tered, -ing), to improve, bet'-ters, 

n. pi. those in higher station or rank 
than oneself, bet'-ter-ment, n. im- 
provement generally ; increase in the 
value of property (esp. land) from im- 
provements effected in it either by the 
owner, or at the public expense, better 
half, a familiar term for ' ' wife. ' ' to get 
the better of, to gain the advantage 
over, to think better of, to reconsider 
favourably. [A.S. betera.'] 

be-tween', prep, in the middle of (two) : 
adv. between ourselyes, between 
you and me, in confidence. [A.S. be- 
ticeonan<tweo, two.] 

be-twixt', prep, between, betwixt and 
between, in a midway position. [A.S. 
betweox<twd, two.] 

bev'-el,n. an instrument for taking angles; 
inclination (at an angle) : v. (-elled, -el- 
ling), to form with a bevel, slant, or 
angle : adj. [F. biveau."] 

bey'-er-age, n. a drink ; any liquor for. 
drinking. [F.<L. blbo, I drink.] 

beY'-y, n. (pi. bev'-ies), a flock of birds 
(esp. quails) ; a company (of ladies). [?] 

be-wail' (-wailed', -waii'-ing), v. to 
lament ; to grieve for. [A.S. be + wail.] 

be-ware', v. to take heed ; to be on one's 
guard. [A.S. be+wcer, wary.] 

be-wil'-der (-dered, -der-ing), v. to per- 
plex ; to confuse, be-wil'-der-ment, 
n. [A.S. be+wild, a wild place.] 

be-witch' (-witched', -witch'-ing), v. to 
affect by witchcraft or magic ; to fasci- 
nate or charm, be-witch '-ing, adj. 
charming. [A.S. ta + witch.] 

Bey (bd), n. a governor (in Turkey) of a 
town or province. [Turk, beg."} 

bez'-el, n. a groove or rim which holds 
the jewel in a finger ring, or the glass of 
a watch, etc. [F. biseau."} [twice. 

bi-, bin-, bis-, pref. [L. and Gr.] two ; 

B.I., British India. 

bi'-as, n. the weight on the side of a bowl 
(for playing) which causes it to turn to 
one side when rolled ; inclination ; prej- 
udice ; any special influence that sways 
the mind : v. (bi'-ased, bi'-as-ing), to 
influence (often unduly or unfairly). 
bi'-ased, adj. on the bias, on the cross 
(dress.). [F. biais, a slant.] 

Bi'-ble, 7i. the Holy Scriptures of the Old 
and New Testaments, bib'-li-cal, adj. 
bib'-li-cist (-sist), n. one well versed in 
the Bible. [F. < L. < Gr. biblia , books.] 

bib-li-og'-ra-phy (-/*),». a full and exact 
knowledge of books, bib-li-o-graph'- 




i-ca.1, adj. bib-li-og'-ra-pher (-ra-fer), 
n. one skilled in bibliography. [Gr. 
billion, a book, grapho, I write.] 

bi-cen'-te-na-ry (incorrectly -cen-ten' -a-) 
adj. pertaining to two hundred years : 
n. the two-hundredth anniversary of an 
event, bi-cen-ten'-ni-al, n. and adj. 
[L. bi-\-centenarius< centum, hundred.] 

bi'-ceps (seps), n. the muscle in front of 
the arms between the shoulder and 
elbow ; the corresponding muscle of the 
thigh. [L. bi + caput, head.] 

bick'-er (-ered, -er-ing), v. to wrangle ; 
to run quickly (of a stream) : n. a 
quarrel. [?] 

bi'-cy-cle (si-kl), n. a two- wheeled car- 
riage propeLed by the feet of the rider 
or by a motor. [L. bi+ Gr. kiiklos, a 

bid (bade, bid or bid'-den, bid'-ding), v. 
to offer ; to invite ; to command ; to 
proclaim (as banns of marriage) : n. an 
offer (at an auction), bid'-der, n. bid'- 
ding, n. to bid fair, to seem likely. 
a bid for freedom, a bold attempt at 
escape. [A.S. beodan, to offer.] 

bide (bi'-ded, bi'-ding), v. to stay ; to 
dwell ; to wait ; to suffer or endure. 
[A.S. bidan.~\ 

bi-det' (be-dd' or bid-et'), n. a small bath on 
a low stand which can be bestridden . [?] 

bi-en'-ni-al, adj. lasting, or happening 
once in two years, bi-en'-ni-al-ly, 
adv. [L. biennium, a space of two years.] 

bier (ber), n. a carriage or frame on which 
a dead body is borne to the grave. 
[A.S. bar.] 

bi-fur'-cate or bi-fur'-ca-ted, adj. with 
two forks or branches : v. (-ca-ted, -ea- 
ting). bi-fur-ca'-tion,n. [L.bifurcus, 
having two prongs.] 

big'-a-my, it. the crime of having two 
wives (or husbands) at the same time. 
big'-a-mist, n. big'-a-mous, adj. 
[L. bigdmus <Gr. gdrnos, marriage.] 

bight (bit), n. a bend of the coast ; a small 
bay. [A.S. byht, a bend.] 

big'-ot, n. one who obstinately thinks that 
his opinion, party, or creed is the right 
one, and that none other can be right. 
big'-ot-ry, n. [?] 

bi-jou' (pi. -joux') (-zhoo'), n. a trinket; 
a small precious article. [F.] 

bil'-ber-ry or whor'-tle-ber-ry, n. a 
shrub and its dark-blue berries. [Dan.] 

bile, n. a bitter fluid formed in the body 
from the liver ; ill-humour, bil'-i-ous, 

adj. bil'-i-ous-ness, n. [F.<L. bills.'] 

bilge (g—j), n. the broadest and flattest 
inside part of the bottom of a ship ; the 
bulging part of a cask, bilge'-water, 
n. the water which lies in the bilge of 
a ship. [?] 

bi-lin'-gual (-ling'-gwal), adj. belonging 
to two languages, bi-lin'-guist, n. 
one familiar with two languages. [L. 

bill, n. the beak of a bird. [A.S. bile."] 

bill, n. a hook-shaped cutting instrument ; 
a kind of hatchet ; a bill-hook. [A.S. 
bill, a sword.] 

bill, n. a note or account (for money 
owing) ; a placard or poster for adver- 
tising ; a written statement of parti- 
culars ; a written engagement to pay a 
certain sum of money on a certain date ; 
a proposed act of parliament, bill'- 
head, n. a printed form on which 
accounts are made out. bill of costs, a 
statement of the charges of an attorney 
or solicitor in conducting a client's busi- 
ness, bill of exchange, n. an order for 
payment of money, bill of fare, n. a 
list of articles of food on sale in a restau- 
rant or hotel, bill of health, a certifi- 
cate of state of health on board ship of 
passengers and crew given to the captain 
before sailing, bill of lading, a written 
receipt of goods taken on board ship for 
safe delivery, bill of sale, n. a docu- 
ment authorizing the sale of property. 
a true bill, the words written by a grand 
jury on a bill of indictment (i.e., the 
accusation against a prisoner), that there 
is sufficient evidence to warrant a trial. 
[O.F. billa<Ij. bulla, the seal on a 

bil'-let, n. a note ; a ticket ; a log of wood ; 
lodgings : v. (-let-ed, -let-ing), to lodge 
(soldiers), billet-doux (bil-ld-doo'), n. 
(pi. billets-doux), [F.] a love-letter. 
[F. billette<h. billa, a writing.] 

bil'-liards (-lyards), a game played 
on a special table with a cue (stick) and 
balls. [F. billard.] 

Bil' -lings-gate, n. low foul language. 
[From the name of a fish-market in 

bil'-li-on, n. a million of millions, 
1,000,000,000,000 (in England), or a 
thousand millions, 1,000,000,000 (in 
France and America). [F. <L. mille, a 
thousand.] [adj. [Ic] 

bil'-low, *. a large wave, bil'-low-y, 



bil'-tong,w. sun-dried meat. [Cape Dutch] 

bi-me-tal'-lic, adj. belonging to two 
metals, bi-met'-al-lism, n. a system 
of coinage in which two metals (usu. gold 
and silver) are used at a fixed relative 
value one to the other. This is not the 
case in England. [L. bi + metallum, 

bind (bind), (bound, bind'-ing), v. to tie 
or fasten together ; to sew a border on ; 
to lay under an obligation ; to cover as 
with a bandage ; to hold by agreement, 
oath, etc. bind'-er, n. one who, or that 
which, binds (esp. books), bind'-ing, n. 
a band ; the cover and sewing of a book : 
adj. obligatory, bind' -weed, n. a long, 
trailing, wild plant (convolvulus) which 
grows among corn, etc. [A.S. bindan.'] 

bin'-na-cle, n. a box (in a ship) contain- 
ing the compass. [Po. < L. habitaculum, 
a dwelling-place.] 

bin-oc'-u-lar, adj. having two eyes. A 
binocular telescope is one which has a 
glass and tube for each eye. [L. bi + 
oculus, eye.] 

bi-o-gen'-e-sis {-jen'-), n. the beginning 
or origin of life ; the doctrine that life 
can spring only from previous life. [Gr. 
bios, life, genesis, birth.] [?• ^, •] 

bi'-o-graph,n. same as cinematograph. 

bi-og'-ra-phy (-/■&), n. a written history 
of a person's life, bi-og'-ra-pher, n. 
the writer of a — . bi-o-graph'-ic(-al), 
adj. [Gr. bios, life, grapho, I write.] 

bi-ol'-o-gy (-ji), n. the science of life. 
bi-ol'-o-gist, n. a student of — or one 
versed in — . [Gr. bios, life, logos, a 
discourse.] [ ( 2* v -] 

bi'-o-scope,ra. a kind of cinematograph. 

bi'-ped, n. an animal having two feet. 
[Li. bi+pes, a foot.] 

bi'-plane, n. a flying-machine which has 
two principal supporting planes or sur- 
faces. [L. bi-+ plane.] 

bird, n. a feathered animal with wings. 
bird'— fancier, n. one who rears birds for 
show or sale, bird'— lime, n. a sticky 
substance for catching birds, bird's- 
eye view, the view of a place as it 
might appear to a bird in the air. [A.S. 

bi-ret'-ta, n. a square cap worn by some 
of the clergy. [I. < L. < Gr.] 

birth, n. being born ; that which is born ; 
descent (from ancestors) ; origin ; begin- 
ning, birth'-day, n. the day of the year 
on which a person was born, birth- 

mark, n. some peculiar mark, or blem- 
ish, on the body at birth, birth'-place, 
n. birth— rate, n. the proportion of 
births per 1,000 of the population in a 
year, birth'-right, n. a right or privi- 
lege acquired by birth. [A.S. byrth< 
beran, to bear.] 

bis'-cuit (-kit), n. hard, dry bread in thin 
cakes ; a kind of unglazed porcelain. 
[F.<L. bis, twice, coctus, cooked.] 

bi-sect' (-ed, -ing), v. to cut into two 
equal parts, bi-sec'-tion, n. [L. 6i+ 
seco, 1 cut.] 

bish'-op,n. one of the chief order of clergy, 
having the charge of a diocese, bish'- 
op-ric, n. the office of, or the district 
ruled over by, a bishop. [A.S.<L.< 
Gr. episkopos, an overlooker.] 

bis'-muth,n. a brittle metal of a yellowish- 
red colour. [Gr.] 

bi'-son, n. a large wild animal of the bull 
or buffalo kind. The American buffalo 
is a "bison." [L.<Gr.] 

bis-sex'-tile (-til), n. a name given to leap 
year. [L. bis, twice, sextus, sixth ; by 
the Romans the 6th day before 1st March 
was repeated twice every fourth year.] 

bite (bit, bit or bit'-ten, bi'-ting), v. to 
seize with the teeth ; to grip fast ; to 
sting or pain ; to deceive or cheat : n. 
the act of biting ; a piece bitten out. 
bi'-ting (bi'-), adj. cutting; sharp; 
severe, to bite the dust, to die ; to 
suffer defeat. [A.S. bitan.2 

bit'-ter, adj. biting or disagreeable to the 
taste ; causing grief ; painful ; severe. 
bit'-ter-ness, n. bit'-ters, n. pi. a 
liquid prepared from bitter herbs, roots, 
etc. bit'-ter-sweet, n. a wild plant 
often found in hedges, to the bitter 
end, to the last extremity ; to the death. 
[A.S. biter <bitan, to bite.] 

bit'-tern, n. a bird of the heron kind. 
[F. butor <L, butio.2 

bi-tu'-men (or bit'-yu-), n. mineral pitch. 
bi-tu'-min-ous, adj'. [L.] 

bi'-Yalye, n. an animal having a shell in 
two valves or parts hinged together (like 
theoyster). [V . <\-valva, a valve.] 

biy'-ou-ac (-00 ak), n. a resting at night 
(of soldiers, etc.,) in the open air: v. 
(-acked, -ack-ing, note the " k "). [F. 
<G. bei-wachen. to watch beside.] 

bi-zarre' (bi-z&r'), adj. odd ; grotesque; 
fantastic . [F . < Sp . ] 

black, adj. of the darkest colour ; having 
no colour ; obscure ; dismal ; gloomy. 




black'-en (-ened, -en-ing), v. to make 
black. black'-ness, n. black'-a- 
moor (-mor), n. a negro, black'-art, 
n. magic (supposed to be carried on with 
the aid of the devil), black' -ber-ry, n. 
the fruit of the bramble-bush, black'- 
bird, n. a song-bird (kind of thrush) of 
a black colour, black -cap, n. a British 
bird with a sweet note, black' -cock, n. 
a kind of grouse (bird), black-draught' 
(-dra/'i'),rc.apowerful aperient medicine. 
black'-guard (blag'-ard), n. a low, 
coarse, vile person, black'-ing, n. a 
substance used to polish leather, black- 
lead' (-led'), n. a black mineral sub- 
stance (plumbago) used for writing on 
paper and for polishing iron, black list, 
a list of persons deserving punishment, 
or who are unable to pay their debts, or 
who are habitual drunkards, black- 
mail', n. money extorted by threats or 
terror: v. Black Maria, n. a prison 
van. Black-rod', n. the usher of the 
Order of the Garter, and of the ftouse 
of Lords (he carries a black rod) . black'- 
sheep, n. a person of a very bad character. 
black'-smith, n. a worker in iron. 
black' -thorn, n. the sloe-bush. [A.S. 

blad'-der, n. a bag of thin skin in the 
body. [A.S. blcedre."} 

blade, n. a thin, flat leaf (esp. of grass) ; 
the cutting part of a knife, etc. ; the 
flat part of an oar ; a gay, dashing, 
young fellow, blade'-bone, n. the flat 
bone at the back of the shoulder. [A.S. 
bleed, a leaf.] 

blain, n. a boil ; a blister. [A.S. blegen."} 

blame (blamed, bla'-ming), v. to find 
fault with ; to censure : n. blame'-a- 
ble (blam 1 -) , adj . blame'-less, adj. not 
deserving blame ; innocent. [F. bldmer 
<L.<Gr. blaspheme" o, I blaspheme.] 

blanch (blanched, blanch'-ing), v. to 
whiten or to grow white. [F. blanc, 
white.] [white jelly. [F.] 

blanc-mange' (bla-mdnzh'), n. a kind of 

bland, adj. gentle ; mild ; smooth. [L. 
blandus, smooth-tongued.] 

blan'-dish (-dished, -dish-ing), v. to use 
bland speech toward ; to flatter, blan'- 
dish-ment, to. [O.F.<L. blandior, I 

blank, adj. not written on (paper) ; white ; 
empty ; without rhyme (verse) : n. an 
empty space, blank' -ness, n. blank— 
car'-tridge, n. cartridge containing 

powder but no ball. [F. blanc, white < 
O.G. blanch. 2 

blan'-ket, n, a soft woollen covering for 
a bed. a wet blanket, anything which 
discourages. [< blank.] 

blare (blared, bla'-ring), v. to give forth 
a sound like that of a trumpet : n. a 
roar ; a loud noise. [An imitative word.] 

blar'-ney (-n%), n. very smooth flattering 
language : v. (-neyed, -ney-ing). [< 
Castle Blarney, near Cork, Ireland, 
where those who kiss a certain stone are 
said to acquire the gift of blarney.] 

bla-se' (bld-zd'), [F.] used up; having 
lost the sense of enjoyment. 

blas-pheme' (-fern'), (-phemed', -phe'- 
ming), r. to speak impiously of God or 
of divine things, blas-phe'-mer, n. 
blas'-phe-my, n. blas'-phe-mous 
(-mm), adj. [L.<Gr. blasphemeo.~\ 

blast, n. blowing (of wind) ; explosion ; a 
blight: v. (-ed, -ing), to wither; to 
blight ; to split (rocks with gunpowder). 
blast'— furnace, n. one into which a 
strong blast of hot air is forced to increase 
the heat. [A.S. blmtan, to blow.] 

bla'-tant, adj. noisy, loud, clamorous (of 
speaking). [A.S. blwtan, to bleat.] 

blaze, n. a burst of light or flame ; active 
display of any kind : v. (blazed, bla'- 
zing), to throw out flame ; to mark a tree 
for cutting down; to publish far and 
wide; to spread abroad (news), bla'- 
zer, n. a man's flannel jacket (often of 
a bright colour). [A.S. blcese.] 

bla'-zon, n. the figuring on a coat-of-arms ; 
heraldic drawings : v. (-zoned, -zon- 
ing), to embellish (with blazon), bla'- 
zon-ry, n. the art of blazoning. [F. 
Mason, heraldry.] 

bleach (bleached, bleach'-ing), v. to 
make or become white, bleaching— 
powder, a powder (chiefly chloride of 
lime) for bleaching. [A.S. blsecan< 
bide, white.] 

bleak, adj. cold and cheerless ; chill ; 
exposed to the weather. [A.S. Wac] 

blear, adj. sore (eyes), blear'— eyed, adj. 
having sore, watery eyes. [Low G.] 

bleed (bled, bleed' -ing), v. to send forth 
blood ; to take blood from (a body) ; to 
extort ; to feel great pity (for). [A.S. 

blem'-ish, n. a stain; a defect: v. (-ished, 
-ish-ing). [O.F. <blime, pale.] 

blend (-ed, -ing), v. to mix together: n. 
a mixture. [A.S. blandan.'} 




bless (blessed or blest, bless'-ing), v. to 

invoke a blessing upon ; to wish happi- | 
ness, joy, or prosperity to ; to make ! 
happy or joyous, bless -ed, adj. holy j 
or hallowed ; very happy, bless'-ed- 
ness, n. bles'-sing, n. [A.S. bletsian.} j 

blight (Hit), n. a withering or withered I 
state (esp. of plants) ; anything which 
blasts or withers : v. (-ed, -ing), to i 
destroy the happiness of ; to ruin. I 
[A.S. ?] J 

blind, adj. without sight or the power of 
seeing ; ignorant : n. a screen (esp. of a ! 
window) ; a shade : v. (-ed, -ing), to 
make blind ; to darken or obscure ; to ; 
deceive, blind'-ness, n. blind' -fold 
(-ed, -ing), v. to cover the eyes with a 
wrapper: adj. blind— man's buff', n. 
a well-known game, blind side, a 
person's weak point, blind ' -worm, n. 
a small, harmless, worm-like reptile, 
called also the slow- worm. [A.S. blind."} 

blink (blinked, blink'-ing), v. to wink ; 
to half shut the eyes : blinkers, n. pi. a 
flap of leather on a horse's bridle to 
prevent him from seeing sideways. 
[A.S. blican, to shine.] [A.S.] ; 

bliss, n. great happiness, bliss'-ful, adj. \ 

blis'-ter, n. a small bladder on the skin ; 
a plaster applied to raise a blister: v. 
(-tered, -ter-ing), to raise a blister. 
[Connected with blast.] 

blithe (blith), adj. gay; joyous, blithe'- j 
some, adj. [A.S. blithe.} 

B. Litt. (Bac-ca-lau' -re-us Lit-er-a' -rum) , I 
[L.] Bachelor of Letters or Literature. ! 

bliz'-zard, n. a furious blinding storm of ; 
wind and snow. [Probably connected i 
with blow and blast.] 

B.LL. (Bac-ca-lau' -re-us Leg'-um), [L.] 
Bachelor of Laws. 

bloat (-ed, -ing), v. to blowout ; to cause 
to swell, bloat'-ed, adj. swollen ; 
puffed up with pride, bloat' -er, n. a 
dried herring, or one cured in smoke. 

block, n. a mass of wood, stone, etc. ; a 
cluster of buildings ; a pulley ; the piece 
of wood on which a criminal laid his 
neck when beheaded ; the mould on 
which hats, bonnets, etc., are shaped ; 
an obstruction : v. (blocked, block' - 
ing), to stop the way ; to obstruct ; to 
secure, block-ade', n. a blocking-up 
(of harbour, town, etc.) : v. (-a'-ded, 
-a'-ding), to shut up by troops or ships. 
block'-age, n. a blocking up, or being 

blocked, block'-head, n. a very stupid 
person, block' -house, n. a building of 
heavy logs of wood forming a kind of 
fort, block'— system, n. a system of 
signals (on a railway) by which a train 
is not allowed to run on to a section of 
the line till the preceding train has left 
it. [G. block.} 

blond, adj. of fair complexion, with light 
hairand blueeyes. blond (/. blonde), n. 
blond-lace', n. a kind of silk lace. [F.] 

blood, n. the red fluid (essential to life) 
which circulates in the veins and arteries 
of animals ; kindred ; disposition. 
blood'-y, adj. stained with or contain- 
ing blood, blood-guilt'-y, adj. guilty 
of murder, blood'-hound, n. a large 
dog once used for tracking murderers, 
blood -less, adj. having little blood ; 
lifeless ; spiritless ; without shedding of 
blood, blood'— money, n. money earned 
by getting a person put to death . blood'— 
poisoning, n. a bad state of the blood 
resulting from poisonous matter getting 
into it. blood'-shed, n. slaughter. 
blood'-shot, adj. (of eyes) red and in- 
flamed ; fiery-looking, blood'— sucker, 
n. a leech ; a cruel, extortionate person ; 
a "sponger." blood'-thirsty, adj. 
eager for slaughter ; cruel, blood- 
vessel, n. a general name for the 
arteries, veins, and capillaries, of blue 
blood, of aristocratic birth, flesh and 
blood, a blood relation ; human nature. 
a half '—blood, one of mixed blood or 
breed, in bad blood, in hatred or anger. 
in cold blood, calmly and deliberately. 
in hot blood, in temper or excitement. 
[A.S. Mod.} 

bloom, n. a blossom or opening flower ; 
state of great beauty, perfection, or 
vigour ; the delicate, powdery coating of 
certain growing fruits : v. (bloomed, 
bloom'-ing), to put forth bloom ; to 
flourish. [Ic. Mom.} 

blos'-som, n. a flower ; a bloom : v. 
(-somed, -som-ing). [A.S. blostma.} 

blot, n. a spot (esp. of ink) ; a stain ; dis- 
grace ; blemish ; a weak point ; a fail- 
ing : v. (-ted, -ting), blot'-ting- 
paper, n. [? Ic] 

blotch, n. a spot, scab, or eruption (esp. on 
the skin) : v. (blotched, blotch '-ing). 
blotch '-y, adj. [< blot.] 

blouse (blouz), n. a light, loose, upper gar- 
ment worn by some workmen and chil- 
dren ; a kind of loose-fitting dress waist 



49 Boat 

worn by women. [F.] 

blow (bio), (blew, blown, blow '-ing), v. 
to make a current of air ; to move, as 
air or wind ; to drive by a current of 
air ; to breatbe bard or quickly ; to 
blossom : n. a stroke ; a sudden calam- 
ity or misfortune, blow'-fly, n. any fly 
which taints meat by laying its eggs in 
it. blow'— hole, n. the nostril of a 
whale, blow '-pipe, n. an instrument 
for producing great heat by means of a 
current of air. to blow hot and cold, to 
be favourable and unfavourable by turns. 
to blow one's own trumpet, to sound 
one's own praises, to blow oyer, to 
pass away (as storms, etc.) ; to be for- 
gotten (as a scandal, etc.). [A.S. 
blaivan, to blow (of wind).] 

blub'-ber, n. fat (of whales, etc.), from 
which oil is obtained : v, (-bered, -ber- 
ing), to weep noisily. [M.E. blober, a 

bludg'-eon (bluj'-un), n. a thick, short 
stick with a heavy end. [?] 

blue (blu),n. a colour like that of the clear 
sky; a material used by laundresses : v. 
(blued, blue' -ing), to make or dye blue. 
blu'-ish, adj. rather blue, the blues, 
low spirits, as in a fit of the blues, 
blue'-bell, n. a simple blue field-flower 
shaped like a bell. Blue book, n. a 
report, etc., published by parliament (so 
called from the colour of its covers). 
blue'— bot-tle, n. a fly with a large body. 
Blue'-coat— boy, n. a pupil at Christ's 
Hospital, London, blue'-jack-et, n. a 
sailor, blue— pe'-ter, n. a square blue 
flag with a white square in the centre 
flown as a signal for sailing, blue-pill', 
n. a strong pill compounded with mer- 
cury, blue-rib'-bon, n. the wide ribbon 
, worn by the members of the Order of 
the Garter ; the chief prize in some 
great contest, or the chief position in 
some society, etc. blue'— stocking, n. 
a learned lady, blue'— water school, 
people who think that the British Navy 
should be capable of defending these 
shores against foreign invasion, so that 
the maintenance of a large standing 
army is unnecessary, man in blue, n. 
a policeman, true— blue, adj. faith- 
ful ; staunch ; unwavering. [F. bleu.] 

bluff, adj. frank and open in manner ; 
hearty : n. a bold, steep cliff, game 
of bluff, empty boasting or pretence. 

blun'-der, n. a gross mistake : v. (-dered, 
-der-ing), to make a gross mistake ; to 
move, or to do things, in an awkward, 
clumsy manner, blun'-der-er, n. one 
who — . [Scand.] 

blun'-der-buss, n. a short, thick, hand- 
gun. [D. donderbus = thunder-gun.] 

blunt, adj. with thick point or edge ; not 
sharp ; dull of intellect ; out-spoken : v. 
(-ed, -ing), to take the sharpness off. 
[? Scand.] 

blur, n. a blot, stain, or spot : v. (blurred, 
blur' -ring), to smear ; to disfigure ; to 
make indistinct. [?] 

blush, n. a red colour in the face caused 
by shame, or modesty, or confusion : v. 
(blushed, blush'-ing). at the first 
blush, at first sight. [A.S. blyscan.] 

blus'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to make a 
noise (like a blast of wind) ; to talk 
noisily and overbearingly ; to bully or 
swagger : n. blus'-ter-er, n. one who 
— . [< blow and blast.] 

B.M., Bachelor of Medicine. 

B.Mus., Bachelor of Music. 

bo'-a, n. a kind of large serpent (the bo'-a 
con-strict' -or) ; a snake-like coil of fur 
or feathers for the neck. [L. boa, a 
large water-snake.] 

boar, n. the male of swine, boar'-ish, 
adj. brutal ; cruel ; rough in manner. 
[A.S. bar.] 

board, n. a broad, thinnish strip of wood ; 
a table ; food (set on table) ; a body of 
persons (as a committee) ; a kind of thick 
stiff paper, as pasteboard : v. (-ed, -ing), 
to supply regularly with food ; to enter 
(a ship, train, etc.) ; to furnish with 
regular meals ; to cover with boards. 
board' -er, n. one who is taken in to be 
" boarded," or fed. board'-ing— house, 
n. board'-ing— school, n. a house, or 
school, where the lodgers or scholars are 
(lodged and) fed. board wages, wages 
allowed to a servant in place of food. 
above board, openly, by the board, 
overboard. Board of Agriculture, of 
Education, of Trade, departments of 
State whose duty it is to superintend 
matters relating to agriculture, educa- 
tion, and trade. [A.S. bord."] 

boast (-ed, -ing), v. to talk proudly ; to 
brag : n. boast -er, n. boast -ful, 
adj. [W. bost.Ji 

boat, n. a small open vessel (with sails or 
oars), boat'-hook, n. boat-house, 
n. [A.S. bdt.J 




boat'-swain (sometimes, esp. in sailors' 
language, bos'n), n. a petty officer who 
looks after the boats, rigging, etc., of a i 
ship. [A. 8. bdt-swegen.} 

bode (bo'-ding, bo'-ded), v. to forebode ; 
to portend; to foretell (evil), bode'- \ 
ful, adj. portending or threatening evil. ' 
[A.S. bodian, to announce, proclaim.] j 

bod'-ice (-iss), n. a close-fitting dress I 
waist or vest. [Formed from bodies."} 

bod'-kin, n. a kind of blunt, thick needle ; j 
a short dagger. [?] 

bod'-y (-1), n. the whole person of a man 
or other animal ; the trunk or main part 
of an animal as distinguished from the 
limbs and head ; a mass of matter ; a 
number of persons, bod'-i-less, adj. 
without body, bod'-i-ly (-i-ll), adj. 
bod'-y-guard, n. a guard to protect 
the person of the sovereign or other 
individual, body— pol'-i- tic, n. organ- 
ized society; the State. [A.S. bodig.} 

Boer (bbr, or bo'-er), n. a Dutch farmer of 
S. Africa. [D.] 

bo'-gus, adj. sham ; counterfeit. [?] 

oo'-gy, or bo'-gey, n. (pi. bo'-geys), a 
hobgoblin ; a ghost, bo'-gie, n. an 
imaginary partner at golf, or a given 
score or number of strokes for each hole, i 
against which players compete ; a low 
truck mounted on a revolving under- 
carriage, bogie-carriage (engine, etc.) 
a carriage (engine, etc.), mounted on 
pairs of wheels which turn on a vertical 
pivot to allow of easy passage round a j 
curve. [W.] 

Bo-he' -mi-an, adj. of Bohemia : n. a j 
person (esp. an artist) leading an un- [ 
settled, wandering life, like a gipsy. 

boil (boiled, boil'-ing), v. to bubble up | 
with heat ; to cause to boil ; to cook by | 
boiling ; to be moved or excited by anger, j 
boil'-er, n. a vessel for boiling water in. ! 
boil'-ing— point, n. the temperature at 
which a liquid boils (212° Fahrenheit or 
100° Centigrade for water). [F.<L. 
India, a bubble.] [[A.S. byl.} 

boil, n. a painful swelling on the body. 

bois'-ter-ous (-us), adj. stormy; noisy; 
blustering ; unrestrained. [O.F. bois- \ 
tous, rough.] 

bold, adj. daring ; courageous ; impudent ; 
or forward ; steep or abrupt, bold'- 
ness, n. [A.S. beald.} [bolr.} 

bole, n. the trunk or stem of a tree. [Ic. 

bo-le'-ro (bo-ld'-ro or -le'-), n. (pi. bo- 
le'-ros), a kind of Spanish dance and , 

the music for it ; a lady's short jacket, 
often without sleeves. [Sp.] 

bol' -ster (boV -) ,n. a long pillow or cushion: 
v. (-stered, -ster-ing), to prop (up) ; to 
support. [A.S. bolster."} 

bolt, n. an arrow ; a thunderbolt ; a bar 
used in fastening : v. (-ed, -ing), to 
close or fasten with a bolt ; to start off 
(or into) suddenly ; to swallow hastily 
(as food), a bolt from the blue, a 
thunderbolt from a clear sky, hence, 
something sudden and unexpected. 
[A.S. bolt.} 

bolt (-ed, -ing), v. to pass through a 
sieve (as flour) ; to sift. [O.F.] 

bo'-lus, n. (pi. -lus'-es), a small soft mass 
(esp. a pill). [L. bolus, a lump, a clod.] 

bomb (bom or bum), or bomb' -shell, n. a 
hollow shell of metal rilled with explo- 
sives, to be fired and thrown among the 
enemy, bom-bard' (-ed, -ing), v. to 
attack with bombs or artillery, bom- 
bar-dier' (-der 1 ), n. a junior officer in 
the army whose duty it formerly was 
to attend to bombs, bom-bard'-ment, 
n. [F.<L.<Gr. bombos, a humming 

bom-bas-ine' (not -baz-) (-baz-Sn'), n. a 
twilled fabric of silk (or cotton) and 
worsted. [F. bombasine.} 

bom'-bast, n. high-sounding language. 
bom-bas'-tic, adj. [L.<Gr. bombux, 

bo'-na fi'-des, [L.] good faith, bo'-na 
fi'-de, with good faith ; (as adj.) genu- 
ine ; real. [[F. bon, good.] 

bon'-bon, n. a sweetmeat; a sugar-plum. 

bond, n. that which binds ; an obligation ; 
a legal deed to carry out certain condi- 
tions or to pay money ; bonds,7>.pZ. 
fetters ; chains ; captivity ; in bond, 
(goods) kept in a bonded store or ware- 
house till the duty has been paid : v. 
(-ed, -ing), to put in bond ; to bind 
together ; to connect rails, etc. ; to com- 
plete an electric circuit, bond'-age, li, 
a state of imprisonment or captivity. 
bond' -man, n. a slave, bonds'-man, 
n. one who acts as surety for another. 
bond or bund, n. a league, confederacy, 
or association. [From bind.] 

bone, n. a hard substance forming the 
frame or skeleton of an animal ; bones, mortal remains : v. (boned, bo'- 
ning), to take out bones from;fto seize 
or steal, bo'-ny, adj. bone'-setter, 
n. one who treats broken or dislocated 




bones without being a duly qualified 
surgeon, a bone of contention, some- 
thing that causes strife, a bone to 
pick, a grievance ; a controversy ; a 
dispute. [A.S. ban."] 

bon'-fire, n. a large fire in the open air to 
express joy or for amusement. [Origin- 
ally a bone-fire."} 

bon-ho-mie' (bon-5-mee'), [P.] good- 
nature ; pleasant, easy manner. 

bon ma re he (boh mdr-shd', not marsh), 
[F.] a cheap shop ; cheap. 

bon mot {boh mo), (pi. bons mots) 
(boh 7no), [F] a smart or witty saying. 

bonne (bon), [F.] n. a nursemaid or 

bonne-bouche (bon-boosh'), [F.] n. (pi. 
bonnes-bouches [pro. as sing.]), a 
dainty morsel ; a tit-bit. 

bon '-net, n. a covering for the head ; a 
cap ; a hinged cover over the motor, 
when it is at the front of a motor-car. [F.] 

bo'-nus, n. something paid over and 
above ; a premium ; an extra dividend. 
[L. bonus, good.] 

bon ton (boh ton), [F.] good style or 
breeding ; fashionable society. 

bon-vi-vant' (boh-ve-vah'), [F.] one 
who is fond of, and indulges in, good 

boo'-by, ft. a sea-bird, a kind of gannet ; 
a very foolish person ; a dunce, booby- 
prize, ft. in some games, a prize given to 
the one who scores the fewest points. 
[Sp. bobo, a blockhead.] 

book, n, a collection of sheets of paper (or 
similar material), blank, written on, or 
printed on, bound together ; a composi- 
tion or treatise, written or printed ; a sub- 
division of a literary work : v. (booked, 
book'-ing), to put into (enter in) a book ; 
to issue or obtain a railway, etc., ticket. 
book'-binder, n. book'-case, ft. 
book'— debt, n. a debt owing to a trades- 
man as shown by an entry in his books, 
bcok'-ish, adj. given to studying books ; 
as if taken from a book, book'— keep- 
er, n. one who keeps books of account. 
book'— keeping, n. the art of keeping 
an account of business transactions in 
an orderly manner, book— muslin, ft. 
a fine kind of muslin, so called from its 
being folded (in the piece) like the leaves 
of a book, book'— seller, n. book'— 
stall, ft. a stall (as at a railway station) 
for selling books, book'— worm, n. a 
close reader of books, to bring to 

book, to demand an account from ; to 
bring to terms. [A.S. &oc] 

boom, n. a pole on which a sail is stretched ; 
a chain or bar stretched across the 
entrance to a harbour. [D. boom, a beam] 

boom (boomed, boom'-ing), v. to make a 
loud hollow sound ; to roar ; to advance 
rapidly in value ; to be in great demand : 
n. [Imitative ; cf. Gr. bombos, a booming] 

boom'-er-ang, n. a large missile of wood, 
which, when dexterously thrown to a 
distance, returns to the thrower. 
[Native Australian.] 

boon, ft. a prayer or petition ; a request 
granted ; a favour. [Ic. bon, a prayer.] 

boon, adj. gay ; merry (as a boon com- 
panion). [F. bon<L. bonus, good.] 

boor, ft. a rude or awkward person ; a 
peasant, boor'-ish, ad/', rude. [D.boer, 
a peasant.] 

boot, ft. a covering for the human foot and 
lower part of the leg ; a receptacle on a 
vehicle for parcels, etc. : v. (boot'-ed, 
boot'-ing), to put boots on. boot'- 
jack, ft. an instrument for pulling off 
boots, boots, ft. a servant at an inn. 
[F. botte.] 

boot, v. to profit ; to advantage : n. to 
boot, over and above ; into the bargain. 
boot' -less, adj. without profit or advan- 
tage. [A.S. bot, mending, remedy.] 

booth (booth), ft. a slight building of 
boards, branches of trees, etc. ; a tempor- 
ary building; a market -stall. [Ic. buth.J 

boot'-y, ft. spoil (of war) ; plunder ; a 
prize. [O.F. butin.'] 

bo-rac'-ic acid (-ras'-), n. a highly anti- 
septic compound formed with oxygen 
and hydrogen from the mineral boron. 
[< borax.] 

bo '-rax, n. a substance formed from 
boracic acid and soda, used in soldering, 
enamelling, dyeing, medicine, and as a 
substitute for soap. [Ar.] 

bor'-der, «. the edge of anything ; a 
margin ; a boundary line : v. (-dered, 
-der-ing). bor'-der-er, n. one who 
dwells on the border (of a country). 
[F. bord ; connected with board.] 

bor-der-eau' (-5'), n. (pi. -eaux'), a note 
or memorandum, esp. one giving a list of 
documents. [F.] 

bore (bored, bo '-ring), v. to pierce (a 
hole) ; to weary or annoy : ?i. a hole 
bored ; the interior diameter of a tube 
or a gun-barrel, etc. ; a wearisome per- 
son, bore'-dom, n. the state of boring 




(annoying) or of being bored, bo'-rer, 
n. an instrument for boring. [A.S. 
borian, to bore.] 

bore, n. a great tidal wave rushing into 
the mouth of a river. [Ic. bara.] 

born and borne, see bear. 

bor'-ough (bur'-o), n. a town with a cor- 
poration, or one sending a member to 
parliament, pocket or close borough, 
a borough which was formerly owned by 
one person who sent a member to parlia- 
ment, rotten borough, a borough, 
before 1832, which, having no constitu- 
ency, still sent a member to parliament. 
[A.S. burh, a town.] 

bor'-row (-rowed, -row-ing), v. to get on 
loan, bor'-row-er, n. one who — . 
[A.S. borgian, to borrow,] 

Bor'-stal scheme or system, a plan by 
which older scholars in a reformatory 
school are assisted in obtaining suitable 
employment on their discharge. [< 
Borstal, nr. Kochester, where first tried .] 

bor'-zoi {-zoy), n. (pi. -zois), the Russian 
wolf-hound, a favourite pet dog. [Rus.] 

bos'-om (booz'-um), n. the breast; the 
heart : adj. dear; intimate (friend). 
[A.S. bosm."} 

boss, n. a knob or stud ; a raised orna- 
ment : v. (bossed, bos'-sing), to adorn 
with bosses. [F. bosse.] 

t boss, n. a master ; an employer ; one 
who controls : v. [D. baas."} 

B.O.T., Board of Trade. 

bot'-a-ny, n. the science of plants and 
plant-life, bo-tan' -ic, bo-tan' -ic-al, 
adjs. bot'-an-ist, n. a student or pro- 
fessor of botany, bot'-an-ize (-ized, 
-iz-ing), v. to pursue the study of botany. 
[Gr. botane, grass, herb <bosko, I feed.] 

botch, n. a swelling on the skin ; a patch ; 
clumsy work: v. (botched, botch'-ing), 
to patch ; to make up or mend clumsily. 
botch '-er, n. one who botches. [O.F. 
boce, a botch.] 

both'-er (both'j, (-ered, -er-ing), v. to 
trouble ; to perplex ; to tease : n. 
[? Irish.] [boot. [F.] 

bot-tine' (-ten'), n. a lady's boot ; a small 

bot'-tle (-tl), n. a narrow-necked vessel 
for liquids ; a bundle of hay : v. (-tied, 
-tling), to put into bottles ; to hold 
back or restrain ; to hide, bot'-tle— 
green, adj. of a dark-green colour. 
bot'-tle— nose, n. a species of whale. 
bot' -tie-washer, n. one who, or a 
machine which, washes bottles ; one 

who puts his hand to all kinds of work. 
[F. bouteille <Low L. butis, a vessel.] 

bot' -torn, n. the lowest part (of anything) ; 
the base ; low land, as in a valley ; the 
keel of a ship, hence the ship itself 
(as British bottoms = British merchant 
ships) ; dregs ; grounds ; sediment : v. 
(-tomed, -tom-ing). bot'-tom-less, 
adj. bot'-tom-ry, n. a contract by 
which money is borrowed on the 
" bottom " (i.e. , the existence, of a ship) , 
as a security, a full— bottomed wig, 
one which has a large part hanging over 
the shoulders. [A.S. botm.'} 

bou-doir' (boo-dwar'), n. a lady's private 
room. [F. bouder.~\ 

bouf-fant' (boo-fah' or -f ant'), adj. puffed 
out ; bulging. [F.] 

bough (bou), n. the branch of a tree. 
[A.S. bog, an arm.] 

bou-il-li' (boo-yV), n. boiled or stewed 
meat, bou-ill-ie' (boo-ye'),n. infant's 
food. [F.] 

bou-il-lon (boo-yoti) , n. broth ; a flounce 
bou-il-lon-ne' (boo-yon-nd'), adj. 
(of dress) puffed out ; flounced. [F.] 

boul'-der (bol'-), n. a large stone or mass 
of rock. [Sw. bultra, to roar.] 

boule-Yard' (bool-var'), n. properly a 
bulwark ; a wide public street, generally 
bordered with trees. [F.<G. Bollwerk.'} 

bounce (bounced, boun'-cing), v. to 
jump, or spring,, or rush with quick, 
sudden motion ; to bound like a ball ; 
to boast ; to exaggerate, boun'-cer, n. 
one who — ; an impudent, lying boaster 
or bully ; an impudent falsehood. 
boun'-cing, adj. large and heavy ; lusty ; 
swaggering. [D. bonzen, to strike.] 

bound (-ed, -ing), v. to spring ; to leap : 
n. a leap, bound'-er, n. a boaster. 
bound for, going towards. [F. bondir.] 

bound (-ed, -ing), v. to limit : n. a limit. 
bound'-a-ry, n. a bounding line ; a 
border ; a limit, bound' -less, adj. 
[O.F. bodne, a limit.] 

bound, p.t. andjp.p. of bind, to be bound 
for, to act as surety for. 

bound'-en, adj. bound ; under obligation. 

boun'-ty, n. liberality in giving; some- 
thing given as an inducement or encour- 
agement, boun'-te-ous, adj. generous ; 
plentiful, boun'-ti-ful, adj. liberal in 
giving or in supply. [F. < L . bonus, good] 

bou-quet' (boo-kd') , n. a nosegay ; a bunch 
of flowers. [F.<bois, a wood.] 




bourgeois' (boor-zhwd'), [F.] adj. and 
n. belonging to a burgh, or town ; a 
citizen ; a burgher ; one of the mer- 
cantile middle-class, bourgeoisie' 
(boor-zhwd-ze'), to. the middle-class of 
citizens, esp. traders. 

bour'-geon (b'6r'-jon) or bur'-geon, n. a 
bud ; a shoot : v. (-geoned, -geon- 
ing). [F. bourgeon, a bud, shoot.] 

bourn, or bourne (bom), n. a boundary ; 
a limit ; the end of a journey or course. 
[F. borne. ] 

bourse (boors), n. an exchange (where 
merchants meet) . [F. bourse, a purse.] 

bout, n. a conflict ; a contest ; a set-to at 
anything. [?] 

bo'-yine, adj. relating to the ox, bull, or 
cow. [L. bos, bovis, an ox.] 

bow (bou), (bowed, bow'-ing), v. to bend 
esp. downwards ; to curve ; to bend the 
body forward (esp. as a mark of respect, 
courtesy, or submission) : n. to make 
one's bow, to advance or retire politely. 
a bowing acquaintance, a slight ac- 
quaintance. [A.S. bugan, to bend.] 

bow (bou), to. the curved fore-part of a 
ship, bow'-er (or bower-anchor), 
n. an anchor hanging at the bow of a 
ship, bow '-line {bo'-), n. a rope used in 
a ship to keep a sail towards the bow. 
bow '-sprit (bo'-), n. a spar or boom 
projecting over the bow of a ship. 
[A.S. bog, a shoulder, an arm.] 

bow (bo), to. a bent instrument for shoot- 
ing arrows ; a rainbow ; a fiddlestick ; a 
looped knot of ribbon ; a necktie, bow'- 
man, n. an archer, bow'-legged, adj. 
having legs curved outwards ; or " bandy- 
legged " [opposed to " in-kneed "] . bow'- 
shot, n. the distance a bow can send an 
arrow, bow— window, n. a window 
projecting in a curve, to have two (or 
more) strings to one's bow, to have 
more than one resource, to draw the 
long bow, to exaggerate. [A.S. boga, 
a bow.] 

bow' -els (bou'-) , intestines ; entrails ; 
the interior ; Jig. the heart, pity, tender- 
ness. [L. botellus, a small sausage.] 

bow'-er (bou'-), n. an arbour; a shady 
enclosure or recess formed with boughs ; 
a rustic cottage. [A. S. bur, a chamber.] 

bow '-ie— knife (bo'-), n. a dagger-like 
knife first used in the U.S. [< Colonel 
Bowie, the inventor, d. 1836.] 

bowl (bol), n. a large basin ; a round drink- 
ing-vessel, wide rather than deep (often 

of wood). [A.S. bolla.'} 

bowl (bol), n. a wooden ball : v. (bowled, 
bowl'-ing), to roll along the ground ; to 
deliver a ball (at cricket), bowls or 
bowl'-ing, n. a game with bowls, bowl- 
ing—alley, n. a long, narrow, covered 
place for bowling. bowling-green, 
n. a flat surface (of grass) for playing at 
bowls. [F. boule<h. bulla, a bubble.] 

box, n. (pi. boxes), a tree with a very hard 
wood ; a wooden case or chest ; the 
driver's seat on a vehicle ; a present 
(esp. at Christmas) ; a small house or 
lodge (as a "shooting-box," etc.); a 
small space, with a few seats, in a place 
of entertainment : v. (boxed, box'-ing), 
to enclose in a box. Boxing— day, 
Boxing— night, n. the day or night 
following Christmas-day. to box the 
compass, to name in order all the points 
of the (mariner's) compass, to be in 
the wrong box, to be in a false position, 
or in a scrape or difficulty. [A.S.<L. 
buxus, the box-tree.] 

box,w. a blow (esp. on the head, ears, etc.) : 
v. (boxed, box'-ing), to strike, or fight, 
with the hands or fists, box'-ing, n. a 
combat with fists. [Sc] 

Box'-ers, n. a European name for the 
members of a society in China which, in 
1900, organized a wide-spread rising 
against foreigners. 

boy, n. a male child ; a lad ; a male ser- 
vant, boy'-hood, n. the time when a 
— , boy'-ish, adj. boys'-brigade, n. 
an organization (started in 1884, in con- 
nection with the Church of England) of 
boys from 12 to 17, for promoting habits 
of obedience, reverence, discipline, and 
self-respect, boy— scout, n. See scout. [?] 

boy'-cott (-ed, -ing), v. to refuse to have 
dealings with. [< Captain Boycott 
(1880), an Irish landlord.] 

Bp., Bishop. Bp. Suf., Suffragan Bp. 

brace, n. a secure fastening ; a bandage ; 
a pair ; an instrument with a " bit " for 
boring holes: v. (braced, bra'-cing), to 
tighten ; to strengthen, braces, 
straps for supporting the trousers. [L. 
brachia, the arms.] 

brace' -let, n. an ornament for a lady's 
wrist. [L. brachium, the arm.] 

bra'-cing, adj. invigorating ; giving 
strength or tone. 

brack' -en, n. a kind of fern. [? Sc] 

brack'-et, n. a support fastened to a wall ; 
a gas-pipe standing out from a wall ; pi. 




lines for enclosing a word or words, 
thus ( ) : v. (-ed, -ing), to support by, 
or join by brackets. [L. btdchium, the 
arm.] [water). [D. brak.] 

brack'-ish (brqk f -), adj. rather salty (of 

bract, n. a small leaf or scale at the base 
of a flower or flower stem. [L. bractea, 
a thin plate of metal.] 

brad, n. a kind of small nail, brad'- 
awl, n. an awl for brads. [A.S. brord, 
a point.] 

brae (bra), n. the brow of a hill ; a steep 
bank ; a slope. [M.E. bra, brow.] 

brag (bragged, brag'-ging), v. to boast. 
brag-ga-do'-ci-o (-shl-), n. a boaster ; 
a swaggerer ; empty boasting ; vain- 
glory, brag'-gart, n. one who — . [?] 

Brah'-man, or Brah'-min {brd'-), n. a 
Hindoo priest , or one of the priestly caste. 
Brah-min'-i-cal, adj. Brah'-min- 
ism (-izm), n. one of the religions of 
India. [Brahma, an Indian deity.] 

braid (-ed, -ing), v. to plait, weave, or 
entwine (hairs, etc.) : n. a braided tress 
of hair; plaited trimming. [A.S. 
bregdan, to weave.] 

braille (brdl), n. a kind of printing for the 
blind with raised dots. [ < Louis Braille 
1819—1852), the inventor.] 

brain, n. the mass of soft whitish matter 
in the skull, which is the centre of the 
nervous system ; the seat of intellect, 
understanding, and sensation : v. 
(brained, brain' -ing), to dash out the 
brains of. brain' -less, adj. senseless ; 
silly, brain—fag, n. mental fatigue from 
overwork, brain— feYer, n. an inflam- 
mation of the brain, brain'-y, adj. 
acute ; clever ; intelligent. [A.S. bragen.] 

braise, or braize (brdz),v. to stew or broil 
in a covered vessel. [F. braiser.J 

brake, n. a kind of fern ; bracken ; rough, 
wild ground ; a thicket. [Sec bracken.] 

brake, n. an instrument for lessening the 
speed of a carriage, machine, etc. ; a 
large waggonette : v. (braked, brak'- 
ing), to stop the motion of. [ < v . break.] 

bram'-ble, n. a rough, prickly shrub (esp. 
one bearing blackberries), bram'-bly, 
adj. bram'-bling, n. the mountain 
finch. [A.S. bremel.] [bran.] 

bran, n. the husk of ground grain. [Ga. 

branch, n. a limb or bough of a tree ; a 
division of a subject ; a section or depart- 
ment ; a line of family descent : v. 
(branched, branch '-ing), to spread out 
in (or like) branches, root and branch. 

thoroughly ; totally ; entirely. [F. 

brand, n. wood partly burnt ; a mark 
burnt in ; a sword ; a stigma ; a dis- 
grace ; a trade mark ; a particular sort 
of goods : v. (-ed, -ing), to mark with 
hot iron ; to put a mark (esp. trade mark) 
on. brand-new' (or bran-new'), adj. 
just made ; quite new. [A.S. brand."} 

brand' -ish (-ished, -ish-ing), v. to wave 
or flourish in the air: n. [F. brandir.} 

bran'-dy, n. a liquid spirit distilled from 
wine, brandy— snap, thin cakes of 
gingerbread. [G. BranntweinC} 

bra'-sier (-zher) or bra'-zi-er,n. a pan for 
holding burning coals. [See brass.] 

brass, n. a metal composed of copper and 
zinc ; impudence, bra'-zen, adj. of 
brass ; impudent, brass— band', n. a 
company of musicians playing on brass 
instruments, bras' -sy, n. a wooden 
golf-club with a brass sole : adj. of or 
like brass. [A.S. brces, brass.] 

brat, n. a child (in contempt). [Ga. 
brat, a rag.] 

brat'-tice ('tis), n. a wooden partition in 
a mining shaft or gallery ; a fence round 
machinery. [F.<G. Brett, a board.] 

brave, adj. courageous ; bold ; daring ; 
noble ; showy : n. an Indian warrior : 
v. (brayed, bra'-ying), to defy ; to meet 
with courage, bra'-yer-y, n. bra- 
Ya'-do (-vd'- or -vd'-)[l.], n. foolish or 
pretended bravery. bra'-Yo(brd'-) [I.], 
n. (pi. -Yoes), a bandit ; a daring 
villain : int. well done. [F. brave."} 

brawl, n. a noisy quarrel : v. (brawled, 
brawl ' -ing) , to create a disturbance . [?] 

brawn, n. muscle ; muscular strength ; 
boar's flesh ; flesh, esp. that of the pig, 
salted, cooked, and pressed into a form. 
braw'-ny, adj. muscular; strong. 
[O.F. braon.] 

bray, n. the cry of an ass : v. (brayed, 
bray'-ing). [F. braire.} 

bray (brayed, bray'-ing), v. to pound in 
a mortar. [F. broyer.] 

braze (brazed, bra'-zing), v. to solder 
with hard solder of brass and zinc. 
bra'-zen, adj. made of brass ; hard as 
brass ; very impudent, brazen— faced, 
adj. with great impudence. 

bra'-zi-er, n. a worker in brass ; a pan 
for holding burning coals. [< brass.] 

Br. Col., British Columbia. 

breach, n. a hole made by breaking ; a 
quarrel ; a breaking or non-fulfilment 




(as of law, promise, contract, etc.) ; a 
break ; a rupture : v. (breached, 
breach'-ing). [A.S. brecan, to break.] 

bread {bred),n. a food made of flour; food 
generally, bread'-fruit, n. the fruit of 
a tree abundant in the islands of the 
Pacific, bread— and— butter, n. means 
of living : adj. childish, bread'— stuffs, grains and meals from which bread 
is made, bread'— winner, n. one who 
earns a living for a family. [A.S. bread."} 

breadth, n. how broad anything is ; broad- 
ness ; width. [A.S. brcedu.} 

break (broke or brake, break' -ing, bro'- 
ken), v. to divide into pieces by force ; 
to subdue or tame ; to dawn (day) ; to 
interrupt : to intercept (as a fall) ; to 
impart (as news) : n. (also brake), a 
large waggonette (carriage), break'- 
a-ble, adj. break'-age, n. the act of 
breaking, break' -down, n. an acci- 
dent ; a collapse ; a failure, break- 
down gang, men (on a railway) who 
clear away the wreckage after an acci- 
dent, break' -er, n. a wave dashed on 
the shore, break' -fast {brek'-), n. the 
early morning meal (which breaks the 
night's fast), break' -wa-ter,w. a thick, 
strong wall built to protect a harbour 
by breaking the force of the waves. 
to — cover, to start from a hiding- 
place (as a fox), to — the ice, to make 
a beginning, to — up, to begin to fail 
in health, to — upon the wheel, to 
punish by stretching a criminal on a 
wheel and breaking his limbs with an 
iron bar. [A.S. brecan.} 

breast (brest), n. the bosom or upper front 
part of the body below the neck ; the 
seat of the affections and passions ; the 
heart : v. (-ed, -ing), to oppose ; to 
mount a hill, breast' -plate, n. a plate 
of metal worn on the breast, breast' - 
work, n. a hastily constructed earth- 
work, to make a clean — of, to make 
a fult confession of. [A.S. breast. .] 

breath (breth), n. air drawn into and 
expelled from the lungs ; life ; time to 
breathe ; a pause, breath'-less, adj. 
out of breath ; dead. [A.S. brseth, 
exhalation, vapour.] 

breathe {breth), (breathed, breath'-ing), 
v. to draw in and expel air from the 
lungs ; to rest or pause ; to speak softly. 
[See breath.] 

breech, n. the hinder part (of a gun, etc.) ; 
{pi. -es), a garment for males, breech'— 

loader, n. a gun which is loaded at the 
breech. [A.S. brec, breeches.] 

breed (bred, breed '-ing), v. to bring forth 
(young) ; to train or bring up ; to cause 
or occasion: h. a race (of animals). 
breed '-ing, n. rearing or training ; 
manners. [A.S. br'edan, to cherish.] 

breeze, n. a blowing of the wind ; a gentle 
gale ; a disturbance, bree'-zy, adj. 
bree'-zi-ness, n. [F. brine.} 

breeze, n. fine coke, or cinders, for burn- 
ing. [O.F. brese, burning charcoal.] 

bre-telles' {bre-tel'), [F.] braces ; straps 
of material, like braces, used as trim- 
mings on a lady's dress bodice. 

breth'-ren {breth'-), of brother, 
members of the same association, 
society, profession, etc. 

Bret-wal'-da, n. a title given to certain 
Anglo-Saxon kings who had obtained 
supremacy over the others. [A.S.] 

brey'-et (or bre-Yet'), n. a commission 
(in the army) giving an officer higher 
rank than that for which he receives 
pay. [F.<L. brevis, short.] 

bre'-yi-a-ry, n. a book containing the 
daily service of the K. C. and Greek 
Churches. [F.<L. brevis, short.] 

brev'-i-ty {-l-t%), n. shortness {esp. in 
respect of words). [L. brevis, short.] 

brew {broo), (brewed, brew '-ing), v. to 
prepare beer or other liquid of similar 
kind ; to contrive ; to plot : n. the liquor 
brewed, brew'-er, n. one who brews 
(by trade), brew'-er-y, n. a place 
for brewing. [A.S. breowan.} 

bri'-ar," n. the white heath (grown in 
France), from the root of which briar- 
pipes are made. [F. bruyere, heath.] 

bribe, n. a price, reward, gift, or induce- 
ment offered [esp. secretly for doing 
wrong or to influence the conduct) : 
v. (bribed, bri'-bing). bri'-ber-y, n. 
[F. bribe, a fragment (as of broken 

bric-a-brac' {brik-a-brak'), [F.] articles 
{gen. small) valued for their rarity, 
artistic merit or antiquity, and not for 
actual use. 

brick, n. burnt clay in a square or oblong 
form for building: adj. of brick: v. 
(bricked, brick' -ing), to form of bricks. 
brick' -bat, n. a large piece of a brick. 
brick'-dust,n. powdered brick, brick'- 
lay-er, n. one who builds with bricks. 
brick— tea, n. tea compressed into blocks 
like bricks (used in Russia). [F. brique.} 




bride, n. a woman just married or just 
about to be. bri'-dal, adj. belonging to 
a bride or a wedding : n. bride' -groom, 
n. a man ulst married or about to be. 
bride-cake, re. a rich and ornamental 
cake for the guests and friends of a bride 
and bridegroom, brides '-maid, n. a 
young, unmarried female who attends 
on a bride at her wedding. [A.S. brfjd, 

Bride' -well, n. a house of correction or 
prison ; formerly a palace and then a 
hospital near St. Bride's (or St. Bridget's) 
Well, near Blackfriars Bridge, London. 

bridge, n. a road (of wood, stone, iron, 
etc.) over a river, railway, road, etc. ; 
the part of a musical instrument over 
which the strings are stretched ; the 
upper part of the nose (joining it to the 
forehead) ; a platform on a steamer 
where the captain stands to direct the 
vessel: v. (bridged, bridg'-ing), to build 
a bridge ; to find a way of getting over a 
difficulty. [A.S. brycg.] 

bridge, n. a game with cards introduced 
into Eng. about 1880. [Bus. biritch.] 

bri'-dle, re. the head-gear for a horse ; a 
curb ; a check or restraint : v. (bri'- 
dled, bri'-dling), to put a bridle on ; to 
restrain ; to hold up the head proudly or 
disdainfully, bridle— road, n. a path 
or way for horsemen. [A.S. bridel.] 

brief, adj. short ; concise : n. a written 
account of a client's case in a law-suit ; 
a writ, brief -less, adj. having no 
briefs (said of a lawyer who has no 
clients) . to hold a brief, to be retained 
as counsel in a law case ; to support by 
action or influence, brief'-ly, adv. 
[L. brevis, short.] 

bri'-er, re. a prickly shrub ; the wild-rose 
tree, bri'-er-y, adj. rough; thorny. 
[A.S. brer.] 

brig, n. a two-masted, square-rigged ship. 
[Shortened from brigantine.] 

brig-ade', re. a body of troops ; any body 
of persons organized for marching or 
acting together under authority, brig- 
a-dier' (-der'), n. the commander of a 
brigade. [F. brigade .] 

brig' -and, n. a highway robber ; a bandit. 
brig'-and-age, w. brig-an-dine' 
(-den), n. an armoured coat ; a coat of 
mail. [O.F.<I. brigante.] 

brig-an-tine' (-ten'), n. a small two- 
masted vessel (formerly used by pirates 
or brigands). 

bright, adj. shining ; clear ; cheerful ; 
intelligent ; full of light, bright'-ly, 
adv. bright' -en (-ened, -en-ing), v. 
bright'-ness, n. [A.S. beorht.] 

Bright's disease, n. a very dangerous 
disease of the kidneys. [<Dr. Bright, 
1789—1858, who first described it.] 

brill, n. a kind of flat-fish, resembling the 
turbot. [?] 

bril'-liant (-lyant), adj. splendid; dis- 
tinguished ; clever : n. a gem (esp. a 
diamond) of the finest quality, bril'- 
liance, n. bril'-lian-cy, n. bril'- 
lian-tine (-tin), n. an oily composition 
for making the hair glossy ; a glossy 
dress fabric like alpaca. [F. briller, to 

brim, n. the rim, border, or upper edge of 
a cup, dish, or other hollow vessel ; the 
edge or margin ; the brink (of river, 
vessel, etc.) ; the rim of a hat : v. 
(brimmed, brim'-ming), to be full up 
to the brim, brim'-ful, adj. [M.E. 
(?) brymme, border or shore (of the sea).] 

brim'-stone, n. sulphur. [A.S. bryne, 
burning + stone.] 

brin'-ded, or brin'-dled,ad/. marked with 
dark, grey streaks. [A.S. brennan, to 

brine, n. salt water ; the ocean, bri'-ny, 
adj. brine'-pit, n. a pit from which 
salt is got from salt water or sea-water by 
evaporation. [A.S. bryne, a burning.] 

bring (brought, bring'-ing), v. to carry or 
lead here, to — about, to make come 
to pass, to — off, to cause to happen. 
to — on, to cause to begin, to — out, 
to introduce, to — oyer, to cause to 
change sides or opinions, to — round, 
to restore from illness, to — to, to 
check the course (of a ship) ; to restore to 
consciousness, to — to book, to call 
to account, to — under, to subdue. 
to — up, to feed and educate. [A.S. 

brink, n. edge ; margin. [Dan. brink.] 

bri-quette', or bri-quet' (bri-kef), re. 
fuel made into the shape of a brick, 
mainly from coal dust. [F. brique, a 
brick -j-et.J 

brisk, adj. active ; full of life and spirit ; 
quick : v. (brisked, brisk'-ing), to liven 
up ; to freshen, brisk'-ly, adv. brisk- 
ness, n. [W. brysg.] 

bris'-ket, n. part of the breast of an 
animal next the ribs (esp. of an ox). £F. 




bris'-tle (bris'-l), n. stiff hair (of swine, 
etc.) : v. (-tied, -tling), to stand up 
stiffly (of hair) ; to show defiance or 
indignation. [A.S. burst."] 

Bri-tan'-ni-a— met'-al, n. an alloy of tin 
and antimony with copper, etc., largely 
used in the manufacture of spoons, 
tea-pots, etc. 

Bri-tan'-nic, adj. pertaining to Britain. 

Brit'-ish-er, n. a half-comic name (used 
esp. by Americans) for a Briton. 

Brit' -on, n. a native of Britain. 

Britt. (on coins) = Britanniarum (pi.) = 
of Britain. [breotan, to break.] 

brit'-tle, adj. easily broken. [A. 8. 

britz'-ka or brits'- (brits'-ka), n. a light, 
open kind of travelling carriage. [Polish] 

broach (broch), (broached, broach'-ing), 
v. to tap or open (a cask) ; to pierce ; to 
begin (a subject) : n. a tapering tool for 
smoothing or enlarging holes in metal. 
to broach to, to turn a ship broadside 
to the wind. [F. brocher, to pierce.] 

broad (braud), adj. wide ; free or open ; 
roomy ; liberal (in opinion), broad- 
en (-ened, -en-ing), v. to make — . 
broad— arrow, n. see arrow, 
broad' -cast, adj. scattered widely, or 
without judgement. Broad Church, 
n. a party in the English Church hold- 
ing liberal views on some points of 
doctrine, broad'-cloth, n. a fine 
woollen cloth, of extra width, for men's 
garments, broad-side, n. the side of 
a ship ; a discharge of all the guns on 
one side of a ship at the same time. 
broad' -sword, n. a cutting sword with 

- a broad blade, broads, n. lake-like 
expansions of rivers. [A.S. brad."} 

bro-cade', n. a silk fabric with a raised 
pattern worked on it, often with gold and 
silver threads. [Sp. brocado.] 

broc'-co-li (-Z£), (no sing.) a species 
of cabbage. [I.] 

bro-che' (-sha'), adj. woven with a raised 
design ; stitched (of books). [F.] 

bro-chure' (-s/mr'j, n. a pamphlet or 
small book stitched into a paper cover. 
[F.<brocher, to stitch.] 

brogue (brog), n. a kind of coarse shoe; 
Irish pronunciation of English. [Ir. 
and Ga. brog, a shoe of coarse hide.] 

broil (broiled, broil'-ing), v. to cook over 
hot coals : n. a noisy quarrel. [F. 

bro'-ken, adj. rent asunder ; infirm ; 
humbled ; tamed or trained for use ; 

rough and uneven ; ruined ; ii com- 
plete, broken-hearted, adj. cru.hed 
by grief or despair, broken-meat^. 
the leavings from a feast. [<breakl\ 

bro'-ker, n. one employed to buy or sell 
for others, bro'-ker-age, n. commis- 
sion paid to a broker. [A.S. brucan, 
to use.] 

bro'-mide or bro'-mide— print (-mid), n. 
a photograph on paper coated with bro- 
mide of silver. 

bron r -chi-a or bron'-chi (-ki), n. (pi. of 
bron'-chus) the two tubes conveying air 
through the windpipe to the lungs. 
bron'-chi-al, adj. bron-chi'-tis.(-H'-), 
n. inflammation of the bronchia. [Gr. 
bronchos, the windpipe.] 

bron'-co or bron'-cho (brong'-ko), n. a 
half-tamed Mexican horse. [Sp. bronco.'] 

bronze, n. an alloy of copper and tin : 
adj. made of — : v. (bronzed, bronz'- 
ing), to give the appearance of bronze 
to. bronze .age or period, that time 
in the world's history when the people 
used weapons and implements of bronze. 
[I. bronzo.] 

brooch (broch), n. an ornamental pin for 
a lady's dress. [< broach.] 

brood (-ed, -ing), v. to sit over eggs ; to 
meditate ; to think moodily upon : n. a 
number of birds hatched at one time ; 
offspring. [A.S. brod, a breed.] 

brook (brook), n. a small stream or rivu- 
let, brook' -let, n. a small brook. 
brook' -lime, n. a species of speedwell 
growing in ditches. [A.S. broc] 

brook (brook) , v . to suffer (insult or injury) ; 
to put up with. [A.S. brucan, to use.] 

broom, n. a common, wild shrub ; a besom 
or brush made of twigs. [A.S. brom.J 

broth, n. meat-soup, often with vege- 
tables. [A.S. broth < breowan, to brew.] 

broth'-er (pi. -ers, and breth'-ren), n. a 
son of the same parent ; a close friend ; 
a member of the same society, associ- 
ation, profession, etc. brother-in- 
law, n. brother of a husband or wife ; 
sister's husband, broth'-er-ly, adj. 
broth'-er-hood, n. an association of 
men (for any purpose). [A.S. brothor.] 

brough'-am (broo'-am, or broom), n. a kind 
of one-horse closed carriage. [< the 
1st Lord Brougham, 1778—1868.] 

brow (brou), n. the part of the head over 
the eyes ; the edge of a hill, brow'- 
beat, v. to abash or confound with stem 
or fierce looks ; to bully. [A.S. bru.] 




bro Y/n (broun),adj. of dark colour inclined 
Jo red: to.: v. (browned, brown' -ing), 
/to make brown, brown— bread, n. 
coarse, dark-coloured wheaten bread 
made of whole meal, brown— study, 
n. a fit of reserved thought or absent- 
mindedness, to do brown, to take in ; 
to deceive. [A.S. brim.] 

brown' -ie (-e), n. (in Scotland) a good- 
natured house-spirit or fairy. [<root 
of brown.] 

brown'-ing, n. the process of giving a 
brown colour to gun barrels, etc. ; 
caramel or burnt sugar used in cookery 
to colour or flavour. [< brown.] 

browse (brouz), (browsed, brows'-ing), 
v. to feed on shoots and leaves of plants. 
[O.F. brouster, to browse.] 

Bruin, n. a familiar name for the bear. 
[< brown.] 

bruise (brooz), (bruised, bruis'-ing), v. 
to crush, injure, or wound by a blow or 
knock : n. a hurt or injury from a blow 
or knock. [O.F. bruiser. 2 

bruit (broot), n. a noise; a report; a 
rumour : v. (-ed, -ing), to noise abroad ; 
to report. [F. bruit."} 

brum'-ma-gem (-jem),adj. sham ; showy; 
gaudy but worthless ; counterfeit. [< 
Birmingham, where cheap trinkets are 

bru-nette' (-net'), n. a girl or woman of 
dark complexion. [F. brim, brown.] 

brunt, n. the force of a blow, shock, or 
attack ; the chief stress or crisis. [? Ic] 

brush, n. an instrument to clear away 
dust, etc. ; a small, sharp fight ; the 
tail of a fox or squirrel ; a bundle of 
copper wires or strips arranged to carry 
off the electrical current in a dynamo : 
v. (brushed, brush '-ing), to sweep with 
a brush ; to touch lightly in passing. 
brush '-wood, n. small trees growing 
thickly together. [F. brosse."} 

brusque (brush), adj. blunt or rude in 
manner; abrupt; off-hand, brusque'- 
ly, adj. brusque -ness, to. [F.] 

Brus'-sels— car'-pet, n. a kind of carpet 
having a back of a strong linen fabric 
and a surface of wool. Brussels- 
sprouts, a kind of cabbage pro- 
ducing small sprouting heads. [< 
Brussels, in Belgium.] 

brute (broot), n. one of the lower animals ; 
a rude, unfeeling person, bru'-tal, axij. 
like a brute ; savage ; unfeeling ; cruel. 
bru-tal'-i-ty, n. bru'-tal-ize (-ized, 

-i-zing), v. to make brutal, bru'-tish, 
adj. [L. brutus, heavy, dull.] 

B.Sc, Bachelor of Science. 

B.T.U., Board of Trade Unit (of elec- 

bub'-ble, n. a small quantity of air en- 
closed in a film of fluid ; a cheating 
scheme ; anything unsubstantial : v. 
(-bled, -bling), to rise in bubbles. 
bub'-bling, n. the gurgling noise made 
by a camel. [L. bulla, a bubble.] 

bu'-bo, n. an inflammatory swelling of 
the glands in the groin or armpit. 
bu-bon'-ic plague, a very dangerous 
disease characterized by such swellings. 
[L.<G. bubon, the groin.] 

buc-ca-neer' (or -nier'), n. a West Indian 
pirate. [Caribbean.] 

buck, n. the male of the fallow-deer, goat, 
hare, rabbit, etc. ; a fine, dashing fellow. 
buck'-shot, n. a large shot used for 
killing deer, etc. to buck, v. said of a 
horse which attempts to throw its rider 
by jumping into the air and coming 
down with the back arched, the fore- 
legs stiff, and the head low. buck'- 
skin, n. a soft, strong leather ; a strong, 
twilled, woollen cloth. [A.S. bucca. a 
he-goat.] [clothes in lye. [Ga.] 

buck (bucked, buck' -ing), v. to wash 

buck'-et, n. a vessel for drawing off (or 
for holding) water, etc. buck'-et-ful, 
w. (pi. -fuls). bucket shop, an office 
for gambling, esp. in stocks and shares. 
[A.S. buc, a pitcher.] 

buck'-le, to. an instrument for fastening a 
belt, boot, strap, etc. : v. (-led, -ling), 
to fasten with a — ; to bend or bulge 
out. to buckle to, to begin in earnest. 
[F.<Low L. buccula.] [Imcler."} 

buck'-ler, n. a kind of shield. [O.F. 

buck' -ram, n. a coarse, stiff cloth ; canvas- 
cloth. [O.F. boquerant.] 

Bucks, Buckinghamshire. 

buck' -thorn, n. one of many kinds of 
thorny shrub, the berries of which yield 
sap-green, and a powerful aperient 
medicine. [A.S.] 

buck' -wheat, n. a plant bearing three- 
cornered seeds resembling wheat. [A.S. 
boc, beech.] 

bu-col'-ic, adj. relating to the country (as 
opposed to the town) ; pastoral ; rural ; 
countrified. [Gr. boukolikos < bous, ox.] 

bud, to. a young shoot of a plant ; an un- 
expanded leaf or flower : v . ( -ded, -ding) , 
to shoot or begin to grow ; to graft, to 



nip in the bud, to stop at the beginning. 
[D. bot.} 

Bud'-dhist (-dist), n. a follower of the 
religious system (Bud'-dhism (-dizm) ) 
founded by Buddha in the 6th cent. b.c. 
(in India, China, Japan, etc.). 

budge (buj), (budged, budg'-ing), v. to 
move away ; to stir. [F. bouger.} 

budg'-et (buj'-), n. a bag; a stock or 
store ; the annual financial statement ! 
made in the House of Commons by the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer ; a state- 
ment of the accounts of a nation, town, 
company, etc., of the money required to 
carry on their work, and how it is to be 
obtained. [F.<L. (of Gallic origin) 
bulga, a leathern bag.] 

buff, n. leather from buffalo skin : adj. of 
light-yellow colour, buff— wheel, n. a 
polishing wheel. [F. < L. < G.] 

buf'-fa-lo, n. (pi. -loes), a species of 
large wild ox. [I.<Gr. bous, an ox.] 

feuf'-fer, n. an apparatus for deadening 
a blow, buffer State, n. a neutral 
country Wing between two others. 
[< buffet."] 

buf'-fet, n. a blow (as with the fist, the 
waves, etc.) : v. (-ed, -ing). [O.F. 
bufet, a blow.] 

buf'-fet (buf'-fet or boo-fd'), n. a side- 
board ; a cupboard ; a refreshment-bar 
or table. [F. buffet."} 

buf-foon', n. a clown ; a merry-andrew. 
buf-foon'-er-y, n. [F. bouffon.} 

bug, n. a hobgoblin ; a small biting 
insect, bug'-bear, n. an imaginary 
object of terror ; something which causes 
continued annoyance. [W. biog, a hob- 

bug'-gy, n. a light one-horse, two or four 
wheeled vehicle. [?] 

bu'-gle, n. a hunting horn ; a kind of 
trumpet. [O.F. <L. buculus, a small ox] 

buhl (but), n. unburnished brass, gold, 
or mother-of-pearl inlaid into wood. 
[<A. G. Boule, a French carver and 
cabinet-maker, 1642—1732.] 

build (built, build '-ing), v. to form ; to 
construct or erect (as a house, railway, 
etc.) ; to establish, built, adj. formed 
or shaped, build'-er, v. build'-ing, 
n. [A.S. bold, a house.] 

bulb, n. a root, like an onion, bul'-bous 
(-bus), adj. [L. bulbus, an onion.] 

bulge (bulged, bulg'-ing), v. to swell 
out. [M.E. bulge.} 

bulk, n. size ; the greater part ; the main 


mass or body ; the cargo of a vessel 
when stowed, bulk'-y, adj. of great 
size. [See bulge.] 

bulk'-head. n. a partition in a ship com- 
pletely separating one part from the 
adjoining one. [?] 

bull, n. the male of the ox kind (also of 
the elephant and whale) ; one who 
operates for the rise on the Stock 
Exchange (compare bear), bul'-lock, 
n. a kind of ox (properly dim. of "bull "). 
bull'— baiting, the cruel sport of excit- 
ing or baiting bulls with dogs, now for- 
bidden, bull' -dog, n. a kind of dog 
with large head and fierce disposition. 
bull '-finch, n. a kind of bird with large 
head, bull's'-eye, n. a small circular 
opening for the admission of light ; the 
centre of a target ; a policeman's lantern. 
bull— head' -ed, adj. impetuous and ob- 
stinate. John Bull, a nickname for an 
Englishman. [<A.S. bulluc, bullock.] 

bull, n. a written decree (esp. of the Pope), 
properly the seal on it. [L. bulla, v 

bull, n. a grotesque blunder in language, 
often involving a contradiction. [?] 

bul'-lace (-las), n. a kind of wild plum. 
[W. bwlas.} 

bul'-let, n. a leaden ball for gun or pistol. 
bul' -let— proof, adj. able to resist the 
force of a bullet. \Dini. of bull, in the 
sense of a boss, or seal.] 

bul'-let-in, n. an official report (esp. 
medical, military, or news). [L. bulla, 
a boss, a seal.] 

bull'-ion (-yun), n. gold or silver in the 
mass ; a kind of fringe. [Low L. bullio 
<L. bulla, a boss, a seal.] 

bul'-ly, n. a noisy, blustering fellow, more 
insolent than courageous ; a tyrannical 
fellow : v. (-lied, -ly-ing), to threaten 
noisily ; to browbeat or overawe by 
threats, bully beef, pickled or tinned 
beef. [<bull.] 

bul'-rush, n. a long rush growing in water 
or wet land. [< bull, denoting strength 
and thickness.] 

bul'-wark, n. a fortification or rampart ; 
the side of a ship rising above the deck ; 
any means of defence. [G. Bollwerk.} 

bum-bail '-iff, n. an under-bailiff. [< 
bound (i.e., under bond to do his duty 
faithfully).] [hums; a humble-bee. 

bum'-ble— bee, n. a bee that " booms " or 

bum '-boat, n. a boat used for carrying 
provisions to a ship. [D. bum-boot.} 




bump, 11. a heavy blow ; a thump ; a 
swelling resulting from a bump or blow ; 
a protuberance on the skull: v. (bumped, 
bump'-ing), to strike against. [?] 

bum'-per, n. a cup or glass filled to the 
brim ; a crowded audience. [Perhaps 
from bump in the sense of large.] 

bump'-kin, n. a clown, or stupid country 
fellow. [See bump.] 

bump'-tious (-shus), adj. self-conceited ; 
pretentious, bump'-tious-ness, ft. [< 

bun, n. a small sweet cake. [O.F. bugne."] 

bunch, n. a number of things tied together ; 
a cluster (of flowers, etc.) : v. (bunched, 
bunch'-ing), to form into a — . [?] 

bund, n. a confederacy ; a league or asso- 
ciation. [G.] 

bund, n. an embankment or promenade (in 
India and the East) along a river bank 
or the sea-shore. [Hind, bund, a dyke.] 

Bun'-des-rat (or -rath) (-rdt), n. the 
Federal Council of the German Empire. 

bun'-dle, n. a number of things bound 
loosely together ; a package or roll : v. 
(-died, -dling), to tie or bind in a bundle ; 
to go away hurriedly or in confusion. 

bung, n. the stopper of a hole in a cask ; 
a large cork, bung' -hole, n. the hole 
in a cask (closed with a bung) through 
which it is filled. [?] 

bun'-ga-low, n. a large house of one 
storey, often with a verandah (esp. in 
India). [<" Bengal."] 

bun'-gle (-gled, -gling), v. to do anything 
clumsily or awkwardly : n. clumsy work. 
bun'-gler, n. one who — . [Of imita- 
tive origin.] 

bunk, ii. a wooden box serving as a seat 
by day and a bed by night ; one of a 
number of sleeping-berths arranged 
over each other, bunk'-er, n. a place 
for storage (esp. coals) on board ship ; a 
' ' hazard " or difficult place on a golf links 
into which a ball has found its way. 
[Scand. bunke.~\ 

bun'-ny, n. a pet name for a rabbit. [?] 

Bun' -sen bur'-ner, n. a gas-burner in 
which a strong current of air mixes with 
the gas and produces a very hot flame 
with little light. [< Professor Bunsen, 
the German inventor, 1811 — 1899.] 

bun'-ting, n. a woollen stuff for making 
flags. [?] 

bun'-ting, n. a popular name for several 

birds of the finch family. [?] 

buoy (boy), n. a floating object held or 
moored by a fixed chain to mark out 
the position of something beneath the 
water: v. (buoyed, buoy'-ing), to mark 
with buoys ; to keep afloat ; to bear up 
or sustain, buoy'-ant, adj. floating 
readily ; cheerful, buoy'-an-cy, n. 
life'-buoy, n. a buoyant object thrown 
into the water to save life in case of 
accident. [D. boei."\ 

bur'-den, n. that which is borne or 
carried ; a load ; something grievous or 
oppressive ; the weight of cargo a ship 
will carry: v. (-dened, -den-ing), to 
put a weight or load on. bur' -den- 
some, adj. hard to bear. [A.S. by r then 
< beran, to bear.] 

bur'-den, n. the chortfs part of a song. 
[F. bourdon, a drone.] 

bu-reau' (bu-ro'),n. (pi. -reaux' (-roz')ox 
-reaus'), a writing-table ; an office for 
public business, bu-reau' -cra-cy (si), 
n. the system of ruling by means of 
government officials, bu'-reau-crat, 
n. one who believes in, or supports, or 
carries on government by officials, bu- 
reau-crat'-ic, adj. [F. bureau, a desk, 
an office.] 

bur'-gee (-jee), n. a swallow-tailed or long 
triangular flag. [?] 

burgh (burg, in Scot, bur'-o), n. a borough 
or incorporated town, esp. in Scotland. 

burgh'-er (burg'-), bur'-gess (-jes), n. a 
citizen of a town ; one having a parlia- 
mentary vote for a borough. [See 

bur'-glar, n. one who breaks into a house 
by night, bur'-glar-y, n. bur-gla'- 
ri-ous (-rl-us) , adj. [ < root of borough, 
and L. latro, a robber.] 

bur'-go-mas-ter, n. the chief magistrate 
(mayor) of a Dutch or German town. 
[<root of borough + master.] 

bur'-gun-dy, n. a kind of red wine made 
in Burgundy (France). 

burke (burked, burk'-ing), v. to murder 
by suffocation ; to suppress. [< Burke, 
who committed this crime, 1829.] 

bur-lesque' (-lesk'), adj. ludicrous ; jocu- 
lar : n. a ludicrous performance in 
speaking, acting, writing, drawing, etc. : 
v. (-lesqued', -les'-quing), to ridicule 
or make ludicrous. [F.<I. burlesco."} 

bur'-ly, adj. bulky ; boisterous ; bluff. 
bur'-li-ness, n. [?] 

burn (burned or burnt, burn'-ing, 


burnt), v. to consume, or injure, by fire ; 
to be on fire ; to be inflamed by passion : 
n. injury by fire, burn'-er, n. the part 
of a lamp or gas-fitting at which the oil 
or gas is burnt, burn'-ing, adj. hot ; 
scorching ; intense, burnt— offering, 
n. a sacrifice offered and burnt on an 
altar, a burning question, one being 
keenly discussed, or which requires im- 
mediate solution. [A.S. beornan, to 

burn, n. a small brook. [A.S. burne."] 

bur'-nish (-nished, -nish-ing), v. to 
polish or make bright : n. gloss ; bright- 
ness. [F. brunir, to make brown.] 

burr, n. the sound of a strongly pronounced 
" r " ; the whizzing sound made by 
machinery ; a prickly seed-case ; the 
blossom of the hop. [Imitative.] 

bur '-row (-ro), n. the dwelling of an 
animal underground : v. (-rowed, 
-row-ing), to make a — ; to live in 
hiding. [< root of borough.] 

bur'-sar, ft. one who keeps the money in 
a college; one who receives a "bur- 
sary." bur'-sa-ry, n. an exhibition or 
scholarship in a college. [F. <L. bursa, 
a purse.] 

burst (burst, burst '-ing), v. to break up 
violently ; to yield to pressure ; to break 
out or open ; to explode : n. — ; a spurt. 
[A.S. berstan.] 

bur'-y (ber'-i), (bur'-ied, bur'-y-ing), 
v. to place in the grave ; to hide in the 
ground ; to conceal by covering, bur'- 
i-al, n. the act or ceremony of burying. 
burying-place, burying-ground, n. 
a graveyard, to bury the hatchet, 
to cease from strife. [A.S. byrgan.] 

'bus or bus, n. a popular contraction for 

bush (boosh), n. a thick shrub ; a country 
covered with bushes ; wild or unculti- 
vated country, bush'-y, adj. bush'- 
man, n. a settler in the bush, or an 
inhabitant of uncultivated country (as 
in Australia) ; one of a native race in 
S. Africa, to beat about the bush, to 
appAmch a matter in a roundabout way. 
[Low L. boscus, a wood.] 

bush '-el, n. a dry measure of 4 pecks (8 
gallons). [O.F. boissel."] 

bus'-i-ness (biz'-nes), n. employment; 
trade ; occupation. [See busy.] 

busk, n. a piece of bone, wood, or steel in 
the front of a woman's stays. [See bust.] 

bus-kin, n. a high shoe or boot reaching 


61 Huy 

to the calf of the leg ; the emblem of 

tragedy. [D. broosken."} 
bust, n. that part of the body from the 

neck to the waist ; a sculptured figure 

of a person showing the 1 head, neck, 

shoulders, and chest. [F. buste<Lo\r 

L. bustum."] 
bus'-tard, n. a large bird of the crane 

family. [L. avis tarda, slow bird.] 
bus'-tle (bus' -I), (bus'-tled, bus'-tling), 

v. to hurry about (esp. noisily); to be 

very active : n. [?] 
bus'-y (biz'-i), adj. fully employed ; dili- 
gent ; active ; meddling : v. (bus'-ied, 

bus'-y-ing), to keep busy, bus'-i-ly, 

adv. — . busy-body, n. a meddler. 

[A.S. bisig.] 
but'-cher (booch'-er), n. one who kills 

animals for food : v. (-chered, -cher- 

ingj, to slaughter, butch'-er-y, n. 

great or cruel slaughter. [F. boucher 

< bouc, a he-goat.] 
but'-ler, ft. a male servant in charge of 

wine, plate, etc. [<root of bottle.] 
butt, n. the large end (of a gun, etc.) ; a 

mark (to be aimed at) ; a limit ; a goal : 

v. (-ed, -ing), to strike or thrust (esp. 

with the head). [O.F. bot, end.] 
butt, n. a wine cask ; a measure of wine 

(126 gallons), or of beer (108 gallons). 

[O.F. boute.] 
but'-ter, n. an oily substance made from 

cream by churning, but'-ter-cup, ft. 

a common wild flower, but'-ter-fly, 

n. a common insect, often with gay 

wings, but'-ter-milk, n. the liquid 

which remains after the butter has been 

separated from the cream by churning. 

but'-ter-scotch, n. a kind of toffee. 

[A.S. butere.] 
but'-ter-y, n. a room in which wine or 

other liquors and provisions are stored. 

[<root of bottle.] 
but' -ton,  n. a small knob for fastening 

clothes or for ornament ; the knob of 

an electric bell : v. (-toned, -ton-ing). 

boy in buttons, a page ; a boy dressed 

in livery. [F. bouton.'} 
but'-tress, n. a projecting support for a 

wall, chiefly on the outside : v. 

(-tressed, -tress-ing), to prop up. [< 

root of butt (end).] 
bux'-om, aJy. yielding; gay; lively; stout 

and rosy. [A.S. bugan, to bow, to bend.] 
buy (bl), (bought, buy '-ing), v. to obtain 

for money ; to purchase, buy'-er, n. 

one who buys, to buy off or out, to 




gain release for (someone) from military 
service by payment. [A.S. bycyan.] 

buzz (buzzed, buzz'-ing), v. to make a 
humming sound (as of a bee) : n. buz'- 
zer, n. [<the sound.] 

buz'-zard, n. a large bird of prey of the 
falcon kind ; a stupid person. [F. 
busard<h. buteo, a kind of hawk.] 

by, prep, near to ; at the side of ; through. 
by— e-lec'-tion, n. one taking place not 
at a time of general election, by'-gone, 
adj. past (of time) : n. something which 
has gone by or happened, bye'— law, 
n. a local law (of a town, railway com- 
pany, etc.). by '-name, n. a nickname. 
by'-pass, n. a small pipe passing from 
behind a tap, and allowing a minute 
quantity of gas to pass and be burnt 
while the main flow is cut off. by'— 
path, n. a side path, by'— product, n. 
a more or less valuable substance pro- 
duced during the manufacture of another 
substance (as glycerine in soap manu- 
facture), by '-word, n. a common say- 
ing; an object of derision. [A.S. M.] 

by, or bye, n. (at cricket) a run obtained 
when the ball has been bowled but not 
struck. [a time. 

by-and-by, or bye-and— bye, adv. after 

byre (bir), n. a cow-house. [A.S.] 

by— the— by, int. as passing ; incidentally. 

C, centum [L.] a hundred ; centigrade. 

C.A., County Alderman ; Chartered Ac- 

cab, n. a public one-horse carriage ; the 
covered part on a locomotive where the 
driver stands, cab'-man, or cab'-by, 
n. the driver of a cab. cab'-stand, n. 
a public place where cabs stand for hire. 
[An abbreviation of cabriolet (cab-re- 
o-ld'), F., a word sometimes used in 
English, <L. capra, a she-goat.] 

ca-bal' (kd-baV), n. a small party engaged 
in some secret design or plot ; the plot 
itself. [F. cabale<H.l 

cab -bage, n. a common garden vege- 
table. [F.<L. caput, a head.] 

cab-in, n. a small hut ; a room in a ship, 
etc. cab '-in— boy, n. a boy who per- 
forms various small general offices on 
boardaship. [F.<L.L.capanna,ahut ] 

cab'-i-net (-£-), n. a small room ; a closet ; 
the chief ministers of the English 
government, cabinet-council, n. a 

meeting of the Cabinet, cabinet- 
minister, n. a member of the Cabinet. 
cabinet photo, a photograph mounted 
on a card called " cabinet " size, about 
6£-in. x 4£-in. [< cabin.] 

ca'-ble, n. a strong rope or chain ; a tele- 
graph line under water : a telegram by 
submarine telegraph ; an electric con- 
ductor like a thick rope (often under- 
ground) : v. (ca'-bled, ca'-bling), to 
send a telegraphic message across the 
sea. a cable's length, a nautical 
measure of 100 fathoms, ca'-ble- 
gram, n. a message sent by cable. [F. 
cdble<l>. capio, 1 take.] 

ca-boose' (-boos'), n. the cooking- room of 
a ship. [D. kombuis."] 

ca-ca'-o (ka-kd'-o), n. the chocolate tree. 
[Mexican.] [headed whale. [F.] 

cach'-a-lot {kash'-), n. a kind of blunt- 
cache (kash), n. a hole or mound for stor- 
ing provisions, etc. [F. cacher, to hide.] 

cache-peigne' (kash-pdn'), n. [F.] (in 
millinery) flowers, ribbons, etc., placed 
behind a woman's hat, but under the 

cach'-et (kash'-d),n. a seal (as of a letter) ; 
any distinctive stamp, mark, or charac- 
teristic. Jettre de cachet (pi. lettres 
de — ), (formerly, in France) a royal 
sealed warrant for the imprisonment of 
a person without trial. [F.] 

cach-in-na'-tion (kak-in-nd'-shun), n. 
loud, prolonged, vulgar laughter. 
ca-chin'-na-to-ry, adj. [L. cachinno, 
I laugh loudly.] 

ca-chou' (kd-shoo'), n. a kind of sweet- 
meat used to sweeten the breath. [F.] 

cack'-le (kak'-l), (-led, -ling), v. to utter 
a cry (as a hen, or a goose) ; to talk in 
an idle or silly manner : n. cack'-ling, 
n. cack'-ler, n. [Of imitative origin.] 

cac'-tus, n. (pi. -ti or -tus-es), an Ameri- 
can prickly plant. [L.<Gr. kaktos."] 

cad, n. a low, rude, vulgar fellow, cad'- 
dish, adj. [< cadet.] 

ca-day'-er-ous (kd-),adj. of a dead body ; 
very pale ; ghastly. [L. cadaver, a 

cad' -die (-di),n. one who carries the clubs 
of golf players ; an errand-boy. [< 

cad'-dis or cad' -dice, n. (pi. -dies), the 
larva of the caddis-fly or May-fly, a 
favourite bait with anglers. [?] 

cad'-dy, n. (pi. -dies), a small box for 
keeping tea. [Malay.] 




ca'-dence, n. a falling of the voice in 
reading or speaking, esp. at the end of 
a sentence ; modulation (in music). 
ca'-dent, adj. falling ; declining. [L. 
cudo, I fall.] 

ca-det', n. a younger son or brother ; a 
younger branch of a family ; a student 
in a military or naval school. [F.< 
L.L. capitellum, dim. of L. caput, the 

cadge (caj), (cadged, cadg'-ing), v. to beg, 
or go a-begging, cadg'-er, n. a hawker ; 
a beggar. [?] [kadhi, a judge.] 

ca'-di, n. a Turkish magistrate. [T. 

cadre (kadr), n. a frame; framework; 
(in the army) the permanent military 
establishment (framework) of a regi- 
ment, to be filled up or enlarged by 
enlistment in time of war. [F. cadre, 
a frame <L. quadrum, a square.] 

caf'-e (kdf -a), n. [F.] a coffee-house; a 
restaurant, cafe chantant (shah' -tail), 
a concert-hall or garden where light 
refreshments are served ; the concert 
given in such a place, cafe noire 
fnwdr), strong coffee without milk ; a 
dark-brown colour. 

cage (kdj), n. a wire box or a barred 
enclosure (for birds or wild animals) ; 
hoisting apparatus in a mine : v. (caged, 
ca'-ging), to shut up or confine, cage'- 
ling, n. a bird kept in a cage. [F. <L. 
cavea, a den, a cage.] 

ca-ique' (ka-ek'), n. a light sailing-boat 
common on the Bosphorus. [F.<T. 

cairn (ham,) n. a heap of stones (esp. over 
a grave, or as a landmark. [C. earn."] 

cais'-son (kd'-son), n. an ammunition 
chest or waggon ; a box filled with 
explosives to be fired as a mine ; a 
water-tight case used in laying founda- 
tions, etc., under water. \F.<caisse, a 

cai'-tiff (kd'-), n. a mean, base fellow: 
adj. [O.F.<L. captlvus, a captive.] 

ca-jole' (-joled', -jo'-ling), v. to cheat 
by flattery ; to coax, ca-jo'-ler-y 
tio'-),n. [?] 

Cal., California, cal., calendar. 

cal'-a-bash, n. the gourd-like fruit of a 
tree of tropical America and Africa ; a 
cup or vessel formed from ite hard shell. 
[Sp. calabaza, a gourd.] 

cal'-a-mite, n. a fossil plant found 
abundantly in coal-mines. [L. cala- 
mus, a reed.] 

ca-lam'-i-ty (-i-tl), n. any great misfor- 
tune or cause of misery ; a disaster, 
ca-lam'-i-tous (-tus), adj. [L. cal- 

cal-ca'-re-ous (-kd'-),adj. of lime; having 
the qualities of lime. [L. calx, lime.] 

cal-ce-o-la'-ri-p , n, a well-known flower- 
ing plant, origi ^ally from S. Amer. [L.] 

cal-cine' (-sin'!', v. to reduce to a powder 
(by heat) ; \o burn to ashes, cal-ci- 
na'-tion, n. [L. calx, lime.] 

cal'-ci-um,n. amet&l which, with oxygen, 
forms lime. [L. calx, lime.] 

cal -cu-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to 
count or reckon ; to think out. cal'- 
cu-la-ble, adj. able to be calculated. 
cal-cu-la'-tion. n. cal'-cu-la-tor, n. 
one who — . cal'-cu-lus, n. one of the 
higher branches of mathematics. [L. cal- 
culus, a small pebble (used in counting).] 

cal'-dron, see caul'-dron. 

Cal-e-do'-ni-an, adj. of Caledonia, the 
ancient name of Scotland. 

cal'-en-dar, n. a table of months, days, 
seasons, feasts, etc. ; an almanac ; a 
list or record of papers, etc. Cal'-ends, 
?i. pi. the first day of the month (among 
the Romans). The Greek Calends, a 
time that will never come (since the 
Greeks had no Calends). [L. calendae, 
the first day of the month.] 

cal'-en-der (-dered, -der-ing), v. to press 
cloth, paper, etc., between rollers to 
make it smooth and glossy : n. a cloth- 
finisher ; the machine which — . [< 

calf (kdf), n. (pi. calves), the young of 
the cow, deer, elephant, whale, seal, 
etc. ; a very foolish person, calf s— 
foot (or calyes'-foot) jelly, n. a jelly 
made from calves' feet, calf— skin, n. 
a superior kind of leather made from the 
skin of a calf, box— calf, n. a superior 
kind of calf-skin leather used for making 
boots. [A.S. cealf."} 

calf (kdf), n. the fleshy part of the leg 
below the knee. [Ic. kalji."} 

cal'-i-bre (-her), n. the diameter of the 
bore of a gun ; mental capacity, cal'- 
i-brate (-bra-ted, -bra-ting), v. to find 
the calibre of. [F. calibre.] 

cal'-i-co, n. (pi. -coes), cloth made from 
cotton : adj. made of — . [< Calicut, a 
town in India.] 

Ca'-lif, Cal'-iph, or Ka'-lif, Kal'-iph, n. 
a title given in Mohammedan countries 
to the successor of Mohammed as head 




of the Mohammedans. Cal'-i-fate, n. 
the office of Calif. [F. calif e<Ar. 
khalifah, a successor.] 

calk, nee caulk. 

calk or cal' -kin, n. a pointed piece of iron 
on a horse's shoe to prevent slipping. 
[L. calx, the heel.] » 

call (called, call'-ing), v. to cry aloud ; 
to cry out to by name ; to give a name 
to ; to summon ; to select i'or, or appoint 
to, an office : n. a short visit ; the cry of 
a bird, call'-ing, n. occupation, at 
call, at demand, to — in, to withdraw 
from circulation, to — in question, to 
cast a doubt upon, to — out, to order 
for service, to — to account, to demand 
an explanation from, to — to the bar, 
to admit as a barrister. [A.S. ceallian.~\ 

cal-lig'-ra-phy (-fi),n. beautiful writing; 
the art of writing beautifully, cal-li- 
graph'-ic, adj. [Gr. kalos, beautiful, 
graphe, writing.] 

cal'-li-pers (or cal'-i-) or cal'-li-per 
com'-pas-ses, n> a kind of compasses 
for measuring diameters of curved 
bodies. [< calibre.] 

cal-lis-then'-ics (or cal-is-), physi- 
cal bodily exercises. [Gr. kalos, beauti- 
ful, sthenos, strength.] 

cal-los'-i-ty, n. a hard, horny swelling on 
the skin, etc. [See callous.] 

cal'-lous (-his), adj. hardened ; unfeeling. 
[L. callosus, thick-skinned.] 

cal'-low (-lo), adj. without feathers; un- 
fledged ; inexperienced. [A.S. calu."} 

calm (cam), adj. still; quiet; peaceful; 
not rough : n. : v. (calmed, calm' -ing), 
to make — . calm'-ness, n. state of 
being — . calm'-ly, adv. [F. calme ; 
through L.L.<Gr. kauma, heat.] 

cal'-o-mel, ». a preparation of mercury 
much used in medicine. [Gr. kalos, 
beautiful, vie las, black.] 

ca-lor'-ic (kd-), n. heat, cal'-o-rie (-re), 
n. the unit of heat, cal-o-rif -ic, adj. 
causing heat, cal-o-rim'-e-ter, n. an 
apparatus for measuring quantities of 
heat. [L. color, heat.] 

cal'-u-met, n. the tobacco pipe among 
the N. American Indians, the symbol of 
peace. [F.<L. calamus, a reed.] 

cal'-um-ny, n. false accusation ; slander. 
ca-lum'-ni-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
slander or accuse falsely, ca-lum'-ni- 
a-tor, n. one who — . ca-lum'-ni-ous 
(•nl-us), adj. [L. calumnia, calumny.] 

calx, n. (pi. calx'-es or cal'-cea), lime or 

chalk ; the slag formed when smelting 
metals. [L. calx."] 

ca'-lyx, n. (pi. -ly-ces [-K-] or -lyx-es), 
.the outer covering, or cup, of a flower, of 
which the separate parts are called 
sepals. [L. < Gr. kalyx, a flower-cup.] 

Cam., Gambs., Cambridge. 

cam-a-rad'-e-rie (-rdd'-e-re), n. loyalty 
to one's comrades ; good-fellowship. [F.] 

cam'-ber, n. the slope of a road, ship's 
deck, etc.) from the centre to the sides. 
[F.<L. camera, a vault.] 

cam'-bi-um, n. a layer of cell-tissue 
between the wood and the bark of some 
trees, in which the growth of new wood 
takes place. [L.L. cambium, exchange.] 

Cam'-bri-an, adj. relating to Cambria, 
or Wales. 

cam'-bric (cam'-), n. fine, white linen, 
first made at Cambray, in N. France. 

cam'-el, n. an Eastern, humped beast of 
burden, cam'-el-ry (-r») or camel 
corps, n. troops mounted on camels ; 
baggage camels. [L. camelus, a camel.] 

ca-mel'-lia (-lya or -mel'-lya), n. a genus 
of evergreen shrubs with beautiful 
flowers, natives of China and Japan. 
\_<Kamel (in L. Camellus), the dis- 
coverer, in 1639.] 

ca-mel'-o-pard (-pdrd), n. the giraffe. 
[L. camelus, camel ; leopardus, parded 
or brindled lion, leopard.] 

Cam-em-bert' (kam-em-bar'), n. a rich 
cream cheese, made about Camembert 
in Normandy (France). 

cam'-e-o, n. a design carved on a small 
coloured stone so as to stand out from 
the surface. [I.] 

cam'-er-a, n. an instrument for taking 
photographs, in camera, [L.] in 
private. [L. camera, a chamber.] 

cam'-i-sole (-l-sol), n. a lady's under- 
vest. [F.] 

cam'-o-mile, n. a well-known plant of 
the aster family whose dried flowers are 
used in medicine. [F.<Gr. chamai- 
melon, lit. earth-apple.] 

camp, A. a place where an army pitches 
its tents ; the collection of tento ; the 
persons forming the — . camp— bed- 
stead, —chair, —stool, ns. articles that 
can be folded up so as to be easily 
carried, camp-follower, n. one who 
follows a camp without being a soldier. 
camp— meeting, ». a religious meeting 
out of doors, to strike camp, to break 
up a — <i [F. < L. campus, a plain.] 




cam-paign' (-pan'), n. a series of military 
operations ending in some definite 
result ; the time an army is in the field ; 
the course of action undertaken in the 
support of any cause, cam-paign'-er, 
ft. political campaign, the meetings, 
advertising, etc., carried out by the 
candidates before an election. [F. 
campagne, open country, < \j. campus, 
a field.] 

cam-pa-ni'-le (-ne'-ld, also, but less 
correctly, -neeV), n. a bell-tower. £1. 
campana, a bell.] 

cam-pan' -u-la, n. the bell-flower (so 
called from its shape). [I. campana, a 

cam'-phor {-fur), n. a medicinal resinous 
substance of a bitterish taste and pun- 
gent smell (the dried juice of an Eastern 
laurel). [L. camphora.] 

can (could), v. to be able ; to have power or 
ability to do. can't (couldn't), = can (or 
could) not. [A.S. cunnan, to know.] 

can, n. a vessel (of metal) for liquids. 
can'-ning, n. the packing of food in air- 
tight cases to preserve it. [A.S. canne."] 

ca-naille (ka-ndV or ka-nd'-yl), n. the 
vulgar rabble; the vulgar. [F.<L. 
canis, a dog.] 

ca-nal', ft. an artificial water-course for 
navigation or irrigation ; a channel. 
|[L. candlis, a water-pipe.] 

ca-nard' (ka-nar' or ka-nard'), n. [F.] 
an absurd or lying story set on foot as 
news. [F., meaning a duck.] 

ca-na'-ry, «. (pi. -ries), a wine made in 
the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean) ; a 
well-known song-bird (orig. from the 
Canary Islands). 

can'-cel (sel), (-celled, -eel-ling), v. to 
erase (with lines) ; to cut out ; to annul. 
[F.<L. cancelli, a lattice ; railings.] 

can'-cer (-ser), n. a crab (animal) ; one 
of the signs of the Zodiac ; a very pain- 
ful and very fatal disease, can'-cer- 
ous (-us), adj. [L. cancer, a crab.] 

can-did, adj. frank and open ; impartial ; 
free-spoken, can'-did-ly, adv. can- 
did-ness, ri. can-dour (-dur), n. [L. 
candidus, white ; frank ; sincere.] 

can'-di-date, n. one who seeks or is pro- 
posed for an office or appointment. 
can'-di-date-ship, can'-di-da-ture, 
ns. the state or act of being a candidate. 
[L. candidus, white : at Rome " candi- 
dates " wore white robes.] 

can' -die, n. a stick of wax or tallow with 

wick down the centre (for lighting pur- 
poses), candle-power, the illumina- 
ting power of a sperm candle, burning 
2 grains a minute, used for measuring 
the illuminating power of other artificial 
lights. Roman candle, a kind of fire- 
works, not fit to hold a candle to, 
very inferior to. to burn the candle at 
both ends, to be reckless or extravagant ; 
to overwork oneself. [L. candeo, I am 

Can'-dle-mas, u. a feast (held in the 
Roman Church on 2nd February) for 
commemorating the Purification of the 
Virgin Mary (in which a large number 
of candles are lighted) . [candle -f mass] 

can'-dy, u. a sweetmeat made principally 
of sugar, can'-died (-did), adj. pre- 
served in sugar. [F. < Ar. qandi, sugar.] 

cane, ft. a kind of reed or grass ; a walk- 
ing-stick : v. (caned, ca'-ning), to beat 
with a — . [F. canne <L. canna, a reed.] 

ca-nine' (kd-), adj. of a dog. canine 
tooth, the long, pointed, third tooth 
from the front on each side of each jaw. 
[L. canis, a dog.] 

can'-is-ter, ft. a small box or case (often 
of tin) . [L. canistrum, a wicker basket.] 

can'-ker, re. an eating, spreading sore or 
ulcer ; anything that corrupts or destroys. 
can'-ker-ous, adj. can'-ker-fly, n. a 
fly that attacks fruit, can'-ker-worm, 
n. a grub that destroys plants (esp. their 
buds and leaves). [L. cancer, a crab.] 

can'-nel— coal, n. a kind of coal that burns 
very brightly (like a candle). 

can'-ni-bal, n. one who eats human flesh, 
can'-ni-bal-ism, n. the practice of eat- 
ing human flesh. [<Caribal, one of 
the savages of the W. India Islands.] 

can'-non, n. (pi. can'-non and can'- 
nons), a great gun (firing heavy shot 
with great force) : v. (-noned, -non- 
ing), to batter with cannon ; to fly off on 
collision ; (at billiards) to strike two or 
more balls in succession with the player's 
ball, can-non-ade', n. a discharge of, 
or an attack with, cannon, can-non- 
eer', n. one who manages cannon. 
[F. caftOft<L. canna, a reed.] 

can'-ny, adj. knowing ; cautious ; having 
pleasing or useful qualities. [A.S. 
cunnan, to know.] 

ca-noe' (-noo'), n. a small, light boat 
driven by paddles : v. (-noed', -noe'- 
ing). [Sp. canoa."] 

can '-on, n. a law or rule (esp. of the 




Church) ; a general rule ; a standard ; 
a member of the governing body or 
chapter of a cathedral, ca-non'-i-cal, 
adj. ca-non'-i-cals, the robes of 
the clergy as prescribed by the canon. 
can'-on-ize (-ized,-iz-ing), v. to make 
a recognized saint of. honorary canon, 
a clergyman having the title of canon 
but without duties, minor canon, a 
clergyman who assists in performing the 
daily service in a cathedral. [F. < L. < 
Gr. kanon, a straight rod.] 

caii'-on (kan'-yun or kan-yon'), n. a long, 
deep, narrow, mountain ravine worn by a 
watercourse. [Sp. canon, a tube.] 

Can'-o-py (-pi), n. an ornamental cover- 
ing fixed over a bed, throne, dai's, door, 
etc. : v. (-pied, -py-ing). [F. <L. < Gr. 
konopeion, a net or curtain to keep off 
gnats, <Gr. konops, a gnat.] 

cant, n. an affected way of speaking ; 
language used insincerely or without 
any definite meaning ; hypocrisy : v. 
(-ed, -ing). [L. canto <cano, I sing.] 

cant, t*. a slope, bevel, or inclination : v. 
(-ed, -ing), to incline or set an angle ; 
to give a new direction to. [L.L. 
cantus, a corner.] 

Cant., Canterbury. 

Can'-tab, adj. of Cambridge: n. a student 
or graduate of Cambridge University. 
[L. Cantabrigiensis, of Cambridge.] 

can-tan'-ker-ous {-us), adj. cross-tem- 
pered ; fond of making objections. [?] 

can-ta'-ta (-td'-td) n. a poem or drama 
set to music. [L. cano, I s-ing.] 

can-teen', n. a metal vessel for food and 
drink carried by soldiers ; a provision- 
store in barracks or camp. [It. cantina, 
a cellar.] 

can'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to gallop 
easily (of a horse) : ft. in a canter, 
easily. [< Pilgrims to Canterbury -who 
rode at an easy pace.] 

can-thar'-i-des (-dez), the Spanish 
fly or blister beetle used for blistering 
purposes. [L.<Gr. kantlidris, a blis- 
tering fly.] 

can'-ti-cle (-ti-kl), n. a hymn or psalm 
arranged for chanting in the Church , 
Service. [L. cano, I sing.] 

can'-ti-le-Yer,n. along, projecting brack- 
et or arm to support a roadway (as of a 
bridge), a balcony, or other great weight. 
[O.F. cant, an angle.] 

can-to, n. (pi. -tos), a principal division 
of a poem, can' -tor, n. the leader of 

a church choir, can-to' -ris, ft. the 
north side of a choir, where the pre- 
centor or leader sits. [I. <L. cano, I sing] 

can-ton', n. a division of a country (esp. 
Switzerland). [F.< O.F. cant, a, corner.] 

can'-ton-ment (or can-ton'-, or can-toon'-) 
n. temporary quarters for troops ; (in 
India) a permanent military station. 
[< canton.] [bury. 

Can'-tu-ar., Cantuaria [L.], of Canter- 

can'-yas, n. coarse cloth for sails, for 
painting pictures on, etc. [F.<L. 
cannabis, hemp.] 

can'-yass (-Yassed, -Yass-ing), v. to 
examine minutely ; to solicit votes : n. 
can'-Yas-ser, n. [<canYas.] 

cah'-yon, see canon. 

caout'-chouc (koo'-chook),n. india-rubber 
[F.<S. American.] 

cap, n. a light, soft covering for the head ; 
a cover ; the top : v. (capped, cap'- 
ping), to put a cap on ; to cover the top 
of ; to salute ; to surpass, black cap, 
a cap of black cloth put on by the judge 
before he pronounces sentence of death. 
a feather in one's cap, something to 
be proud of, or that gives distinction. 
[L. cappa, a cape or cloak.] 

cap., caput [L.] chapter (lit. head). 

ca'-pa-ble, adj. having ability, skill, or 
power ; of sufficient size, ca-pa-bil'- 
i-ty, n. [F. <L. capio, I take.] 

ca-pa'-cious (-slius), adj. holding much; 
roomy ; wide ; extensive, ca-pac'-i-ty 
(-pas'-), n. what a vessel, etc., will hold; 
the power of grasping ideas ; power of 
mind or character. [L. capax< capio, 
I take.] [to foot. 

cap-a-pie (-d-pe'), [F.] adv. from head 

ca-par'-i-son, n. the covering cloth or 
ornamental trappings of a horse. [F. 
and Sp.<L. cappa, a cloak.] 

cape, n. a covering for the shoulders. [F. 
<L. cappa, a cloak.] 

cape, n. a headland. The Cape, Cape 
Colony. Cape boy, a native servant in 
S. Africa. [F. cap <L. caput, a head.] 

ca'-per (-pered, -per-ing), v. to leap 
about ; to dance : n. a leap (as of a goat) ; 
a prank. [F. <L. caper, a he-goat.] 

ca'-per, n. the flower-bud of a bush, used 
for pickling purposes and for sauces. 
[F.<L.<P. kabar.] 

ca-per-cail'-zie (-kdl'-zl or -yl), n. a 
species of grouse of large size (Scotch 
name). [Ga.] 

ca'-pi-as, n. a writ authorizing the sei- 




zure of a person or his goods. [L. thou 
mayst take.] 

ca-pil'-Iar-y, adj. of or like a hair : n. the 
minute blood-vessels that unite the veins 
and arteries, cap-il-lar'-i-ty, n. the 
phenomenon shown in capillary attrac- 
tian. capillary attraction, that which 
exists when a liquid rises in small, hair- 
like tubes. [L. capillus, a hair.] 

cap'-i-tal, n. the head of a column ; the 
chief or most important thing ; the city 
which forms the seat of the government 
of a country ; stock or money for carry- 
ing on trade : adj. chief ; very good or 
important ; (crime) punishable with 
death, cap'-i-tal-ist, n. one who has 
large capital or money, cap-i-ta'-tion, 
n. numeration by head or person, capi- 
tation grant, one made per head or 
individual, to make capital out of, 
to turn to advantage. [L. ca'pitdlis< 
caput, head.] 

Cap'-i-tol, n. a hill at Rome surmounted 
by the Temple of Jupiter ; the temple 
Itself ; (in the United States) the build- 
ing in which the Congress (or Parlia- 
ment) meets. [L. capitolium< caput, 
the head.] 

ca-pit -u-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to 
surrender on conditions. [L.L.<L. 
caput, the head.] 

ca'-pon, n. a young male domestic fowl 
fattened for the table. [A.S. capun.] 

ca-price' (-prees'), n. humour; whim. 
ca-pri'-cious (-prish'-us), adj. subject 
to sudden changes or whims ; unsettled. 
[F.<L. caper, a he-goat.] 

Cap'-ri-corn (-ri-), n. the tenth sign of 
the Zodiac. [L. capricornus, horned 
like a goat.] 

cap'-si-cum, n. a plant from the pods of 
which Cayenne pepper is prepared. [L. 
capsa, a case, a pod.] 

cap-size' (-sized', -si'-zing), v. to upset ; 
to overturn. [L. caput, the head (?).] 

cap'-stan, n. an upright machine for 
raising an anchor, or other weighty 
object. [F. cabestan."] 

cap'-sule, n. the seed-vessel of a plant ; a 
cap of metal ; a tiny bag of gelatine 
containing nauseous medicine. [F.< 
L. capsa, a case <capio, I take.] 

Capt., captain. 

cap-tain (-tin or -tan), n. a chief officer ; 
one who commands a company, a troop, 
or a ship ; the leader of a team or club ; 
the head boy in a school : v. (-tained. 

-tain-ing), to direct ; to manage, cap'- 
tain-ship, cap'-tain-cy, ns. the office 
of captain. [F. capitaine<h. caput, 
the head.] 

cap'-tion (sMm), n. the act of taking or 
arresting ; raising frivolous objections. 
cap'-tious (shus), adj. ready to make 
objections ; difficult to please ; fault- 
finding. [L. captio, a seizure <capio > 
I take.] 

cap'-tive (-tiv), n. a prisoner ; a slave ; 
adj. cap'-ti-vate (-Ya-ted, -Ya-ting), 
v. to take prisoner ; to charm, cap- 
tiY'-i-ty,n. state of being captive, cap'- 
tor, n. one who captures, or takes 
prisoner, cap'-ture (-tured, -tur-ing), 
v. to take prisoner ; to seize : n. [L. 
captivus<capio, I take.] 

Cap-u-chin' (-u-shen'), n. a monk of the 
Order of St. Francis (wearing a hood). 
[F. capucin<Ii. cuppa, acloak (or hood)] 

car, n. a general name for various kinds 
of vehicles, as motor-car, tram-car, 
etc. ; the cage of a balloon. [L. carrus, 
a four-wheeled vehicle.] 

car-a-bin-eer' or car-bin-eer', n. a 
soldier armed with a carbine [?.«.]. 

car'-a-cal (-kal), n. a kind of African and 
Asiatic lynx providing a fine fur. [F. < T.] 

car'-ack, n. a ship of burden and also for 
fighting, formerly used by Spaniards and 
Portuguese. [Sp. carraca.'} 

car'-a-cole (-a-kol), n. a quick half-turn 
made by a horseman: v. [F.<Sp. 
caracol, a snail's shell.] 

car-afe' (-#/')> n. a water-bottle (for the 
table). [F. cara/e<Sp.<Ar.] 

car'-a-mel,rt. burnt sugar used for colour- 
ing soups, gravies, wines, etc. ; a kind 
of sweetmeat. [Sp. caramelo, a sugar 

car'-at, n. a weight of 4 grains ; one 
twenty-fourth part (gold), as 9 carat = 
containing 2 9 ¥ of pure gold. [F.<Ar. 

car-a-Yan', n. (in Eastern countries) a 
body of travellers and their vehicles and 
beasts of burden ; a large, close carriage 
for conveying wild beasts ; a house on 
wheels. car-a-Yan'-sa-ry or -se-rai, 
n. a kind of inn where caravans rest for 
the night. [F.<P. kdrwdn."] 

car'-a-yel or car'-yel, n. a kind of small 
ship. [F.<L] 

car'-a-way (kar'-), n. a plant whose 
aromatic seeds are used for flavouring. 
[Sp.<L. careum."] 




car'-bide, n . a combination of carbon with 
a metal. [< carbon 1 *] 

car'-bine (-bin), n. a short rifle chiefly 
used by horse-soldiers. [F.<Gr. kata- 
ballo, I throw down.] 

car-bol'-ic, adj. derived frdm coal or coal- 
tar, carbolic acid, an acid, used as a 
disinfectant, produced from coal-tar. 
[L. carlo, coal.] 

car'-bon, n a chemical element ; pure 
charcoal, car-bon'-ic, adj. of carbon. 
carbonic acid or carbon dioxide, a 
compound of carbon and oxygen, usually 
existing in the form of gas. car-bo- 
na'-ceous (situs), adj. pertaining to, 
containing, or composed of carbon, car'- 
bon-ate, n. a compound formed with 
carbonic acid and a base, carbon 
paper, thin paper coated with lamp- 
black and lard or vaseline, used for 
obtaining a copy of writing, etc. gas 
carbon, the crust (pure carbon) formed 
inside gas retorts, and used in electric 
arc lamps. [F.<L. carbo, coal.] 

car '-boy, n. a very large glass bottle, pro- 
tected by basket-work, used for holding 
acids. [P.] 

car'-bun-cle (-bung-kl), n. a precious 
stone of a fiery red colour ; a kind of 
ulcer. [L. carbanculus < carbo, coal.] 

car'-bu-ret-ter, n. in a petrol or oil- 
engine, that part of the apparatus in 
which the oil or petrol vapour is mixed 
with air before combustion, explosion, 
or "firing." In gas-making, that part 
of the plant in which air or gas is mixed 
with the vapour of certain oils to give it 
greater illuminating power. [ < carbon.] 

car'-cass (pi. -cass-es) orcar'-case (pi. 
-cas-es), n. a dead body ; a corpse ; a 
ruin ; the framework of anything. [F. 
carcasse (?).] 

card, n. a piece of pasteboard, blank or 
with name, figures, notice, etc., on it. 
card'-board, n. thick card, card- 
sharper, one who cheats at, or with, 
cards, on the cards, likely to happen. 
to play one's cards well (or badly), 
to make (or not make) the best of one's 
chances, to show one's cards, to show 
one's plans or schemes, to throw up 
the cards, to give in ; to admit defeat. 
[F. carte <L. charta, paper.] 

card (-ed, -ing), v. to comb wool, flax, 
etc. [F. carde <Ij. carduus, a thistle.] 

car'-di-ac, adj. relating to the heart. 
[L. <Gr. kardia, the heart.] 

Car'-di-gan-jack'-et, n. a thick, knitted 
woollen jacket. [< The Earl of Cardi- 
gan, 1797-1868.] 

car'-din-al, adj. chief ; principal : n. a 
Roman Catholic dignitary next in rank 
to the Pope ; a deep-scarlet colour. 
car '-din-al-ate, n. the office of cardinal. 
cardinal numbers, the numbers 1, 2, 
3, etc., as distinguished from 1st, 2nd, 
3rd, etc. cardinal points, east, west, 
north, south, cardinal Yirtues, justice, 
prudence, temperance, fortitude, which 
are called the four chief moral virtues. 
[L. cardindlis<cardo, a hinge.] 

care, n. heed ; charge ; anxiety ; respon- 
sibility ; the object of care : v. (cared, 
ca'-ring), to have care, care'-ful, adj. 
care'-less, adj. care-taker, n. one 
left in charge of a house or other 
premises, care'-worn, adj. tired or 
harassed with care. *» [A.S. caru, care.] 

ca-reen' (-reened', -reen'-ing), v. to 
cause a ship to lie on one side (for clean- 
ing or repairing) ; to heel over. [F. 
carener <L. carina, keel.] 

ca-reer', n. a course of action in life ; 
calling ; profession ; a race : v. (-reered', 
-reer'-ing), to move or run rapidly. 
[F. carrUre <L. carrus, a car.] 

ca-ress' (-ressed', -ress'-ing), v. to 
stroke, fondle, or treat with marks of 
affection: n. [F.<L. cams, dear.] 

ca'-ret, n. a mark (in writing, thus a) t° 
show that something has been omitted. 
[L. caret, it is wanting.] 

car'-go, n. (pi. car'-goes), a load (esp. on 
'a ship). [Sp.<L. carrus, a car.] 

car'-i-ca-ture (-l-ka-), n. a likeness or 
sketch intended to cause laughter or 
ridicule : v. (-tured, -tu-ring), to ridi- 
cule, exaggerate, or distort by means of 
caricature, car-i-ca-tu'-rist, n. one 
who — . [I. carica, a load.] 

ca'-ri-es (-rl-ez), n. ulceration or rotten- 
ness of bone or teeth, ca'-ri-ous, adj. 
decayed. [L. caries, rottenness.] 

car'-il-lon, n. a peal or chime of bells, 
esp. one playing a tune. [F.<L. 
quattuor, four.] 

car'-i-ole (-ol), n. a light one-horse car- 
riage. [F.<L. carrus, a car.] 

Car'-mel-ite, n. one of an order of mendi- 
cant friars established on Mt. Carmel, 
in Syria, in the 12th century ; a White 
Friar (from the white cloak he wore). 

car-min'-a-tiye, n. a medicine to relieve 
colic or pain in the bowels. [F. <L. 




carmindre, to cleanse.] 

car' -mine, n. a crimson or deep-red 
colour prepared from cochineal. [F. 
and Sp.<root of crimson.] 

car'-nage,w. slaughter; great destruction 
of life. [See carnal.] 

car'-nal,ac(;'. relating to the flesh; worldly. 
[L. carnalis<caro, carnis, flesh.] 

car-na'-tion (shun), n. flesh-colour; a 
well-known beautiful garden-flower of I 
the pink family. [See carnal.] 

car'-ni-Yal, n. a feast (in the K.C. j 
Church) preceding Lent ; any season of 
merriment; a gala. [F. carnaval<h. 
ram, carnis, flesh, levo, I lighten.] 

car-niy'-o-ra, n. pi. {sing, -Yore), the 
flesh-eating animals. car-niY'-o-rous, 
adj. flesh-eating. [L. caro, carnis, flesh, 
vuro, I devour.] 

car'-ol, n. a song of joy, praise, or mirth : 
v. (-oled, -ol-ing,or "11"), to sing joy- 
fully ; to praise in song, car'-ol-er, n. 
[O.F. carole ; L. chorus, a dance.] 

ca-rot'-id, n. one of the two great arteries 
of the neck : adj. [Gr. karotides."] 

ca-rouse' (-rouz') (-roused', -rous'-ing), 
v. to drink freely or copiously ; to revel : 
n. a drinking-bout, or ca-rous'-al. [F. 
<G. gar aus, quite out.] 

carp, n. a fresh-water fish. [L. carpa.'] 

carp (carped, carp'-ing), v. to find fault 
needlessly or ill-naturedly, carp'-er, 
n. one who — . [L. carpo, I pluck.] 

car'-pe di'-etn [L.] enjoy the present 
day ; seize the opportunity. 

car' -pel, n. a simple pistil, or one of the ! 
parts of a compound pistil, in a flower. '■ 
[Gr. karpos, fruit.] 

car'-pen-ter, n. a Avorker in timber in I 
building houses, ships, etc. car'-pen- | 
try, n. the work of a — . [F. <L. car- 
pentarius< carrus, a car.] 

car' -pet, n. a woven or felted woollen 
covering for a floor : v. (-ed, -ing), to 
cover with a — . car'-pet-ing, n. car- 
pets generally ; materials of which car- 
pets are made, carpet-bagger, an 
adventurer, esp. one seeking political 
advantages, carpet-knight, one made 
a knight for other than service in the 
field ; one knighted by mere Court 
favour ; a stay-at-home soldier, to be 
on the carpet, to be under considera- 
tion ; to be brought up for censure. 
[O.F.<L. carpo, I pluck.] 

car'-riage (-rij), n. the act or cost of 
carrying (goods, etc.) ; that which carries, 

as a vehicle (esp. for persons) ; behaviour ; 
manners; bearing. [O.F. cariage<L. 
carrus, a car.] 

car'-ri-on, n. putrid or rotten flesh : adj. 
relating to or feeding upon — . [O.F. < 
L. caro, carnis, flesh.] 

car-ron-ade', n. a short kind of cannon. 
[<Carron, in Scot., where first made.] 

car'-rot, n. a well-known vegetable with 
a long edible root, car'-rot-y, adj. like 
a carrot (esp. in colour or taste). [F. 

car'-ry (-ried, -ry-ing), v. to bear along; 
to transport ; to transfer ; to capture (as 
a fortress) ; to effect ; to behave ; to gain 
the election of a candidate ; to get a bill, 
resolution, etc., passed ; to reach (as of 
a gun), car'-ri-er, n. one who trans- 
ports goods (in cart, etc.) carrier- 
pigeon, n. a pigeon trained to carry 
letters or small packets, to — coals 
to Newcastle, to perform unnecessary 
labour, to — out or through, to 
succeed, to — one's point, to overrule 
objections, to — OYer, to allow an 
account to remain open beyond the day 
when it should be paid, to — the day, 
to win. to — weight, to have influence. 
[O.F.<L. carrus, a car.] 

cart, n. a two-wheeled vehicle for convey- 
ing goods : v. (-ed, -ing), to convey in 
a cart, cart'-age, n. the conveyance 
of goods in a cart ; the cost of such con- 
veyance. cart'-er,w. cart'-horse, n. 
cart'-wright, n. a carpenter who makes 
carts, to put the — before the horse, 
to say or do things the wrong way about. 
[L. carrus, a car.] 

carte, n. a card ; a bill of fare, carte- 
blanche' (kart-blansh') [F.], a white 
card ; full liberty to act as one pleases. 
carte-de-Yisite' (-ve-zeet'), n. (pi. 
cartes-de-Yisite'), a photographic por- 
trait on a small card, 4£" x 2£". 

car'-tel, n. a written agreement (esp. 
between armies for an exchange of 
prisoners) ; a challenge to fight ; a defi- 
ance. [F.<L. charta, paper.] 

Car-thu'-si-an (-zi-) t n. a monk of a 
religious order founded in 1086 at 
Chartreuse, in France ; a scholar of 
Charterhouse School (formerly, London) 

car'-ti-lage (-Idj), n. gristle, car-ti- 
laj'-i-nous (-ldj'-i-nus), adj. [F.] 

car '-ton, n. a light cardboard or thick 
paper box or case. [F. carton, pasteboard] 

car-toon', ». a large sketoh or design for 




a picture, etc. ; a humorous illustration 
(esp. one referring to current events). 
car-toon '-ist, n. one who draws — . 
[F. carton<li. charta, paper.] 

car-touche' (-toosh'), n. a cartridge or 
cartridge-box ; a tablet with an inscrip- 
tion. [F.<L. charta, paper.] 

car'-tridge (-trij), n. a case (of paper, 
parchment, metal, etc.) containing the 
full charge for a gun. ball-cartridge, 
a — containing balls, etc., and powder. 
blank-cartridge, a — containing 
powder only, cartridge paper, thick, 
strong, drawing-paper {prig, for making 
cartridges). [F. <L. charta, paper.] 

carve (carved, cary'-ing), v. to cut (up) ; 
to cut into shape ; to contrive or plan. 
car'-ven, adj. carved. car'-Yer, n. 
one who cuts up (esp. meat) ; a large 
knife for carving, carv'-ing, n. a piece 
of sculpture ; the thing carved. [A.S. 
ceorfan, to cut.] 

car'-yel-built, adj. (said of a boat) with 
smooth planking on the sides, the boards 
not being overlapped or clinkered. [Sp. 
<L.L. carabus, a ship of light build.] 

car-y-at'-id, ft. (pi- -ids, or -i-des), a 
carved figure of a woman used instead of 
a column. \Caryae, a town in Greece.] 

cas-cade', ft. a waterfall. [F. <L. cado, 
I fall.] 

cas'-ca-ra, ft. a kind of buckthorn, Cas- 
cara sagrada, a Calif ornian bark, or its 
extract, used as an aperient. [Sp.] 

case, ft. a covering ; a box ; a sheath ; the 
boards covering a book : v. (cased, ca'- 
sing), to put a case to. ca'-sing, n. 
case— harden, v. to harden, as iron, by 
converting the surface into steel, case- 
hardened, adj. callous ; indifferent to 
good influences. [O.F.<L. capsa, a 
chest, box.] 

case, It. what falls or happens ; an event, 
circumstance, or condition ; a person 
under medical treatment ; a suit or 
action at law. in case, lest ; in the event 
of. [F. cas<h. casus, a falling<c«do, 
I fall.] 

ca'-se-in or -ine, ft. the curd of milk ; a 
similar substance found in many vege- 
tables. [F.<L. caseus, cheese.] 

case-mate, n. a bomb-proof chamber in 
a fort. [F. casemate.] 

case'-ment, ft. a window opening on 
hinges like a door. [<case.] 

cash, n. money of any kind (esp. coin) ; a 
Chinese coin = £d. : v. (cashed, cash '- 

ing), to turn into money, cash '-book, ft'. 

a book in which cash transactions are 
entered, cash-ier' (-er') , n. one who has 
charge of money (in a bank or office) : v. 
(-iered',-ier'-ing), to dismiss in disgrace 
[O.F. casse, a box<L. capsa, a box.] 

cash '-mere, n. a rich Indian shawl (made 
from the wool of the Cashmere goat) ; a 
fabric made from fine wool. 

ca-si'-no (-se'- or kaz'-i-no), n. (pi. -nos), 
a public room for dancing, singing, and 
other amusements. [I.<L. casa, a 

cask, ft. a hollow, round, hooped vessel ; a 
barrel. [F. casque <L. quasso, I break.] 

cask'-et, ft. a small case or box ; a jewel- 
case ; an ornamental coffin. [Dim. 'of 

casque (cask), ft. a helmet. [See cask.] 

cas-sa'-tion (-shun), n. the reversal of a 
sentence in a court of justice. In France 
the Court of Cassation is the court of 
final appeal. [F. < casser, to break <L. 
cassus, empty.] 

cas-sa'-va (sd'-), n. an American and W. 
Indian plant from which tapioca (a kind 
of starch) is obtained. [Haytianfcasafra.] 

cas'-ser-ole, n. a stew-pan of porcelain ; 
a saucepan. [F. casse, a basin.] 

cas'-si-a (hash'-), n. a tropical shrub from 
which the medicine senna is obtained. 
[L. cassia <Gr. kasia.~\ 

cas'-sock, ft. a long, loose robe (often 
black) now worn only by clergymen and 
choristers. [F. casaque."] 

cas'-so-wa-ry (-ica-rl), n. a large bird 
found in the East Indies, and resembling 
the ostrich. [Malay.] 

cast (cast, cast' -ing), v. to throw ; to 
throw off, down, or up ; to mould in 
metal or plaster ; to reckon ; to calculate 
(as accounts): n. cast'-a-way, n. a 
person (or ship) cast away or abandoned. 
cast' -ing— vote, n. a vote given to decide 
a cause when the two sides are equal. 
cast'— iron,n. melted iron, oriron which 
has been melted, cast— steel, fine steel, 
cast and rolled into bars, the last — , 
the last chance, to be — , to be defeated 
(at law) . to — away, to reject or waste. 

cas'-ta-nets, n. pi. two spoon-like pieces 
of ivory or hard wood fastened to the 
thumb and rattled by the fingers in time 
with music of a dance, song, etc. [Sp. 
<L. castanea, a chestnut.] 

caste, n. a class of persons as regards 




rank (esp. in India) ; social distinction. 
[F.<L. castas, pure.] 

cas'-tel-la-ted, adj. having turrets and 
battlements like a castle. [ < castle.] 

cas'-ti-gate (-ga-ted, -ga-ting), v. to 
chastise ; to punish, cas-ti-ga'-tion, 
n. [L. castlgo, I chastise.] 

castle (kas'-l), n. a fortified residence ; a 
nobleman's seat, to build castles in 
the air or in Spain, to day-dream ; to 
scheme impossible things. [L. castellum, 
dim. of casa, a house.] 

cast '-or or -er, n. a small wheel on a 
swivel placed on the legs of furniture ; a 
phial or cruet to contain condiments (as 
pepper, vinegar, etc.) for the table ; the 
stand for such vessels. [<cast.] 

c as '-tor— oil, n. a medicine prepared from 
the seeds of a tropical plant. [?] 

cas'-U-al (kaz'-),adj. accidental ; happen- 
ing by chance : n. a tramp ; an occa- 
sional visitor, cas'-u-al-ty, n. (pi. 
-ties), an accident (esp. a fatal one) ; in 
pi. number of men killed or wounded in 
battle, accident, etc. [L. casudlis< 
casus, chance.] 

cas'-u-ist (kaz'-), n. one who examines 
and pronounces on nice cases or matters 
of conduct, duty, or conscience, cas- 
u-is'-tic, adj. cas'-u-is-try (-tri), n. 
the science of deciding on the right or 
wrong of acts, opinions, and duties ; 
false reasoning ; quibbling. [L. casus, 
a case.] 

ca'-sus bef-Ii, [L.] cause (or sufficient 
ground) for war or quarrelling. 

cat, n. a common domestic animal, cat— 
o'— nine'— tails, n. a flogging instru- 
ment, cat's'— cradle, n. a children's 
game with string on the fingers, cat's'— 
eye, n. a gem of quality, cat's'— paw, 
n. a tool ; the dupe (of another) ; a light 
breeze, to lead a — and dog life, to 
be quarrelsome, to let the — out of 
the bag, to tell a secret. [A.S. caM.j 

cata-, cat-, cath-, pre/. [Gr.] down ; 
according to. 

cat'-a-clysm (-d-klizm), n. a deluge ; a 
political or social upheaval (as a revolu- 
tion). [Gr. kata, down, kluzo, I wash.] 

cat'-a-comb (-a-kom), n. a subterranean 
cavern used as a burying-place. [Gr. 
kata, down, kumbe, a hollow.] 

cat'-a-falque (-d-falk), n. a temporary 
canopy placed over a tomb or a coffin 
during a lying-in-state ; a grand funeral 
car. [F.<L. catafalco."} 

cat'-a-lep-sy, n. a kind of nervous affec- 
tion or sudden fit in which the limbs are 
unable to move. cat-a-Iep'-tic, adj. 
[Gr. katalepsis, a seizing.] 

cat'-a-logue (-d-log), n. a list (of names, 
books, etc.) : v. (-logued, -logu-ing), 
to make or place in a — . [Gr. kata, 
down, logos, a reckoning.] 

cat-a-ma-ran', 7/. a kind of raft or surf- 
boat. [Indian.] [[<cat.] 

cat'-a-mount, n. a wild cat; a lynx. 

cat'-a-pult, n. a machine or instrument 
for throwing (stones, etc.). [Gr. kata, 
down, polio, I throw.] 

cat'-a-ract, />. a large waterfall ; a disease 
of the lens of the eye. [Gr. kata, down, 
rhegnumi, I break.] 

ca-tarrh' (kd-tdr'), n. a cold in the head. 
[Gr. kata, down, rheo, I flow.] 

ca-tas'-tro-phe (-fe), «. a great calamity 
or sudden disaster ; the winding-up of 
the plot in a tale or play; the denoue- 
ment (q.v.). [Gr. kata, down, strepho, 
I turn.] 

catch (caught, catch'-ing), v. to seize ; to 
lay hold of ; to grasp ; to understand ; 
to take captive ; to take (as a disease) ; 
to reach in time (as a train) : n. what is 
caught (as in fishing) ; a kind of song ; a 
difficulty, catch'-a-ble, adj. catch'- 
er, n. catch'-y, adj. attractive ; diffi- 
cult ; tricky, catch'-ment, n. an area 
from which water may be drained and 
retained (as for waterworks, etc.). 
catch '-word, n. the cue (in a play), 
q.v. ; the index word at the head of a 
page in a dictionary ; a word or phrase 
used as the symbol of a party, to — 
on, to become popular, catch— penny, 
a worthless thing made only to sell. 
[O.F. cachiev<Ij. captare, to seize.] 

cat'-chup (not catsup). See ketchup. 

cat'-e-chism (-kizm), u. instruction by 
way of question and answer. The 
Church Catechism is a summary of the 
Christian teachings of the Church of 
England ; the Longer and the Shorter 
Catechisms are those used by the Pres- 
byterian Churches, cat'-e-chize (-kiz), 
(-chized, -chi-zing), v. — ; to ques- 
tion ; to interrogate, cat-e-chet'-i-cal 
(-ket'-i-), adj. cat'-e-chi-zer or cat'- 
e-chist, n. one who catechizes. [Gr. 
katechizo, I catechize.] 

cat-e-chu'-men f»iu';-y, n. one who is 
being instructed in the first rudiments 
of Christianity. [Gr. kateched, I teach.] 




cat'-e-gor-y,n.a class of ideas ; a general 
heading, cat-e-gor'-i-cal, adj. abso- 
lute ; positive. [Gr. kata, down, agoreo, 
I speak in an assembly.] 

ca'-tcr (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to provide 
(esp. food or entertainment), ca'-ter- 
er, n. one who — . [O.F. acat, a pur- 
chase <L. adcapto, I take.] 

cat'-er-pil-lar, n. a grub that feeds upon 
the leaves of plants ; the larva of certain 
insects. [O.F. <L. pilosus, hairy. Pro- 
perly ' hairy cat.'] 

cat -er-waul (-wauled, -waul-ing), ft to 
cry like a cat. [Imitative.] 

cat' -gut, n. a kind of tough cord made 
from the intestines of animals (esp. 
sheep), and used as strings for violins, 
harps, etc. [cat -f gut.] 

cath-ar'-tic, adj. cleansing ; purifying or 
purging (medicine). [Gr. kathairo, I 

cath'-e-dra (or ka-the' -dra) , n. the 
bishop's throne or chair (in a cathedral). 
ex cath'-e-dra, [L.] in a formal or 
official manner. [L.<Gr. kathedra, a 

ca-the'-dral, n. the chief church in a dio- 
cese, containing the bishop's throne. 
[See cathedra.] 

cath'-ode, n. (in elec.) the negative pole 
or electrode of an electric cell or battery ; 
the way by which elec. leaves substances 
through which it passes (opposed to 
anode). [Gr. kata, down, odos, a way.] 

cath'-o-lic, adj. universal ; all-embra- 
cing ; general ; liberal ; broad-minded. 
Catholic Church, the whole body of 
Christians throughout the world. 
Roman Catholic Church, the body of 
Christians who accept the teachings of 
the Church of Borne. Catholic, n. a 
member of the universal Church, esp. 
applied to a member of the Church of 
Eome. ca-thol'-i-cism(,?i. ca- 
thol'-i-cize (-siz), (-cized, -ciz-ing), v. 
[Gr. katholikos<kata, down, holos, the 

cat' -kin, n. a spike of flowers (resembling 
the cat's tail) growing on the willow, 
hazel, and some other trees, [cat + 
dim. -kin J] 

cau'-cus, n. (pi. -es), a committee of 
citizens to organize and influence polit- 
ical elections. [?] 

cau'-dal, adj. pertaining to the tail. [L. 
cauda, a tail.] 

cau'-dle (-dl), n, a kind of warm drink 

made with wine, spices, etc., given to 
sick persons. [O.F. <L. calidus, hot.] 

caul'-dron, n. a large kettle or boiler. 
[O.F.<L. calidus, hot.] 

caul'-i-flow-er, n. a variety of cabbage 
with a tuft of large edible flowers. [L. 
caulis, cabbage + flower.] 

caulk, or calk (kawk), (caulked, caulk- 
ing), v. to make the seams of a ship 
watertight. [O.F.<L. calco, I tread.] 

cause, n. the source of being ; the reason ; 
a suit or action at law ; a great enter- 
prise or movement ; an aim or object : 
v. (caused, caus'-ing), to be the reason 
of or for ; to produce an effect, cau-sa'- 
tion, n. the act or principle of causing. 
cause celebre' (koz sd-ldbr'), [F.] a 
famous trial or action at law. [F.<L. 
causa, a cause.] 

cause' -rie (koz'-rl), n. gossip, esp. about 
literature or art. [F. < L. causa, reason.] 

cause'-way, n. a raised way or path ; the 
pavement. [F. chaussee <. L. calx, chalk] 

caus'-tic, adj. burning ; severe ; sarcastic : 
n. a burning or corroding substance 
(esp. in medicine). [Gr. kaustikos< 
kaio, I burn.] 

cau'-ter-ize (-ized, -iz-ing), v. (surgery) 
to burn (esp. with caustic). [< caustic] 

cau'-tion, n. prudence ; wariness; great 
care; advice; warning: v. (-tioned, 
-tion-ing), to warn, cau'-tious, adj. 
using great care ; wary ; watchful. 
cau'-tion-a-ry, adj. cau'-tious-ly, 
adv. caution money, money paid as 
security for good behaviour. [F.<L. 
cautio, caution < caveo, I take great care.] 

cay-al-cade', n. a train or procession of 
persons on horseback. [F. < L. caballus, 
a horse.] 

caY-a-lier' (-a-ler'), n. a horseman; a 
knight ; a gentleman escorting a lady ; 
a Royalist in the great Civil War : adj. 
gay ; easy ; frank, cav-a-lier'-ly, 
adv. in a light, easy, off-hand manner. 
[See cavalcade.] [alcade.] 

cay'-al-ry, n. horse-soldiers. [See cav- 

caye, n. a hollow place underground. 
cay' -em, n. a large cave, cay'-ern- 
ous, adj. full of caves ; hollow, cay'- 
i-ty (-l-ti), 11. a hollow, to — in, to 
give way ; to acknowledge oneself beaten. 
[F.<L. cavus, hollow.] 

ca'-ve-at, [L.] let him take heed : n. a 
process in a law court to stop proceedings. 

cay-i-are' (-£/•') orcay-iar' (kav-ydr'),n. 
a choice article of diet made from the 




salted roe of the sturgeon. [F.<T. 

caY'-il (-illed, -il-ling), v. to raise trifling 
objections ; to find fault without good 
reason : n. caY'-il-ler, n. one who 
cavils. [O.F. < L. cavillor, I jest, cavil.] 

cay-enne' (kd-en'), n. a kind of very hot 
pepper, named after Cayenne, in French 
Guiana, South America. 

cay'-man, n. (pi. -mans), the alligator 
of America. [Sp. < native name.] 

C.B., Companion of the Bath. 

C.C., County Councillor. 

C.E., Civil Engineer ; Church of England ; 
Christian Endeavour. 

cease («&)* (ceased, ceas'-ing),t ; . to stop ; 
to come to an end. cease -less. adj. 
continual; unending. [F. cesser <L. 
cedo, I yield.] 

ce'-dar (se'-) t n. a large evergreen tree of 
the family of the pine and the fir. [L. 
cedrus<Gi'. kedros.~\ 

cede (*ed), (ce'-ded, ce'-ding), v. to give 
up : to vield. ce'-der, n. [L. cedo, 
I yield.] 

ceil ' -ing (sel '•),». the top surface of a room . 
[F. ciel, heaven <L. ccelwn, the sky.] 

cel'-an-dine (sel'-dn-d'Ln), n. a plant of the 
poppy family, also called swallow-wort. 
[F.<L.<Gr. chelidon, a swallow.] 

cela va sans dire (siild vd sdn deer), 
[F.] that is a matter of course. 

cel'-e-brate {sel'-), (-bra-ted, -bra-ting), 
v. to make famous or praise highly ; to 
mark by certain religious or solemn 
ceremonies ; to keep (as a birthday). 
cel'-e-brant, n. one who performs a 
public religious service (esp. Holy Com- 
munion). cer-e-bra-ted,arf/. famous ; 
distinguished ; noted, cel-e-bra'-tion, 
n. ce-leb'-ri-ty, n. fame ; a famous 
person. [F.<L. celebro, I celebrate< 
celeber, famous.] 

ce-ler'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. swiftness ; great 
speed. [F.<L. celer, swift.] 

cel'-er-y, n. a common, well-known vege- 
table. [F. celeri<h. and Gr. selinon, 

ce-les'-ti-al, adj. heavenly : n. an inhabi- 
tant of heaven ; a native of China, the 
Celestial Empire, China. [L. ccelestis 
< ccelwn, heaven.] 

cel'-i-ba-cy (-bd-si), n. state of being and 
remaining unmarried, cel'-i-bate, n. 
an unmarried person : adj. living single. 
[L. ccelebs, unmarried.] 

cell, /(. a small room (esp. in prison or 

monastery) ; a small cavity ; a minute 
mass of protoplasm or living matter, 
containing a nucleus, and enclosed in a 
membranous sac, composing the tissues 
of animals and plants ; a division of an 
electrical battery. cell'-u-lar. adj. 
formed of or resembling cells, cell'-u- 
lose, adj. containing cells : n. the sub- 
stance forming the solid framework of 
plants. [L. cella<celo, I conceal.] 

cel'-lar, n. an underground store-room. 
cel'-lar-man, n. the keeper of a cellar 
(esp. a wine-cellar), cel-lar-et', n. a 
case for holding wine and spirit bottles. 
[L. cellar kuiKcelo, I conceal.] 

'cel'-lo (chel'-lo), n. (pi. -li or -los), an 
abbreviation of violoncello, 'eel ' -list, n. 

cell'-u-loid, n. a substance made of gun- 
cotton and camphor, and coloured to 
imitate ivory, tortoise-shell, horn, etc. 
[< cellulose.] 

ce-ment' (se-), n. a substance for sticking ; 
a kind of mortar ; a bond of union : 
v. (-ed, -ing). [O.F.^L. ccementum.'} 

cem'-e-ter-y, n. a burial-ground. [L.< 
Gr. koimeterion<koimao, I cause to 

cen'-o-taph (-taf), n. an empty tomb or 
monument erected to a person who is 
buried elsewhere. [Gr. kenos, empty, 
taphos, a tomb.] 

cen'-ser, n. a pan in which incense is 
burned. [F. encensoir, see incense.] 

cen'-sor, n. one who blames or reproves ; 
an officer who examines books, news- 
papers, plays, etc., before printing, and 
forbids their publication if objection- 
able, cen-so'-ri-al, cen-so'-ri-ous, 
adjs. fault-finding, cen'-sure, w. blame 
or reproof : v. (-sured, -sur-ing). [L. 
censor <censeo, I value, I tax.] 

cen'-sus, n. a numbering of the people. 
[h.<censeo, I value.] 

cent, n. a hundred ; (in U.S.A.) the hun- 
dredth part of a dollar ( = about \d.). 
cent'-al, n. a weight of 100 lbs. per cent, 
per hundred. [L. centum, a hundred.] 

cent., centigrade (thermometer), q.v. 

cen'-taur, n. a fabulous being (in Greek 
mythology) half man and half horse. 
[L.<Gr. kentauros.'] 

cen'-ten-ar-y (less correctly sen-ten'- or 
sen-te'-na-), n. a hundredth anniversary : 
adj. cen-ten-a'-ri-an, n. a person who 
has lived a hundred years, cen-ten'- 
ni-al, adj. belonging to a hundred 
years : n. a hundredth anniversary. [L. 




centum, a hundred, annus, a year.] 

cen'-ti-grade, adj. of a hundred degrees ; 
reckoned by hundreds ; the name applied 
to a thermometer which marks 100 
degrees between freezing and boiling 
points. [L. centum, a hundred, gradus, 
a step, a degree.] 

cen'-ti-gramme (-gram), n. (in the Metric 
System) the hundredth part of a gramme . 
cen'-ti-li-tre (-le-), n. the hundredth 
part of a litre, about J fluid oz. cen'- 
time (-teem), n. the hundredth part of a 
French franc, about ^d. cen'-ti-me- I 
tre, n. the hundredth part of a metre, J 
about § in. [F.<L. centum, a hundred.] 

cen'-ti-pede, or -ped, n. an animal with 
100 (or a great many) feet, cen-tip'-e- 
dal, adj. [L. centum, a hundred, pes, 
"pedis, foot.] 

cen'-tre, n. the middle point of anything 
(esp. of a circle) ; (in shooting) the 
exact mark aimed at, the " bull's eye " ; 
a nucleus ; an object of attention, cen'- 
tral, adj. towards the centre ; conveni- 
ent, cen'-tral-ize (-ized, -iz-ing), v. 
to collect round, or draw, to a centre, 
cen-tral-i-za'-tion, n. centre of 
attraction, that upon which attention 
is most directed, centre— board, a 
moveable keel to increase or diminish 
the draught of a boat, centre of graY- 
ity, the point in a body about which it 
will balance, or at which its whole 
weight acts, centre— piece, an orna- 
ment for the centre of a table, ceiling, etc. 
[F. <L. centrum, centre <Gr. kentron.'] 

cen-trif'-u-gal, adj. fleeing from the 
centre ; contrasted with cen-trip'-e- 
tal, adj. seeking or tending towards the 
centre (both terms are specially applied 
to forces), centrifugal-machine, a 
machine for separating liquids (as cream 
from milk, etc.) , or liquids from solids (as 
water from washed clothes , etc.) . [L . cen- 
trum, centre, fugio, I flee, peto, I seek.] 

cen'-tum, n. [L.] a hundred. 

cen'-tu-ple, adj. hundred-fold. [L. cen- 
tuplus, hundred-fold.] 

cen-tu'-ri-on, n. the captain of a hundred 
(Roman) soldiers. [L. ceyiturio < centum, 
a hundred.] 

cen'-tu-ry, n. the period of one hundred 
years ; a hundred runs (in cricket). [L. 
centuria< cent urn, a hundred.] 

ceorl (kurl or churl), n. a countryman. 
[A.S., compare churl.] 

ce-ram'-ic (*«-)» adj. belonging to pottery. 

[Gr. kerdmos, potter's earth.] 

ce'-rate, n. an ointment. [L. cera, wax.] 

ce'-re-al, adj. belonging to corn : n. a corn 
plant or its grain (as wheat, barley, etc.). 
[L. Ceres, the goddess of corn.] 

cer-e-bel'-lum, n. the lower and back 
portion of the brain, cer'-e-bral, 
adj. relating to the cer'-e-brum or 
brain, cere bro— spinal fever, or cer- 
ebro-spinal meningitis ( -jl'-), spotted 
fever. [L. cerebrum, the brain.] 

cere'-ment (ser'-), n. a waxed cloth (used 
in embalming) ; in pi. grave-clothes. 
[L. cera, wax.] 

cer'-e-mo-ny (ser'-), n. a religious rite or 
other observance ; pomp or state ; a 
mode of showing reverence, respect, 
civility, etc. ; etiquette ; formality, cer- 
e-mo'-ni-al, adj. cer-e-mo -ni-ous, 
adj. formal ; exact ; precise, master 
of ceremonies, one who superintends 
or directs the carrying out of the pro- 
gramme on a public occasion, or at a 
ball, etc. without ceremony, in a free 
and easy manner. [F.<L. cocremonia, 
a ceremony.] 

ce-rise' (-reez'), n. a light cherry-red 
colour. [F. a cherry.] 

ce'-ri-um (se'-ri-), n. a rare metal of a 
leaden- iron colour (discovered 1803), 
used in making incandescent gas- 
mantles. [<the asteroid Ceres, then 

cer'-tain (-tin), adj. sure ; fixed or stated ; 
one or some ; regular ; undesirable. 
cer'-tain-ty, n. the fact or state of being 
— or sure ; that which is — . cer'-ti- 
tude, n. state of being — . [F.<L. 
certus, sure.] 

cer'-ti-fy (-fied, -fy-ing), v. to declare in 
writing ; to inform, cer-tif'-i-cate, n. 
a written declaration ; a testimonial of 
character. [F. <L. certus, certain, facio, 
I make.] 

cer-ti-o-ra'-ri (ser-slil-d-rd'-rl), n. a 
writ issued from a superior court to call 
up the records of, or to remove a cause 
from, an inferior one. [h. certiorari, 
to be certified or informed.] 

ce-ru'-le-an, adj. sky-coloured ; blue- 
coloured. [L. cceruleus, of the sky, blue.] 

ces-sa'-tion (-shun), n. a leaving off; 
ceasing ; stopping. [See cease.] 

ces'-sion (sesh'-un), n. a ceding or yielding 
up. [See cede.] 

cess '-pool, n. a kind of well which 
receives and retains the solid contents 




of a drain, [cess (?) + pool.] 

ce-ta'-ce-ous (-shi-us), adj. belonging to 
the ce-ta'-ce-a, an order of marine 
animals including whales, dolphins, etc. 
ce-ta'-ce-an,?». an animal of this order. 
[L.<Gr. ketos, a sea-monster.] 

ce'-ter-is pa'-ri-bus, [L.] other things 
being equal. [Society. 

C.E.T.S., Church of England Temperance 

cf., confer, [L.] compare. [of units. 

C.G.S., centimetre-gramme-second system 

chafe (chafed, cha'-fing), v. to irritate or 
wear away by rubbing ; to feel hot with 
anger ; to resent, chafing— dish, a vessel 
in which charcoal or other fuel is burnt 
for heating or cooking. [F. chauffer, to 
heat<L. calcfacere, to make hot.] 

cha'-fer, n. a kind of beetle ; the cock- 
chafer. [A.S., cefer."] 

chaff, n. the outside husks of grain ; 
refuse matter ; straw or hay cut small 
for cattle ; light jesting talk ; teazing : 
v. (chaffed, chaff" -ing). [A.S. ceaf.] 

chaf '-finch, n. a little British song-bird of 
the finch family, said to delight in eat- 
ing chaff. 

cha-grin' (sha-green'),n. vexation ; annoy- 
ance ; ill-humour : v. (cha-grined', 
cha-grin' -ing). [F. chagrin, shagreen, 
a rough substance used for polishing 
wood, etc.] 

chain, n. a series of links or rings fitted 
into one another ; a number of things 
coming after each other ; that which 
binds or fetters : v. to fasten with a 
chain ; to restrain, chain'— bridge, n. 
a suspension bridge supported by chain- 
cables, chain gang, a gang of convicts 
chained together, chain mail, armour 
made of iron links connected together. 
chain'— shot, n. two cannon balls 
chained together, endless chain, a chain 
whose ends have been joined together. 
Gunter's chain, a land measure of 100 
links, or 66 feet (10 sq. chains — 1 acre). 
[F. chaine<Ij. catena, a chain.] 

chair, n. a moveable seat (with a back) 
for one person ; an official seat, as of a 
magistrate, judge, professor, the presi- 
dent of a meeting, etc. ; a support fixed 
to the sleepers for the rails on a railway 
track: v. (chaired, chair'-ing), to place 
in a seat of authority ; to carry publicly 
in triumph, chair' -man, n. the presi- 
dent of a meeting, chair'-man-ship, n . 
[F. chaise <L. <Gr. kathedra, a seat.] 

Chaise {shdz), n. a small two-wheeled 

carriage drawn by one horse. [F. chaise."} 

chal-ced'-o-ny (kal-sed' -5-ni or kal'-sl- 
do-ni), n. a figured stone of the quartz 
kind. [<C'halcedon, in Asia Minor.] 

chal-et' (shal-d'), n. a Swiss mountain 
cottage, or a country residence built in 
that style. [F. chalet.] 

chal'-ice {-iss), n. a cup or bowl (esp. one 
used during the Communion Service). 
[F.<L. calix, a cup.] 

chalk (chawk), n. soft white limestone : v. 
(chalked, chalk' -ing); to mark, rub, or 
manure with chalk, chalk'-y, adj. 
French chalk, steatite or soapstone. 
chalk drawing, one made with crayons* 
to chalk out, to plan out ; to erase. 
[A.S. ccalc<L. calx, chalk.] 

chal'-lenge {-lenj), (-lenged, -len-ging), 
v. to call out to fight or contest in any 
way; to accuse; to defy; to question 
the truth or accuracy of ; to demand (as 
a pass- word) ; to object to (as a jury) : 
n. a summons to fight a duel ; a defi- 
ance, chal'-len-ger, n. [O.F. chalenge 
<L. calumnia, false accusation.] 

cha-lyb'-e-ate (ka-lib'-l-dt), adj. and n. 
(liquid) impregnated with iron. [Gr. 
chalups, steel.] 

cham'-ber (chdm'-), n. a room ; an apart- 
ment ; an assembly ; a compartment : 
in pi. a place where lawyers, etc., con- 
duct business, chamber— maid, a female 
servant who has the care of bedrooms. 
chamber music, music suitable for per- 
forming in a small room, either by one 
or a few persons. Chamber of Com- 
merce, a committee formed to watch 
over the interests of traders and mer- 
chants in a town or district. Chamber 
of Deputies, an elected body (in France) 
corresponding somewhat to the English 
House of Commons. [F. chambre< 
L. camera, a chamber.] 

cham'-ber-lain, n. an officer in a king's 
palace or a nobleman's house, who has 
charge of the chambers and who super- 
intends ceremonial matters ; an officer 
of a corporation or a court who acts 
as treasurer of public money. Lord 
Chamberlain, an officer of high standing 
in the royal household. [See chamber.] 

cha-me'-le-on (ka-),n. a small quadruped 
of the lizard kind, which has the power 
of changing colour. [L.<Gr. kamai, 
on the ground, dwarf, leon, lion.] 

cham'-fer (-fered, -fer-ing), v. to groove 
or bevel : n. [F.] 




cham'-ois (sham'-waw or sham'-l), n. a 
kind of mountain goat ; a soft kind of 
leather first made from the skin of this 
goat. [F.<G. Gemse.~\ 

champ (champed, champ'-ing), v. to 
make a snapping noise when chewing ; 
to bite or chew noisily. [Scand.] 

cham-pagne' (sham-pan 1 ), n. a kind of 
sparkling French wine. [ < Champagne, 
an old province in the N.E. of France.] 

cham'-pi-on (-pi-tin), n. one who fights 
for himself or for another ; one who has 
beaten all others ; one who defends a 
cause : v. (-oned, -on-ing). cham'-pi- 
on-ship, n. the office, state, or rank, of 
a — . [F. <li.campus, a field.] 

chance, n. that which happens ; an un- 
expected event ; an opportunity ; a pos- 
sibility : v. (chanced, chanc'-ing). an 
eYen — , an equal probability for or 
against, the main — , one's own per- 
sonal advantage or interest. [F. <L. 
cado, I fall.] 

chan -eel, ft. the eastern end part of a 
church. [L. cancelli, a screen of lattices.] 

chan'-cel-lor, n. the Minister of Finance 
in the British Government (the " Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer ") ; the chief 
English judge and the keeper of the great 
Seal of State (Lord — ) ; the head of 
a university ; a presiding officer of various 
kinds, chan'-cel-lor-ship, n. [L. 
cancelli, lattices (which railed off the 
seats of the great officials).] 

Chan'-cer-y, n. a division of the High 
Court of Justice, in — , an action pend- 
ing in the Court of — ; in an awkward 
predicament. [F. chancelleries 

chan-de-lier' (shan-de4eer'), n. a 
branched, hanging support for holding 
lights. [F.<L. candela, a candle.] 

chan'-dler, n. a dealer in candles ; a 
general dealer. [L. candela, a candle.] 

change (changed, chan'-ging),t\ to alter 
or make different ; to put one thing for 
another ; to make to pass from one state 
to another ; to exchange : ft. alteration ; 
small coin given for larger ; the differ- 
ence between the value of a purchase and 
the money tendered for it ; an Exchange. 
change'-a-ble, adj. liable to change ; 
often changing, change' -ling, n. an 
infant substituted for another, to — 
hands, to change owners, to — one's 
tune, to alter one's manner of speak- 
ing ; to change from laughter to tears, 
or the reverse, to ring the changes, to 

present the same facts or arguments in jj 
a variety of ways ; to pass counterfeit I 
money ; to confuse a shopman so that I 
he gives too much change. [F. changer I 
<L.L. cambiare, to change.] 

chan'-nel, n. the bed or course of a stream ; I 
a wide strait ; a groove, furrow, or gutter ; I 
a means of passing or conveying. I 
ch an ' -nelled, adj. [0 . F . < L . ca nulis , I 
a water-pipe.] 

chant (-ed, -ing), c. to sing : n. music to 
which psalms, canticles, etc., are sung. 
chant' -ry, n. a chapel, altar, or part of 
a church set apart for daily mass to be 
sung for the souls of the founders or j 
others, chant'-y (shant'-y), n. a song 
sung by sailors when working. [F. < 
L. canto, I sing.] 

chant'-i-cleer, n. a name given to the 
male of the domestic fowl (from his song) . 
[L. canto, I sing, cldrus, clear.] 

cha -os (kci'-), n. a confused, shapeless 
mass ; disorder, cha-ot'-ic, adj. in 
extreme disorder. [Gr. chaos."] 

chap (chapped, chap-ping), v. to cause 
to split or cleave ; to be split or cleft : 
n. a cut or crack (esp. of the skin). [See 

chap, n. a chap'-man or buyer or seller; 
a fellow; a boy. [A.S. ceap, buying 
and selling.] 

chap., chapter. 

chap'-el, ft. a place of worship (usu. in 
connection with a church) ; a Noncon- 
formist place of worship, chap'-el-ry, 
n. the district of a chapel, chapel of 
ease, an extra church in a parish for the 
convenience of those who cannot attend 
the mother church. [F. chapelle <L.L. 

cha- pel le' ar-dente' (shd-peV ar- 
dant'), [F.] ( = burning chapel) a room 
with lights, etc., in which a dead body 
lies in state, 

chap'-er-on (shap'-er-on), n. a kind of 
hood or cap ; an attendant on a lady : v. 
(-oned, -on-ing), to attend on a lady. 
[F.<L.L. cdpa, a cloak.] 

chap' -lain, n. a clergyman attached to a 
chapel, a ship of war, a regiment, an 
institution, a family, etc. chap'-lain- 
cy (pi- -cies), n. [< chapel.] 

chap'-let, n. a garland or wreath for the 
head; a rosary; a wreath. [F. chapelet, 
dim. of O.F. chape, a head-dress.] 

chap'-ter, n. a main division of a book ; 
a corporation of clergy, chapter of 




accidents, one mischance or misfor- 
tune following close on another. [F. 
chapitre<l>. caput, head.] 

char, or chare, n. work done by the day 
or in odd jobs : v. (chared, char'-ing). 
char'— woman, n. a woman who washes 
or cleans by the day or piece. [A.S. 
cierr, a turn, time.] 

char (charred, char' -ring), v. to burn 
partly, char' -coal, n. charred wood. 
[AS. ?] 

char'— a— bancs (shar'-a-ban), n. (pi. 
chars'— a— bancs) ; (in the sing, often, 
but wrongly, written —banc), a large car 
(motor or otherwise) with seats placed 
crosswise. [F. = a car with benches.] 

char'-ac-ter (kar'-), n. a distinctive 
mark ; a letter (of the alphabet) ; a 
sign ; that which a person or thing really 
is ; reputation ; personal qualities ; a 
written testimonial ; an eccentric person. 
char-ac-ter-is'-tic(-al), adj. making 
the character distinctive, char'-ac- 
ter-ize (-ized, -iz-ing), v. to make dis- 
tinguishable from others ; to be a peculiar 
feature of. [L. character < Gr. character, 
a mark.] 

cha-rade' (sha-rdd' or -rdd'), n. a kind of 
riddle or word-puzzle, often acted. [F.] 

char' -coal, see char. 

charge (charged, char'-ging), v. to lay on 
or impose ; to load ; to command ; to 
attack ; to exhort ; to accuse ; to place 
a debt to someone's account : n. that 
which is laid on or imposed ; cost or 
price ; a load of powder, etc., for a gun ; 
custody ; care ; the object of care. 
charge' -a-ble, adj. put on as a charge. 
char'-ger (-jer), n. a war-horse ; a large 
dish, to give in — , to hand over to the 
police. [F. charger <~L. carrus, a car.] 

charge d'affaires (shdr-zhd' ddf-fdr'), 
n. [F.] one who transacts diplomatic 
business at a foreign Court in the absence 
of the ambassador, or where an ambas- 
sador is not appointed. 

char'-i-ot, n. a light carriage formerly 
used in war, races, etc. ; a state carriage. 
char-i-o-teer',n. the driver of a chariot. 
F.<L. carrus, a car.] 

char'-i-ty, n. love to others ; kindness of 
heart ; acts of kindness ; favourable 
judgement of others, char'-i-ta-ble, 
adj. sisters of — , women (gen. nuns) 
who visit and help the poor and sick. 
[F. charite<L. caritas <cdrus, dear.] 

char'-la-tan (shar'-), n. a quack ; a pre- 

tender to skill.! char'-la-tan-ry, n. 
[F.<I. ciarlare, ] to chatter.] 

Char'-ley, or Char'-lie, n. a night-watch- 
man. [< Charles (?).] 

char'-lotte, n. stewed fruit (as apples, 
etc.), made into a kind of baked pud- 
ding with slices of bread, bread crumbs, 
or sweet cakes. [F. (?)] 

Char-lot' -ten-burg, n. an educational 
establishment of a high class where all 
branches of practical science and art are 
taught. [< Charlottenburg, near Berlin, 
where there is such an establishment.] 

charm, n. a spell ; the power of pleasing ; 
attractiveness ; a trinket ; a supposed 
protection against evil fortune : v. 
(charmed, charm'-ing), to influence by 
a charm ; to enchant ; to delight ; to 
fascinate, charm'-ing, adj. delightful ; 
amiable, a charmed life, one seem- 
ingly rendered safe from peril or evil 
fortune as though by a charm. [F.< 
L. carmen, a song.] 

char'-nel, adj. relating to dead bodies ; 
death-like, char'-nel-house, n. a place 
(often underground) where the bones of 
the dead are stored. [F.<L. carnalU, 
of flesh.] 

chart, n. a map of the sea and sea-coast ; 
a large sheet of tabular statements. 
[L. charta, paper.] 

char'-ter, n. a document granting title, 
privileges, etc. : v. (-tered, -ter-ing), to 
give a charter to ; to hire, chartered 
accountant, one who works under a 
certificate of qualifications granted by 
the Institute of Chartered Accountants 
or similar association. Chartered 
Company, a company of traders, etc., 
allowed, by charter from the Sovereign, 
to trade in (and sometimes to govern) a 
British possession which had not, when 
the privilege was granted, a settled form 
of government, charter— party, an 
agreement for hiring a ship (or part of 
it) for the conveyance of goods. [L. 
charta, paper.] 

cha'-ry (-rl), adj. very careful or cautious. 
cha'-ri-ly,adv. cha'-ri-ness, n. [A.S. 
cearu, care.] 

chase (chased, cha'-sing), v. to pursue ; 
to hunt ; to drive away ; to put to flight : 
n. cha'-sing, n. ornamenting metals 
by designs partly punched from the back 
and partly engraved. [ < root of catch.] 

chasm (kazm), n. a large, deep gap (esp. in 
the earth). [Gr. chasma<chaino, I gape] 




chas-sis' (shds-st' or chas'-ls), n. (pi. as 
sing.), the under-carriage of a motor- 
car; one form of gun-carriage, etc. [F.] 

chaste, n. pure ; virtuous ; modest ; re- 
fined ; not gaudy, chast'-en (chas'-'en), 
(-ened, -en-ing), v. to purify ; to re- 
fine ; to punish, chas'-ti-ty, n. the 
quality of being — . [F.<L. castus, 

chas-tise' (-Hz'), (-tised', -ti'-sing), v. 
to punish, chas'-tise-ment (-tiz-), n. 
punishment. chas-ti'-ser, n. [< 

chas'-u-ble, n. a sleeveless vestment worn 
over the alb by a priest at mass. [F. < 
L. casiila, a little mantle.] 

chat (-ted, -ting), v. to talk familiarly : 
n. familiar talk, chat -ter (-tered, 
-ter-ing), v. to talk quickly and use- 
lessly ; to jabber (as monkeys, etc.) ; 
to make a noise by the teeth striking 
together through cold : n. chat'-ter- 
box, n. a talkative person, chat'-ty, 
adj. pleasantly talkative. [< the sound.] 

cha,-te&u' (shd-to'),n. (pi. -te&VLx' (-toz 1 )), 
a castle ; a large country mansion or 
residence. [F. chdteau<L. castellum, 
a castle.] 

chat -e-laine (shat'-ii-ldn), ft. a female 
keeper of a castle ; a chain or bunch of 
chains hanging from a lady's waist, to 
which are attached keys, etc. ; trinkets 
hanging from the watch-chain, bracelet, 
etc. ISee chateau.] 

chat'-tel, w. an article of furniture or other 
moveable property. [<root of cattle.] 

chauf-feur' (shaw-fur' or sho-fer'), n. 
[F.] a motor-car driver. 

chaus-sure' (sho-mr'), n. [F.] boots 
and shoes (esp. for ladies). 

chau-tau'-qua (shd-taio'-kwd), v. a 
mutual improvement society. [< Chau- 
tauqua, U.S.A., where first started, 1878] 

chau'-yin-ism (sho'-), n. an exaggerated 
idea of the glory of one's own nation, 
w r ith great contempt for other nations ; 
jingoism. chau'-Yin-ist, n. [F.< 
Chaiwin, a French soldier enthusiasti- 
cally devoted to Napoleon I.] 

Ch. Ch., Christ Church (Oxford). 

cheap (chep), adj. low in price ; of small 
value ; common ; mean, cheap '-en 
(-ened, -en-ing), v. to make cheap. 
cheap— jack', n. a travelling seller of 
low-priced articles, cheap'-ness, ». 
[A.S. ceap, price.] 

cheat (chet), (-ed, -ing), v. to deceive ; to 

defraud : n. a fraud ; one who — . cheat- 

er, n. one who 

[< escheat.] 

check (checked, check'-ing), v. to make 
stop suddenly or go slowly ; to restrain ; 
to give a warning to the king (in chess) ; 
to verify ; to chide : n. — ; a pattern 
(woven or otherwise) made with crossed 
lines, check' -mate, n. the final move 
in winning (at chess) : v. (—ma-ted, 
—ma-ting), to win (at chess) ; to defeat 
completely; to thwart, check'— rein, n. 
a strap (cruelly used) to prevent a horse 
lowering its head. [F. tehee <P. shdh, 
king.] [Cheddar, in Somersetshire. 

ched'-dar, n. a rich cheese made at 

cheek, n. the side of the face below the 
eye ; impudence ; the side-post of a door 
or window, cheek'-y, adj. impudent. 
cheek ' -bone, n . cheek-by- j owl ' , close 
side by side. [A.S. ceace, cheek.] 

cheer (cheered, cheer'-ing), v. to make 
joyful ; to encourage ; to applaud : n. a 
shout of joy ; entertainment (as good 
cheer), cheer'-ful, adj. glad ; in good 
spirits, cheer '-ful-ness, n. cheer- 
less, adj. without comfort ; sad. 
cheer'-y, adj. gay ; bright ; lively. [O.F. 
< L. car a , the face < Gr. kara, the head.] 

cheese, n. the curd of milk pressed and 
dried, cheese'— cake, n. a cake made 
chiefly of soft curds, butter, and sugar. 
cheese'— mite, n. a minute creature of 
the spider family which breeds in cheese. 
cheese-paring, adj. mean ; niggardly. 
green — , cheese not yet dried. [A.S. 
clese<h. caseus, cheese.] 

chef (she/), n. the head or chief ; a skil- 
ful cook, chef-d'oeuvre (shd-diihvr'), 
(pi. chefs-d'oeuvre), [F.] a master- 
piece. [F. che/<h. caput, head.] 

che-mise' (shi-mez'), n. a woman's under- 
garment, chem-i-sette' (-zet'), n. a 
kind of woman's under-bodice ; an 
ornamental arrangement of lace, etc., 
filling up the open front of a lady's dress 
bodice. [F.<L. camisia, a shirt.] 

chem'-ist (kern'-), n. one skilled in chem- 
istry ; a dealer in drugs, chem'-is-try, 
n. the science which treats of the nature, 
composition, and changes of matter. 
chem'-i-cal, adj. chem'-i-cals, 
substances obtained by or used in chemi- 
cal operations . [Chemi stry < alchemy ; 
Ar. al, the, qimid, chemistry.] 

che-nille' (shi-neeV), n. a thick velvety 
cord of silk or wool. [F. =a caterpillar, 
from its resemblance.] 




cheque (chek), n. an order on a bank for 
payment of money. [A form of check.] 

chequ'-er (chek'-er), n. a board marked 
with little squares (as on a chess-board) ; 
exchequer or treasury (for money) : v. 
(-ered, -er-ing), to mark in chequers ; 
to make changes in or variegate . chequ ' - 
ered, adj. varied in character or circum- 
stances. [O.F. eschequier, achess-board] 

cher'-ish (-ished, -ish-ing), v. to treat 
with love and care ; to entertain in the 
mind. [F. cherir<L. earns, dear.] 

cher'-ry, n. (pi. -ries), a small stone-fruit 
and the tree that bears it : adj. [F. J 
cerise <L. cerasus, a cherry.] 

cher'-ub, n. (pi. -ubs or -u-bim), a kind j 
of angel ; a beautiful child, che-ru'- | 
bic(-al), adj. [H. kerub, cherub.] 

chess, n. a game of skill played on a j 
chequered board by two players. [O.F. | 
e*cMs<¥. shdh, king, cf. check.] 

chest, n. a large box ; the breast of a per- 
boh. chest of drawers, a large chest 
with sliding boxes. [A.S. cyst<h. 
cista, a chest.] 

chest '-nut (ches'-), n. a common forest- 
tree and its fruit ; a venerable old story 
or joke : adj. of chestnut-colour (red- 
dish-brown). [O.F. <L. castanea, the 
chestnut tree.] 

che-Yal' -glass (she-), n. a long looking- 
glass swinging in a frame. [F. cheval, 
a horse.] 

chev-a-lier' (shev-a-ler'),n. a horseman; 
a knight. [F. <L. caballus, a horse.] 

cheY'-i-ot (chev'- or che'-vi-), n. a hardy 
breed of sheep reared on the Cheviot 
Hills ; cloth made from their wool. 

che-Yrette' (she-vret'), n. a thin kind of 
goat- skin leather used for gloves. [F. 
chdvre, a she-goat.] 

cheY'-POn (sMv'-), n. a V-shaped badge 
worn on the coat-sleeve by non-com- 
missioned officers in the army, police- 
men, etc., as a mark of rank. [F.] 

chev'-y (-*), n. a hunting cry ; a hunt ; a 
chase ; v. (-ied, -y-ing), to hunt. [?] 

chew (chewed, chew'-ing), v. to bite and 
grind (food) with the teeth ; to masticate. 
to — the cud, to chew the food over and 
over again (as a cow) ; to meditate on. 
[A.S. ceowan, to chew.] 

Chi., Chicago. 

chic (shik),n. superior skill or style in art ; 
originality with good taste : adj. stylish ; 
in the best fashion and taste ; bright and 
pert, but with elegance. [F.] 

chi-ca'-ner-y (shi-ka'-ner-i), n. trickery ; 
artifice; quibbling. [F. chicane < P. 
tchaugan, the name of a game.] 

chick (chik), or chick'-en, n. the young 
of the fowl, chicken-hearted, adj. 
timid ; fearful ; cowardly, chicken- 
pox, n. a mild feverish disease, usually 
attacking children, and somewhat like 
small-pox. chick'— weed, n. a wild plant 
used for feeding birds. Mother Carey's 
chickens, the stormy petrel, no chick- 
en, no longer young. [A.S. cicen, a 

chic'-o-ry, n. a plant of which the carrot- 
like root (dried and ground) is often 
mixed with coffee. [F. chicoree <L. < 
Gr. kichoi'eia."] 

chide (chid, chi'-ding, chid'-den), v. to 
scold; to reprove. [A.S. cldan, to chide.] 

chief (chef), adj. head ; principal ; high- 
est ; first : n. a head or leader ; prin- 
cipal person or thing, chief -ly, adv. 
chief-tain, n. a leader (of a tribe). 
[F.<L. caput, the head.] 

chif-fon' (shi-fon' or -fon'), n. a thin, 
gauzy material used for trimming ladies' 
dresses, etc. [F. chiffon, a rag.] 

chif-fon-ier' (shif-on-er'), n. a small cup- 
board or sideboard ; a rag-picker. [F. 
< chiffon, a rag.] 

chig-non' (shen-yoh'), n. a roll or coil of 
hair (natural or artificial) worn by 
women on the back of the head o*r 
neck. [F.] 

chig'-oe (chig'-), n. a kind of flea in the 
W. Indies, the female of which burrows 
under the skin and makes troublesome 
sores ; the jigger. ['?] 

chil'-blain (-bldn), n. a sore on the foot or 
hand caused by severe cold. [chilH 

chill, n. cold : adj. causing cold ; formal ; 
distant ; discouraging : v. (chilled, 
chil'-ling), to make cold ; to check 
enthusiasm, chil'-ly, adj. chil'-li- 
ness, n. [A.S. ciele, cold.] 

chil'-li, n. (pi. chil'-lies), the pod or fruit 
of red pepper. [Mexican.] 

chime, n. the harmonious sound of bells ; 
a tune played by bells : v. (chimed, 
chim'-ing), to be in harmony (as sound- 
ing bells). [A.S. cimbal <L. cynibalnm, 
a cymbal.] 

chi-me'-ra or chi-mse'-ra (ki-me'-ra), n. 
a frightful, fabulous monster ; any idle 
fancy. chi-mer'-i-cal, adj. ideal ; 
visionary. [L. <Gr. chimaira, a she- 




goat ; a frightful monster.] 

chim-pan -zee, n. a large African ape. 
[Native name.] 

chi'-na, n. a fine kind of earthenware. 
china clay, n. kaolin, a fine variety of 
clay used in making — . China— grass, 
the grass-cloth plant or ramie, or its 
fibre, used for making ropes, cordage, and 
incandescent gas-mantles. [<China, 
where it is said to have been first made.] 

chin-chil'-la, n. a South American fur 
animal. [Sp.] 

chine, n. the part of an animal containing 
the back-bone. [F. echine, the spine.] 

chine, n. a narrow, rocky ravine (esp. in 
S. of England). [A.S. cinu, a chink, a 

chink, n. a narrow cleft, crack, or open- 
ing. [A.S. cimi, a chink, a fissure.] 

chintz, n. a kind of printed cotton cloth. 

chip '-pen-dale, n. a light and elegant 
style of drawing-room furniture. [<a 
famous furniture-maker of the 18th 

chi-rop'-o-dist (/a-), ». one who treats 
diseases of the hand and foot. [Gr. 
cheir, the hand, pons, podos, the foot.] 

chirp or chir'-rup, n. a short, shrill sound 
(as of a bird) ; v. (chirped, chirp '-ing, 
orchir'-ruped,chir'-rup-ing). [Imit.] 

chis'-el (chiz'-), n. a tool for cutting (esp. 
wood, stone, and iron) : v. (-elled, -el- 
ling), to cut or carve. [O.F. cisel<l>. 
ccedo, I cut.] 

chit, n. a shoot ; a sprout ; a young child. 
[A.S. cith, a young sprout.] [chat.] 

chit'-chat, n. prattle; chattering. [< 

chi'-tin or -tine (kl'-), n. a horny sub- 
stance forming the shell or case of some 
insects (as beetles, etc.). [F.<Gr. 
chiton, a tunic] 

chiy'-al-ry (shiv'-), n. the order, usages, 
customs, and manners of knights ; that 
kind of bravery and courtesy which dis- 
tinguished a knight. chiY'-al-ric, adj. 
chiY'-al-rous (-rus), adj. heroic; gal- 
lant; high-minded. [F. chevalerie< 
cheval, a horse <L. caballus, a horse.] 

chlo'-ral (klo'-), n. an oily substance 
used as medicine to induce sleep. [See 

chlo'-rine (klo'-), n. a chemical gaseous 
substance of yellowish-green colour. 
[Gr. chloros, pale-green.] 

chlo'-ro-dyne (-dm), n. a medicine con- 
taining opium, chloroform, etc., to ease 

pain and induce sleep. [< chloroform + 
Gr. odune, pain.] 

chlo'-ro-form (klo'-), n. a liquid used in 
medicine to produce insensibility ; v. 
(-formed, -form-ing), to administer 
chloroform to. [< chlorine +form (< 
formic acid)."] 

chlo'-ro-phyl, n. the green colouring 
matter of vegetation. [Gr. chloros, pale- 
green, phullon, a leaf.] 

choc'-o-late,w. a substance made from the 
roasted seeds of the cacao-tree, ground 
and mixed with sugar, starch, etc. ; a 
beverage made from — (see cocoa) : adj. 
of dark-brown colour. [Sp. <the Mexi- 
can name.] 

choice, n. the act or power of choosing ; 
the thing chosen ; preference ; discrim- 
ination : adj. worthy of being chosen ; 
very select ; superior. Hobson's — , this 
or nothing ; something with no alter- 
native. [F. choix ; see choose.] 

choir (kwlr), n. a band of singers ; the 
place (esp. in church, the chancel) where 
the singers sit. [F. chmir<h. chorus 
<Gr. choros, a dance.] 

choke (choked, cho'-king), v. to stop the 
breath ; to throttle ; to strangle ; to 
suffocate ; to suppress ; to block up. 
choke'— bore, n. (of a gun) a bore which 
narrows towards the muzzle, choke'— 
damp, n. the suffocating and poisonous 
carbonic acid gas which often accumu- 
lates in coal mines, wells, quarries, etc. 
choke-full, or chock-full, adj. quite 
full, choke off, to get rid of or put a 
stop to. choking-coil, n. (in elec.) a 
coil of thick wire introduced into a circuit 
to lower the light of a series of lamps. [?] 

chol'-er (kol'-), n. bile ; anger, chol'- 
er-ic, adj. full of anger ; easily irritated. 
[F. coUre <Gr. chole, bile, anger.] 

chol'-er-a (kol'-er-d), n. a dangerous 
disease accompanied with vomiting and 
purging. [See choler.] 

choose (chose, choos'-ing, chos'-en), v. 
to take or select a number ; to elect. 
choos'-er, n. to pick and — , to select 
with care. [A.S. ceosan, to choose.] 

chop (chopped, chop -ping), v. to cut ; to 
cut into small pieces ; to shift suddenly 
(as the wind) : n. a small piece cut off 
(as mutton or pork), chop' -per, n. one 
who, or that which — . chop'-py, adj. 
rough, with short waves. [D. kappen, 
to chop.] 

chop (chopped, chop-ping), v. to buy or 




exchange ; to bargain* [See cheap.] 
chop, or chap, n. the jaw. chop -fallen, 

adj. cast down ; in low spirits. [Ic. 
kjapta, jaw.] 

chop'-sticks, n. two thin sticks of wood, 
ivory, etc., about 15 in. long, used by the 
Chinese to convey food to the mouth. 

cho'-ral, adj. belonging to a choir ; sung 
•in chorus: n. a simple sacred tune. 
cho'-ral-ist, n. a singer or composer of 

. chorals. [See chorus.] 

chord (kord), n. a string of a musical 
instrument ; a combination of three or 
more musical tones which produce har- 
mony ; a straight line joining the ends 
of an arc of a circle. [L. chorda<Gv. 
chorde, a gut.] 

cho'-re-a, n. a nervous disease causing 
involuntary movements of the muscles 
and limbs; St. Vitus's dance. [L.< 
Gr. choreia, a dancing.] 

chor'-tle (-tl), v. to chuckle. [Imitative.] 

cho'-rus (ko'-) t n. (pi. -rus-es), a body of 
singers (and, in Greek plays, dancers) ; 
that which a — sings, chor'-is-ter 
(kor'-), n. a singer in a — or choir. 
[L. chorus <Gr. choros, a dance.] 

chough (chnf), n. a bird of the jackdaw 
kind. [A..S. ceo, jackdaw.] 

Christ (krist), n. the anointed one; the 
Messiah. Christ'-ian (krist' -yan), n. 
a believer in Christ : adj. pertaining to 
Christ or his religion ; Christ-like in 
actions, christ'-en (kris'-en), (-ened, 
-en-ing), v. to receive into the Christian 
Church; to baptize. Christ' -en-dom 
(kris'-),n. all Christian lands or peoples. 


the ceremony of 

baptism. Chris-ti-an'-i-ty, n. the 
Christian religion. Chris'-tian-ize 
(-ized, -iz-ing), v. to convert to Christi- 
anity. Christ'-mas (kris'-mas), n. the 
anniversary of Christ's birth, kept on 
25th December. Christ-a-del -phi-ans 
(-/*-), n. a modern religious sect, all 
of whose members profess to be brothers 
in Christ. Christian Brothers, another 
religious sect holding similar views. 
Christian era, the years that have 
passed since the birth of Christ. 
Christian name, the name given in 
baptism, as distinct from the family 
name, which is usually the last name. 
Christian Science, a religious system 
which strictly subordinates science to 
Christian doctrine. [Gr. chrlstos, 

chro-mat'-ic (kro-),adj. relating to colour. 
chromatic scale, (in mm.) a scale which 
rises or falls by semitones. [Gr. chroma, 

chro'-mo-lith'-o-graph (-graf), n. a 
lithograph printed in colours. [See 
chromatic and lithograph.] 

chro' -mo-sphere (-sfeer), n. (of the sun) 
a covering of glowing hydrogen through 
which the light of the sun passes. [< 
chromatic and sphere.] 

chron'-ic (kron'-), adj. lasting for a (long) 
time ; lingering ; deep-seated ; settled 
(esp. of a disease). [Note. — The use of 
" chronic " in the sense of awful, very 
bad, dreadful, etc. , is very vulgar.] [Gr. 
chronos, time.] 

chron'-i-cle (kron'-l-), n. a history of 
events in order of time : v. (-cled, 
-cling), chron'-i-cler, ». one who 
writes a — . [Gr. chronos, time.] 

chron'-o-graph, w. an accurate stop- 
watch. [Gr. chronos, time -\-g rap ho, I 

chron-ol'-o-gy (-o-ji), n. the science of 
dates (time) ; a table of events and dates. 
[Gr. chronos, time + logos, a discourse.] 

chron-om'-e-ter (kron-), n. an accurate 
time-keeper (esp. for ships). [Gr. 
chronos, time + metro7i, a measure.] 

chrys'-a-lis (kris'-a-), n. (pi. chrys'-a- 
lis-es or chrys-al'-i-des), also chrys'- 
a-lid (pi. chrys'-a-lids), the grub stage 
(often gold-coloured) of butterflies, 
moths, flies, etc. [Gr. chrusallis < chru- 
sos, gold.] 

chrys-an'-the-mum (kris-), n. a genus of 
composite flowers (many cultivated), to 
which belong the corn-marigold and the 
ox-eye daisy, etc. [Gr. clirusos, gold + 
anthos, a flower.] 

chub, n. a small river f|sh of the carp 
family, chub '-by, adj. round and 
plump. [?] 

chuck, n. the call of a hen. [< cluck.] 

chuck, n. a slight blow under the chin ; 
an instrument for holding (in a lathe), 
etc. : v. (chucked, chuck'-ing). [?] 

chuck'-le (-led, -ling), v. to laugh in a 
suppressed manner : n. [Imitative.] 

chum, n. a very close, intimate companion 
(properly one who occupies the same 
room or chamber) : v. (chummed, 
chum'-ming). [(?)< chamber.] 

chump, n. a small, thick log of wood. 
[Ic. kumbr, a log ] 

chunk, n. a thick piece of anything, esp. 




bread, meat, wood, etc. [?] 

church, n. the whole body of Christians ; 
a building set apart for Christian wor- 
ship ; the people who worship in a 
church. Church— Army, a church 
organization for dealing with the desti- 
tute and profligate, church'-man, n. 
a member of a church. Church of 
England, the church established by law 
as the national church of England. 
church militant, the church on earth 
as warring against evil, church'— rate, 
a tax (abolished 1868) on the parish- 
oners for the maintenance of the church. 
church triumphant, the whole body of 
saints in heaven, church— text, thus, 
ODld-QSnglislj Utters, church-war- 
den, n. an officer who has charge of a 
church and its concerns, and who rep- 
resents the people of the parish ; a kind 
of long clay pipe, church '-yard, n. the 
burial-place round, or annexed to, a 
church. [A.S. cirice <Gr. kuridkos, of 
the Lord.] 

churl, n. a rough countryman ; an ill- 
bred fellow ; a clown, churl -ish, adj. 
[A.S. ceorl, a countryman.] 

churn (churned, churn' -ing), v. to stir 
cream about in making butter : n. the 
apparatus used in churning. [A.S. 
cyrin, a churn.] 

chute (shoot), n. a rapid descent in a river ; 
a sloping framework down which objects 
slide to a lower level. [F. =a fall.] 

ohut'-ney (-nl), n. a hot, mixed East 
Indian condiment or pickle. [Hindu 

chyle (kil), n. a milky fluid separated in 
the intestines from the digested food 
(the chyme) produced in the stomach 
and then passed into the blood. [Gr. 
chulos, made- juice.] 

chyme (kim), n. the pulp to which the food 
is reduced in the stomach during the 
first process of digestion there. [L. 
chymus <Gr. chumos, natural juice.] 

C.I., Channel Isles. 

cic'-a-trice (sik'-d-tris), or cic'-a-trix, 
n. (pi. -tri-ces), the scar of a healed 
wound. [F.<L. cicatrix.'} 

cic-e-ro'-ne (chich-d-ro'-nd or sis-e-ro'- 
ne, not sis'-er-on), it. (pi. -ni or -nes), 
one who shows strangers the sights of a 
place ; a guide. [I.] 

Cicestr., signature of the Bishop of Chi 
Chester. [L. Cicestrensis, of Chichester.] 

ci'-der (*i'-), n. a drink made from apple- 

juice. [F. cidre."} [previous. 

ci-devant' (nee-di-van'), adj. [F ] former; 

CLE., Companion of the Indian Empire. 

ci-gar' (si-), n. a small roll of tobacco (for 
smoking), ci-gar-ette', n. finely cut 
tobacco rolled up in paper for smoking. 
[F.<Sp. cigarro."] 

cil'-i-a, n. pi. hair-like lashes borne by 
cells, cil'-i-a-ry, adj. [L. cilium, an 

cin-cho'-na (sin-led'-), n. a genus of trees 
from the bark of which quinine is 
obtained ; the bark itself ; Peruvian bark. 

cinc'-ture (rink'-), n. a girdle or belt. 
[L. cingo, I surround.] 

cin'-der (sin'-), n. the refuse of burnt 
coal. [A.S. Hinder. "\ 

cin-e-mat -o-graph (sin.- or kin-), n. a 
magic-lantern for showing a rapid suc- 
cession of photographs and thus giving 
the appearance of movement. [Gr. 
kineo, I move-f grapho, I write or draw.] 

cin'-er-a-ry, adj. pertaining to ashes ; 
containing ashes. [L.L. cinerarius."] 

cin ' -na-mon (sin'-) , n. the spicy inner bark 
of a species of laurel. [L. cinnamum.'] 

cinque (sink), [F.] five. Cinque '-ports, 
five ports in the S. of England opposite 
France — Hastings, Dover, Romney, 
Hythe, Sandwich ; to which were after- 
wards added Rye, and Winchelsea. 

ci'-pher (sl'-fer), n. the figure ; any of 
the figures 1 to 9 ; anything of little 
value ; a secret kind of writing : v. 
(-phered, -pher-ing), to work arith- 
metic. [O.F. cifre <Ar. sifr, empty.] 

dr., circa, [L.] circiter, circum, about. 

cir'-cle, n. a round figure, thus, O , or the 
line bounding it ; a ring ; those of a 
certain class of society : v. (-cled, 
-cling), to move in a circle ; to encircle 
or surround, circ'-let, n. a little circle. 
dress — , one of the higher priced parts 
in a theatre, where evening dress is 
expected to be worn . Druidical circles, 
circles of stones (as Stonehenge) sup- 
posed to be temples of Druidical wor- 
ship, family — , the members of a 
household. [L. cir cuius, a ring.] 

cir'-cuit (sir' -kit), n. a going round ; space 
enclosed (as by acircle, etc.) ; the journey 
through certain districts made by the 
judges for holding the courts of law ; the 
judges making the round ; distance 
round ; the entire course traversed- by 
an electric current, short — , the passage 
of an elec. current by a ' short cut ' instead 




of along the intended course, often caused 
by leakage, accidental contact of con- 
ductors, etc. cir-cu'-i-tous (-tus), adj. 
round-about; not direct. [F.<L. cir- 
cuities, a turning round.] 

cir'-cu-lar, n. a business letter ; a brief 
communication sent to many people : 
adj. round, cir'-cu-lar-ize (-ized, 
-i-zing), v. to send out circulars to. 
[See circle.] 

cir'-cu-late (ser'-), (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. 
to make go round ; to spread abroad. 
cir-cu-la'-tion, n. movement, as in a 
circle ; the sale (as of books, papers, 
etc.) ; the flow of blood in the body. 
cir' -cu-la-tor, n. [L. circum, round + 
latus, borne.] [about. 

circum-, circu-, pref. [L.] round ; round 

cir-cum'-fer-ence, n. the boundary line 
of a circle ; the distance round. [L. 
circum, round -\-fero, I bear.] 

cir-cum-lo-cu'-tion, n. a round-about 
mode of expression, or of doing business. 
[L. circum, round, loquor, I speak.] 

cir-cum-nay'-i-gate (-1-), (-ga-ted, -ga- 
ting), P. to sail round (as the globe, or 
an island), cir-cum-nav-i-ga'-tion, 
n. cir-cum-nav'-i-ga-tor, n. one who 
— . [L. circum, round, navis, a ship.] 

cir-cum-scribe' (-scribed', -scri'-bing), 
v. to draw a line round ; to enclose ; to 
limit, cir-cum-scrip'-tion, n. [L. 
circum, round, scribo, I write.] 

cir-cum-spect', adj. looking all round; 
cautious ; watchful, cir-cum-spec'- 
tion, n. [L. circum, round, specio, 1 see.] 

cir'-cum-stance, n. a detail of an event ; 
an incident ; a fact ; in pi. the state 
of one's affairs, cir-cum-stan'-tial 
(-shal), adj. in detail, circumstantial 
evidence, evidence which is not direct 
and positive, but which is gathered from 
certain circumstances. [L. circum, 
round, stare, to stand.] 

cir-cum-yent' (-ed, -ing), v. to gain 
advantage over by deception ; to out-wit. 
cir-cum-Yen'-tion, n. [L. circum, 
round, venio, I come.] 

cir'-cus, n, a building (usu. circular) where 
games and feats of horsemanship are 
shown. [L. circus <Gr. kirkos, a circle.] 

cir'-rus (sir'-), n. (pi. cir'-ri), a light, 
lofty, fleecy cloud ; a tendril, cir'-rous 
(-rus), adj. [L. cirrus, a lock of hair.] 

cis-al'-pine (sis-), adj. on this (the Roman) 
side of the Alps. [L. cis, on this side.] 

Cis-ter'-ci-an (-sin-), n. one of the order of 

Benedictine monks established in 101)8 
at Citeaux (in L. Cistercium), in France. 

cis'-tern, n. a receptacle for storing liquids 
(esp. water). [L. cisterna < cista, achest.] 

cit'-a-del (sit' -a-), n. a fortress in or near 
a city. [F. <L. clvitas, a little city.] 

cite (sit), (ci'-ted, ci'-ting), v. to call ; to 
summon ; to quote, ci-ta'-tion, n. a 
summons to appear. [F. citer < L. clto, 
I summon.] 

cit'-ron (sit'-), n. the fruit of the citron- 
tree, resembling a lemon, cit'-rate, n. 
a salt of citric-acid, cit'-ric acid, n. 
an acid existing in the juice of the 
citron, etc. [F.<Gr. kitron, a citron.] 

cit'-y (sit'-l), n. (pi. -ies), an important 
town, formerly only if with a cathedral, 
now receiving its title by Royal Charter. 
cit'-i-zen, n. an inhabitant of a — or 
town. Eternal City, Rome. Holy City, 
Jerusalem, the City, the central part of 
London. [F. cite<L. clvitas, a state.] 

C.I.Y., City Imperial Volunteers (i.e., of 

civ'-et (siv'-), n. a powerful perfume ob- 
tained from the civet— cat, a small 
carnivorous animal found in Africa and 
Asia. [F. civette<Ar.'] 

ciY'-ic (siv'-lk), adj. relating to a city or a 
citizen. ciY'-ics, n. pi. the science of 
civil government. [L. clvicus, of a city.] 

ciY'-il (siv'-), adj. relating to a city or 
state ; good-mannered ; courteous, ci- 
Yil'-i-an, n. one not in the army or the 
navy, ci-vil'-i-ty, «. courtesy ; polite- 
ness. ciY-il-ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. 
to reclaim from savage life ; to instruct 
in the rules and customs of regular life. 
civ-il-i-za'-tion, n. the state of being 
civilized, civ'-il-ly, adv. — engineer, 
one who makes roads, bridges, docks, 
and other works pertaining to the ordin- 
ary life of citizens. — law, the law 
regulating the rights and duties of the 
inhabitants of a state. — list, (now) 
the expenses of the sovereign's house- 
hold.  — service, the paid service (not 
naval or military) of the state. — war, 
war between parties of citizens in the. 
same state. [L. avis, a citizen.] 

clack (klak), n. a sudden loud noise as 
by striking: v. (clacked, clack'-ing). 

clad, adj. clothed. \See clothe.] 

claim (claimed, claim -ing), r. to demand 
as one's own, or right : n. something 
claimed ; a right, claim-ant, n. one 




who — . [F.<L. clamo, I cry out.] 

clair-Yoy' -ance (kldr-), n. the supposed 
power of seeing absent persons, things, 
or events. clair-Yoy'-ant, n. a person 
who is said to possess this power : adj. 
[F.<L. clarus, clear, videre, to see.] 

clam, n. the name of several kinds of bi- 
valve shell-fish. [< clamp.] 

clam'-ber (-bered, -ber.-ing), v. to climb 
up with difficulty, or with hands and 
feet. [G. klammern, to clasp.] 

clam'-my, adj. moist ; sticky and cold. 
[A.S. clam, mud.] 

clam' -our (-er), n. a loud out-cry, tumult, 
or other noise : v. (-oured, -our-ing). 
clam'-or-ous (-us), adj. noisy; up- 
roarious. [L. clamo, I cry out.] 

clamp, n. a stiff, tight fastening (esp. of 
iron or timber) : v. (clamped, clamp' - 
ing), to secure or render firm. [A^S. 
clamm, a bond.] 

clan, n. a tribe (esp. in Scotland) ; a race. 
clan'-nish, adj. united by feeling or 
prejudice, clans-man, n. a member 
of a clan. [Ga. claim.] 

clan-des'-tine (-tin), adj. secret; under- 
hand ; sly. [L. clandesiinus.] 

clang (or clang' -or, less correctly clang'- 
our), n. a loud ringing noise : v. 
(clanged, clang' -ing). clang' -or-ous, 
adj. [L. clangor.] 

clank, n. a loud noise as though made by 
the rattling of chains : v. [Imitative.] 

clap, n. a noise (esp. of hands struck 
together) ; a sudden burst of thunder : 
v. (clapped, clap'-ping). clap'-per, 
n. the tongue of a bell, clap'— trap, n. 
words spoken to gain applause or favour 
from others ; humbug. [Imitative.] 

clar'-et, n. a kind of French red wine. 
[F. clairet<~L. clarus, clear.] 

clar'-i-fy (-fied, -fy-ing), v. to make 
clear; to purify. [F.<L. clarus, clear, 
fdcio, I make ] 

clar'-i-on, n. a kind of trumpet or its 
sound, clar'-i-net, or clar'-i-o-net, 
n. a wind instrument with finger-keys. 
[F.<L. clarus, clear.] 

clash, n. the loud noise made by things 
struck : v. (clashed, clash' -ing), to — ; 
to meet in opposition ; to disagree ; to 
interfere. [Imitative.] 

clasp, n. a fastening (esp. a hook) ; an 
embrace : v. (clasped, clasp'-ing), 
clasp'— knife, a knife whose blade folds 
into the handle. [<clip, q-v.] 

class, n. a division ; an order or rank ; a 

part or division of a school : v. (classed, 
clas'-sing), to group together, clas'- 
sic, or clas'-sic-al, adj. pertaining to 
ancient Greek and Roman (Latin) liter- 
ature and art ; (works or writers) of very 
high repute, clas'-si-fy (-fied, -fy- 
ing),! 1 . to arrange in divisions. dlas- 
si-fi-ca'-tion, n. [F. classe<L. classis, 
a division of the Roman people.] 

clat'-ter, n. a confused, rattling noise ; 
noisy talk : v. l-tered, -ter-ing). 

clause (klauz), n. a sentence or part of a 
sentence ; an article of a contract, 
agreement, will, etc. [F.<L. claudo, 
I shut.] 
I clay'-i-cle (-Id), n. the collar-bone. 
clay-ic'-u-lar, adj. [L. cldvis, a key.] 

claw, n. the hooked nail of a beast or 
bird ; anything like a claw : v. (clawed, 
claw' -ing), to seize, tear, scratch, or dig 
with claws. claw— hammer, n. a 
hammer with one part of the head 
divided into two claws. [A.S. cldwu.'} 

clay (kid), n. a kind of stiff, tenacious 
earth ; soil in general, clay'-ey (-£), 
adj. fire'— clay, clay containing nothing 
fusible, and therefore used to make 
bricks, etc., which have to withstand 
great heat. [A.S. clxg, clay.] 

clay' -more, n. a large two-handed sword 
formerly used by the Scottish High- 
landers ; now, any basket-hilted broad- 
sword. [Ga. claidheamh (pronounced 
kld'-dng), sword, mor, great.] 

clean (klen), adj. free from dirt ; pure ; 
without defect ; dexterous: v. (cleaned, 
clean'-ing). clean'-er, n. one who — . 
clean'-ly (klen'-), adj. of clean habits, 
clean' -li-ness, n. cleanse (klenz), 
(cleansed, clean' -sing), v. to make — ; 
to purify. [A.S. cltBiie, clean.] 

clear (kler), adj. bright; pure; plain; 
transparent : v. (cleared, clear' -ing), 
to free from blame ; to empty ; to leap 
over or pass by. clear' -ly^ adv. clear- 
ance, n. a setting free ; an emptying. 
clear'-ing, n. land cleared of trees, etc. 
clear days, days reckoned exclusive of 
the first and last, clearing— house, a 
house in London where bankers exchange 
cheques, etc. , and arrange the differences 
between their accounts with one another. 
[F. clair <L. clarus, clear.] 

cleat, n. a piece of iron or wood (esp. in a 
ship) used for strengthening or for 
fastening a rope to. [?] 




cleave (klev), (clove or cleft, cleay'-ing, 
clo'-yen), v. to divide ; to split ; to I 
adhere closely, cleay'-age, n. act of 
cleaving, cleay'-er, n. a butcher's j 
chopper, cleft, n. an opening made by 
cleaving; a chasm. [A.S. cleofan, to 
cleave.] [[< clutch.] 

cleek, n. an iron-headed club, used in golf. 

clef, n. a mark to show the pitch in music. 
[F.<L. cldvis, a key.] 

clera'-a-tis (-a- ; incorrectly kle-md'-), n. a 
beautiful climbing plant bearing showy 
blossoms. [Gr. klematis"]. 

clem'-en-cy (si), n. mildness ; readiness 
to forgive ; merciful disposition, clem'- 
ent, adj. [L. dementia."] 

clench (clenched, clench'-ing), v. pro- 
perly clinch (q.v.), but "clench "the fist, 
and " clinch " an argument, a nail, etc. 

clere'-sto-ry (kleer'- not kler-es'-), (less 
correctly clear'-story), n. the upper 
story of a church, with a separate range 
of windows, [clear + story.] 

cler'-gy (-,/*), n. the body of cler'-gy- 
men as distinguished from the laity ; 
the ordained, or appointed, ministers of 
the Christian church, cler'-ic, n. a 
clergyman, benefit of clergy, certain 
privileges which clergymen formerly had 
in matters of trial before the civil courts. 
[O.F.<L. clericus <Gr. kleros, a lot.] 

cler'-ic-al, adj. belonging to the clergy, or 
to a clerk, or writer, cler'-i-cal-ism, or 
cler'-i-cism, n. the power, or (undue) 
influence, of the clergy. [See clergy.] 

clerk (kldrk), n. properly a clergyman or 
priest ; a scholar ; a writer in an office ; 
a secretary. — in holy orders, a clergy- 
man of the Church of England, lay — , 
a singing-man in a cathedral, etc. [See 

cley'-er, adj. able ; skilful ; dexterous ; 
intellectual ; gifted, cley'-er-ly, adv. 
cley'-er-ness, n. [?] 

clew, or clue (kloo), n. a thread in a ball ; 
a ball of thread ; something likely to 
become the key to a mystery ; the lower 
corner of a sail : v. (clewed, clew'-ing), 
to tie up (as sails). [A.S. clyice."} 

di'-che (kle'-shd), n. [F.] an electrotype 
or stereotype plate to print from ; a 
photographic negative. 

cli'-ent, n. one who employs a lawyer ; a 
dependant; a customer, cli-en-thle' 
(kle-dn-tdV), [F.] a complete body of 
clients, customers, etc. [F.<L. cliens, 
a client.] 

cliff, n. a high, steep rock or precipice. 
[A.S. ejK/.] 

cli-mac'-ter-ic, n. a critical period in a 
person's life, the grand climacteric, 
the 63rd year. [Gr. < klimax, a ladder.] 

cli'-mate, n. the condition of a district 
with respect to temperature and weather. 
cli-mat'-ic, adj. clime, n. a climate ; 
a region. [F. <L. <Gr. Mima, a slope, 
a region.] 

cli'-max, n. the highest point or greatest 
degree. [Gr. klimax, a ladder.] 

climb (kllm), (climbed, climb' -ing), v. to 
ascend to the top of ; to mount : n. 
climb' -er, n. [A.S. climban.'} 

clime. See climate. 

clinch (clinched, clinch '-ing) or clench 
{q.v.) : v. to grasp tightly ; to hold firmly ; 
to fasten a nail or rivet by bending over 
the point ; to set the teeth firmly ; to 
settle (as an argument) ; to conclude (as 
a bargain). [M.E. clenchen, to strike 

cling (clung, cling'-ing), v. to hold fast (to 
anything); to adhere. [A.S. clinyan."] 

clin'-ic, or clin'-ic-al, adj. relating to a 
bed (esp. a sick-bed in a hospital) : n. 
one confined to bed by sickness ; instruc- 
tion in medicine at the bedside of a sick 
person. [Gr. klinikos<kline, a bed.] 

clink, n. a tinkling sound (as of metals 
striking together gently) : v. (-ered, 
-er-ing). clink'-er, n. slag or hard- 
burnt brick, clinker— built (of a ship 
or boat), made with the planks over- 
lapping (see carvel— built). [Imitative.] 

clip (clipped, clip' -ping), v. to cut shorter; 
to cut off : n. clip'-per, n. an instru- 
ment for clipping ; a fast-sailing ship 
(not a steamer), to — the wings, to 
restrain ambition ; to cripple or restrain 
one's actions. [Dan. klippe."\ 

clique (kleek), n. a closely-united party ; a 
gang. cliqu'-ism,n. cliqu'-y,a<0'. [F ] 

cloak, or cloke, n. a loose, warm, outer 
garment for men or women ; that which 
conceals ; a disguise : v. (cloaked, 
cloak' -ing), to hide; to disguise, cloak'- 
room, n. a room (esp. at a railway- 
station, theatre, etc.), where articles may 
be left for a time. [O.F. cloque.] 

clock, n. an instrument for measuring 
time, clock'-work, n. machinery of a 
clock or similar to such ; an ornamental 
pattern on the side or front of a stock 
ing. to go like clockwork, to go 
smoothly and steadily. [D. klok, a bell. J 


clod, n. a lump of earth or turf, clod'— 
hopper, n. an ignorantly stupid, clumsy 
fellow. [See clot.] 

clog (clogged, clog'-ging), v. to choke up 
with dirt, etc. ; to impede : n. a hind- 
rance ; a shoe with a wooden sole. [?] 

cloister, n. a covered walk (esp. in an 
abbey or a convent), clois' -tral, adj. 
[O.F.<L. claudo, I shut.] 

close (kloz), (clos'-ing, closed), v. to shut 
up ; to make an end to ; to conclude : | 
close (kids), adj. pressed together; 
crowded ; narrow ; fastened ; without j 
ventilation : n. an enclosed piece of j 
ground. close'— fisted, adj. mean ; 
stingy, close' -ly, adv. close'-ness, n. 
clo'-sure (-zur), or clo'-ture (kld'-tiir) 
[F.], n. the act of closing up (esp. a 
debate in parliament) . — corporation, 
one that fills its own vacancies. — 
quarters, direct contact ; state of being 
hand to hand. — . season or time, 
time fixed by law during which certain 
animals, birds, and fish may not be 
killed. [O.F. clos<L. claudo, I shut.] 

clos'-et (kloz'-), n. a private room (often 
small) ; a cupboard : v. (-ed, -ing), to 
take into a private place ; to shut up 
with another. [F. <L. claudo, I shut.] 

clot, n. a thick, pasty mass (esp. of blood) : 
v. (clot-ted, clot-ting). [A.S. clot, 
cf. clod.] 

cloth (kloth), (pi. cloths) (klothz),n. woven 
stuff or material, the cloth, the clergy. 
cloth of gold, cloth into which threads 
of gold are woven. American cloth, 
a cloth coated with enamel so as to 
resemble leather. [A.S. cldth."] 
clothe (Moth), (clothed, cloth'-ing), v. to 
cover with garments ; to dress ; to cover 
or invest, clothes (clothz), n. pi. articles 
of dress, cloth'-ier (cloth' -ye r), n. a 
seller of clothes, cloth'-ing, n. [A.S. 
cldthian, to clothe.] 
cloud, n. vapour (or smoke, or dust) float- 
ing in the air ; a great crowd ; anything 
gloomy or foreboding ; a large scarf ; 
suspicion : v. (-ed, -ing), to obscure. 
cloud '-y, adj. gloomy ; obscure, cloud'- 
less, adj. without a cloud, cloud'-i- 
ness, n. state of being cloudy. [A.S. 
clild, a mass (of rock, etc.).] 
clout, n. a rag or patch ; the centre of a 
target ; a blow or cuff. [A.S. clilt, a 
piece of cloth.] 
cloye, n. a spice, the unexpanded bud of 
the clove-tree. [F. < L. cldvus, a nail .] 

86 Coal 

clo'-Yen, adj. cleaved ; divided, clo- 
yen— footed, adj. having the foot 
divided, cloyen hoof, the foot of Satan ; 
evil practice or intention. [See cleave.] 
clo'-Yer, n. a plant cultivated as fodder. 
to live in — , to live a comfortable or a 
luxurious life. [A.S. clcefre."] 
clown, n. a rustic ; an ill-bred man ; a 

buffoon, clown'-ish, adj. [?] 
cloy (cloyed, cloy'-ing), v. to fill (esp. 
with food) to excess ; to surfeit. [O.F. 
cloyer<l>. cldvus, a nail.] 
club, n. a heavy stick used to strike with ; 
a society of persons: v. (clubbed, club'- 
bing), to beat with a club ; to unite in 
a society, club'-ba-ble, adj. sociable. 
club— foot, n. a deformed (usu. a short, 
stumpy) foot. [Ic. klubba."} 
cluck, n. the sound made by a hen : v. 

(clucked, cluck' -ing). [Imitative.] 

clue, ft. see clew ; anything which helps 

to the solution of a mystery or a 

difficulty. [A.S.] [[D. klomp.] 

clump, n. a cluster (esp. of trees) ; a mass. 

clum'-sy (-zl), adj. awkward ; unwieldy; 

ill-shaped, clum'-si-ly, adv. clum'- 

si-ness, n. [?] 

clus'-ter, n. a bunch ; a group : v. (-tered, 

-ter-ing). [A.S. clyster."} 

clutch (cluch), (clutched, clutch'-ing), v. 

to seize ; to snatch at ; to grasp : n. a 

grasp or grip ; seizure ; a coupling (in 

mach.) for throwing the working parts 

into or out of action, in the clutches 

of, in the power of. [A.S. clyccan, to 


CM., common metre ; common measure. 

C.M.G., Companion of the Order of St. 

Michael and St. George. 
Co., company ; county. 
C.O., Colonial Office ; commanding officer. 
coach, n. a large four-wheeled carriage ; 
a railway-carriage ; a tutor ; a trainer : 
v. (coached, coach'-ing), to travel by 
— ; to act as tutor or trainer to. coach- 
man, n. the driver of a — . [F. coche 
<L. concha, a shell.] 
co-ad-ju'-tor, n. a helper ; a co-worker. 

[h.<co- + ad-+juvo, I assist.] 
co-ag'-u-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to 
curdle (as milk) ; to thicken, co-ag- 
u-la'-tion, n. [L. co-, together, ago, 
I drive.] 
coal (kol), n. a black mineral used as fuel : 
v. (coaled, coal' -ing), to supply (esp. a 
steam-ship) with — . coal' -field, n. a 
district in which — is found, coal'- 




mine, n. a large pit from which — is 
dug. coal—heaver or —porter, a man 
who carries — to or from a ship, coal 
measure, layers of — with the rocks 
above and below, coaling station, a 
port where supplies of — are kept for 
steam-ships, men-of-war, etc. [A.S. col] 

co-al-esce' {-ess')., (-esced', -esc'-ing), v. 
to grow or join firmly together (in a mass 
or body) ; to associate, co-a-li'-tion 
(-lish'-un), n. a combination of persons 
or states, which, sinking their differ- 
ences, agree to act in common ; a union, 
co-a-li'-tion-ist, n. [L. coalesco, I 
grow together.] 

coal'-ite, n. a fuel made from coal dust, etc. 

coarse (kors), adj. rough ; rude ; vulgar. 
coarse'-ly, adv. coarse'-ness, n. [< 

coast (host), n. border ; edge (esp. of land 
near the sea) : v. (-ed, -ing), to sail 
along the — ; to ride swiftly down a hill 
on a sledge or a bicycle, coast'-er, n. 
a vessel sailing between ports on the 
same — . coast'— guard, n. a guard 
placed along the — to prevent smuggling. 
coast' -line, n. the line which marks the 
— where it joins the sea. [F. cote<h. 
costa, a rib, side.] 

coat, n. the outer covering (of men and 
animals) ; a membrane ; a layer (as 
paint, etc.) : v. (-ed, -ing), to cover with 
a — (as paint), coat'-ee, n. a lady's 
short — . coat' -ing, n. outside cover- 
ing ; material for making a — . coat 
of arms, the armorial devices pictured 
on the shields of knights, etc. coat of 
mail, a covering for the body of flexible 
iron armour, to turn one's — , to 
change one's party or opinions. [O.F. 
cote <L.L. cottus, a tunic] 

coax (coaxed, coax'-ing), v. to gain over 
by fondling, or flattery ; to wheedle. [?] 

cob, n. a roundish lump ; a knob ; a small 
plump horse ; a head of wheat, maize, 
etc. [W. cob.] 

co'-balt, n. a reddish-grey mineral ; a blue 
pigment prepared from the mineral. 
[G. Kobalt.] 

cob'-ble (-bled, -bling), v. to patch up : 
n. a kind of fishing-boat (sometimes 
spelt cob'-le) ; large round stones for 
paving, cob -bier, n. a mender of 
shoes ; a clumsy workman. [O.F.<L. 
copulo, I join.] 

Cob'-den-ite, n. a strong advocate of Free 
Trade. [ < 11. Cobden (1804—1865) , the 

" Apostle of Free-Trade."] 

co'-bra (not kob'-), n. a very venomous 
East Indian serpent, called also cobra 
de ca-pel'-lo. [Po. cobra, snake, dc 
capello, with a hood.] 

cob'-web, n. a spider's web ; any snare to 
entrap. [A.S. ator-coppe, a spider (where 
dtor signifies poison).] 

co'-ca, n. the dried leaf of a Peruvian 
plant ; the plant itself, co-ca'-ine, n. 
an anaesthetic made from coca leaves, 
used in dentistry, surgery, and medicine. 

coch'-i-neal (koch'-i-nel), n. a scarlet dye 
obtained from the bodies of small Amer- 
ican insects. [F.<Sp. cochinilla.] 

cock, n. a male bird (esp. of domestic 
fowls) ; a pile of hay ; a part of the lock 
of a firearm ; a tap (for beer, etc.) : v. 
(cocked, cock'-ing), to set up. cocked 
hat, a hat with th$ brim turned up in 
three places to form a triangle ; a three- 
cornered hat. cock'-loft, n. a room 
just under the roof (for fowls to roost in). 
cock' -pit, n. an enclosure for cocks to 
fight in ; a room in the lower part of a 
warship for the wounded, a cock and 
bull story, an incredible tale. [A.S cocc] 

cock-ade', n. a knot of ribbons worn on 
the hat. [See cock.] 

cock-a-too', n. (pi. -toos'), a name for 
several kinds of parrot. [Malay.] 

cock'— boat, n. a small, light boat. 

cock'-cha-fer (-chd-), n. a kind of winged 
beetle ; the May-bug. [?] 

cock'-le (kok'-'l), n. a weed found among 
corn. [A.S. coccel, tares.] 

cock'-le (kok'-'l), n. a small, common 
shell-fish : v. (cock'-led, cock-ling), to 
wrinkle. [F. coquille <L. concha, a 
shell.] [city: adj. [?] 

cock'-ney (-ni), n. a native of London 

cock'-roach (-roch), n. a kind of black- 
beetle. [Sp. cucaracha."} 

cock' -swain, n. [See coxswain.] 

co'-coa (ko'-ko), n. the seeds (incorrectly 
called berries and beans) of the cacao or 
chocolate tree ; a beverage made from the 
seeds roasted and ground. [Sp. cacao.] 

co'-coa, more correctly co'-co, n. the cocos 
palm, its fruit is the cocoa— nut or 
coker— nut. [Sp. coco.] 

co-coon', «. a case constructed or spun by 
many caterpillars (esp. the silkworm). 
[F. cocon<h. concha, a shell.] 

C.O.D., cash on delivery. 

cod' -die (-died, -dling), v. to fondle ; to 
pamper. [?] 




code, n. a regular collection of laws ; a 
system of rules, co'-di-fy (-fled, -ty- 
ing), v. to collect in a code or list. [F. 
<L. codex, a writing-tablet.] 

cod'-i-cil (-l-sil), n. a short note added 
to, and explaining or altering, the clauses > 
of a will. [<code.] 

CO-ef-fi'-cient (-Jish'-ent), adj. working 
with another ; co-operative : n. that | 
which acts together with another thing ; | 
a number or quantity placed usually j 
before another number or quantity and 
multiplying it. [L. to- -f efficient.] 

co-erce' (-ers'), (-erced', -er'-cing), v. to | 
compel ; to restrain by force, co-er'- i 
cion (shun), n. — ; government by ' 
force, co-er -ci ve (siv), adj. compel- 
ling. [L. coercco, I surround, restrain.] 

co-e'-Yal, adj. of the same age or period. 
[L. co- + acvum, age.] 

cot' -fee, n. the ground seeds (wrongly j 
called " berries ") of the coffee-plant ; 
the drink made from it. coffee—house, 
coffee-room, n*. a house, or a room, in 
which — and other refreshments are 
supplied. [F. cafe<T. qahveh."] 

cof ' -fer, n. a chest (esp. for holding money 
or other valuables), coffer— dam, n. an ; 
enclosing dam, sunk in the bed of a river i 
and then pumped dry, to protect work- ! 
men. [O.F. <L. cophhius, a basket.] 

cof -fin, n. a chest for holding a corpse, j 
coffin— bone, n. the spongy bone in a i 
horse's hoof, coffin— ship, n. a ship that 
is unseaworthy. [< coffer.] 

co'-gent (-jent), adj. forcible ; powerful ; 
convincing, co'-gence, n. co'-gen-cy, 
n. [L. cbgo, I drive together.] 

cog'-i-tate (koj'-l-), (-ta-ted, -ta-ting), 
I?, to think deeply ; to ponder over. . 
cog-i-ta'-tion, n. [L. cogito, I think.] 

co'-gnac (-nyak), u. the best kind of French 
brandy (made at Cognac, in France). 

cog'-nate, adj. of the same family, kind, j 
or nature ; related to ; allied. [L. cog- \ 
ndtus, born together.] 

cog'-ni-zant (or -sant), (kon'-i-zant or j 
kog'-ni-), adj. having knowledge (of). 
cog'-ni-zance, or -sance, n. certain 
knowledge ; the distinguishing mark 
worn by an armed knight and his 
followers. [L. cognosco, I know.] 

COg-no'-men, n. a surname ; a nickname. 
[L. con-+nomen, a name.] 

cog'-wheel, n. a wheel having cogs or 
teeth. [?] 

co-here' {-her'), (-hered', -he-ring), v. 

to stick together ; to be connected, co- 
he' -rence, n. — ; consistency in reason- 
ing or relating, co-he' -rent, adj. con- 
sistent ; connected, co-he'-rer, n. in 
wireless telegraphy, a small glass tube 
exhausted of air, and filled with filings 
of nickel or silver, used as a receiver of the 
electric current. co-he'~sion (-zhuri), 
n. close connection, co-he'-siye, adj. 
sticking together (as in a mass). [L. 
cohaereo, I stick together.] 

co'-hort, 11. (in the lioman army) the 
tenth part of a legion ; a body of armed 
men. [L. cohors."} 

coif (koif), n. a close-fitting cap, hood, or 
head-dress. [F. coij'e.^ 

coif-fure' (kioawf-foor' , or koif-fur'), n. 
[F.] a head-dress, or manner of dress- 
ing the hair (esp. of a lady), coif-feur' 
(-fiihr'), n. a hair-dresser. 

coign (coin), n. a corner ; a corner-stone ; 
a wedge, coign of vantage, an advan- 
tageous position, for action, survey, 
etc. [See coin.] 

coil (coiled, coil'-ing), c. to wind in a ring 
(esp. of a rope, serpent, etc.); to entangle : 
n. rope, etc., wound up in a ring. [F. 
<L. colligo, I collect.] 

coin, n. a piece of money : v. (coined, 
coin'-ingj, to make metal into coin ; to 
invent, coin' -age, n. the coining of 
money ; money itself ; invention. 
coin'-er, n. one who makes — , esp. false 
— . [F.<L. cuneus, a wedge.] t 

co-in-cide' (-ci'-ded, -ci'-ding), v. to be 
alike, or the same ; to correspond ; to 
happen at the same time, co-in'-ci- 
dence, n. co-in'-ci-dent, adj. [L. 
con- + incido, I fall in, or upon.] 

coir, v. cordage or rope, etc., made from 
the fibrous covering of the cocoa-nut. 
[Tamil kayiru.~\ 

coke, n. baked coal. [?] 

Col., Colonel ; Columbia (U.S.A.). 

col., colloquial ; colonial ; column. 

col'-an-der (kul'-), n. a vessel with small 
holes in the bottom for straining. [L. 
colo, I strain.] 

cold, adj. wanting in heat ; reserved ; 
spiritless : n. absence of heat ; a disease 
caused by cold, cold'-ness, n. cold- 
blooded, adj. having cold blood, as 
fishes ; without feeling ; hard-hearted. 
cold storage, a room for storing perish- 
able foods (as meat, fish, etc.,) in a cool 
temperature, as — as charity, un- 
feeling ; unsympathetic, to give the — 




shoulder to, to treat with indifference. 
to leave out in the — , to overlook or 
neglect, to throw — water on, to 
discourage. [A.S. ceald."] 

cole, n. a general name for plants of the 
cabbage family, cole' -wort, n. a kind 
of cabbage. [L. caulis, a cabbage.] 

col-e-op'-ter-a, an order of insects 
having two wings protected by a horny 
case. [Gr. <kdleos, a sheath, pte ron, 
a wing.] 

col'-ic, n. acute pain in the abdomen and 
bowels, col'-ick-y, adj. [Gr. kolikos.^ 

col-i-se'-um, n. See colosseum. 

Coll., College. 

col-lab-o-ra'-tion, n. a working together 
for one object, col-lab'-or-a-tor (or 
-a-teur), n. one who works witb another 
(or others). [L. col- + labor, labour.] 

col-lapse' (-lapsed', -laps'-ing), v. to 
fall together suddenly, or fall in ; to fail 
completely : n. a complete breakdown 
(esp. in health) ; a fall ; total failure. 
[L. collapsus< labor, I fall.] 

col'-lar, n. a band, etc., worn round the 
neck for use, ornament, or restraint ; a 
ring : v. to seize (esp. by the neck). 
collar— bone', n. one of the chief bones 
of the neck, col'-lared, adj. (meat) 
rolled up and corded tightly for cooking. 
[F. collier <L. collum, the neck.] 

col-late' (-la'-ted, -la'-ting), v. to place 
side by side or in order ; to compare ; to 
put into an office (as a church living). 
col-la'-tion, n. the act of collating ; 
light refreshment, col-la'-tor, n. [L. 
colldtus, borne together.] 

col-lat'-er-al, adj. running side by side ; 
not direct (of ancestry or descent). [L. 
col' + latus, the side.] 

col'-league (-leeg), n. a partner (but not 
in business) ; a helper. [L. collega, a 

col-lect' (-ed, -ing), v. to gather together ; 
to infer ; to put (one's thoughts) in order. 
col'-lect, n. a sbort prayer, col-lec- 
tion, ». col-lec'-tive (-tiv), adj. joined 
together ; taken as a whole, col-lec'- 
tiy-ism (-izm), n. a socialistic doctrine 
that land and other means of production 
should belong to the whole community 
and not to individuals, col-lec'-tor, a. 
one who — . [L. colltgo<col- -\-ligo, I 

col'-leen, n. a girl. [Irish cailm.'} 

col' -lege {'lij), n. an important school ; a 
part of a university ; a society of learned 

men. col'-leg-er, n. a member or 
inmate of a college, col-le'-gi-an, n. 
a member of a college ; a student, col- 
le'-gi-ate, adj. pertaining to or resem- 
bling a college ; containing a college. 
collegiate church, a church governed 
by a college (i.e., a chapter) consisting 
of Dean, Canons (or Prebends), but not, 
like a cathedral, the seat of a Bishop's 
See. [F.<L. collegium, a society.] 

col-lide' (-li'-ded, -li'-ding), v. to strike 
or dash together, col-li -sion (-lizh'- 
un),n. — ; opposition. [L. collido, I 
dash together.] 

col'-lie, or col'-ly, n. a shepherd's dog 
(esp. in the Highlands of Scotland). [?] 

col'-li-er, n. a worker in a coal-mine ; a 
coal-ship, col'-li-er-y, ft. (pi. -ies), a 
coal-mine. [See coal.] 

col-lo'-di-on, n. a solution of gun-cotton 
in ether and alcohol used in surgery and 
photography. [Gr. kolla, glue, eidos, 

col'-lop, n. a lump or slice of meat. [?] 

col'-lo-quy (-kwi),n. a talking together; 
conversation. col-lo'-qui-al, ' adj. 
relating to or employed in ordinary con- 
versation. [L. col- + loquor, I speak.] 

COl'-lo-type, n. a process of printing 
pictures, etc., from a sheet of gelatine 
upon which a photograph has been 
made. [Gr. kolla, glue -j- type.] 

col-lu'-sion (-zlmn), n. an agreeing 
together for evil purposes ; connivance. 
[L. col- + ludo, I play.] 

Colo., Colorado (U.S.A.). 

co'-lon, n. a mark of punctuation (:). 
[Gr. kolon, a limb.] 

col'-onel (kur'-nel), n. the chief officer of 
a regiment, col'-onel-cy, n. office, 
rank, or commission of a — . [F.<L. 
columna, a column.] 

col-on-nade' (-ndd'), n. a range or line 
of columns. [F. <L. columna, a column] 

col'-o-ny (-nl), n. a settlement in a new 
country, co-lo -ni-al, adj. col'-o-nize 
(or -nise), v. to form into a colony. 
col'-o-nist, n. a settler in a new colony. 
col-o-ni-za'-tion, n. [L. colonia<cdlo, 
I cultivate.] 

Col-os-se'-um or Col-i-se'-um, n. a name 
sometimes given to large modern places 
of amusement, from Vespasian's amphi- 
theatre at Rome, the largest in the world. 

Co-los'-sus, n. a statue of very large size. 
co-los'-sal, adj. very large ; gigantic. 
[< Colossus, a statue of Apollo, of im- 




mense size, which once stood at the 
mouth of the harbour of Ehodes.] 

COl' -our (kul'-gr) , n. the hue or appearance 
of a body to the eye ; a tint ; appear- 
ance ; pretence ; disguise , a paint ; a 
flag : v. (-oured, -our-ing), to give — 
to. col'-our-a-ble, adj. fair or right in 
appearance ; intended to deceive, a 
person of — , a negro or other dark- 
skinned individual, colour-blind, adj. 
unable to distinguish colours, colour- 
sergeant, n. anon-commissioned officer 
in the army who ranks above an ordinary 
sergeant (formerly he guarded the 
colours), off — , not very well, to 
show one's colours, to show one's in- 
clinations, opinions, or character. [F. 
<L. color. 2 

col-por-teur' (-ter') n. a hawker of small 
wares (esp. books). [F.<L. collum, the 
neck, porto, I carry.] 

colt (kolt),n. a young horse, colt's'— foot, 
n. a plant whose leaves were formerly 
much used in medicine. [A.S. colt. ] 

col'-ter, more correctly coul -ter (kol'-), 

col'-um-bine, adj. of a dove ; dove-col- 
oured : n. a plant whose flower was 
supposed to resemble a dove ; the com- 
panion of Harlequin in a pantomime. 
[L. columba, a dove.] 

col'-umn (-urn) , n. a pillar ; a main division 
of an army ; an upright division of a 
page ; a support, col-um'-nar, adj. 
column-like. [L. columna.'] 

col'-za, n. a kind of cabbage from whose 
seeds oil for lighting purposes is ob- 
tained. [F. < D. koolzaad, cabbage-seed 
(from which the oil is obtained).] 

com-, co-, cog-, col-, con-, cor-, pre/. 
[L.] with ; together. 

CO '-ma, n. very deep sleep ; insensibility ; 
a kind of stupor, co'-ma-tose, adj. 
[Gr. koma, deep sleep.] 

comb (kom), n. an instrument with teeth 
for dressing hair, wool, flax, etc. ; the 
crest of a cock ; a set of honey-cells : v. 
(combed, comb'-ing), to dress, separate, 
or arrange with a comb, comb'-ings, 
n. pi. hair, etc., combed off. [A.S. camb"\ 

comb, or combe, n. a narrow valley be- 
tween hills. [W. cwm, a hollow.] 

com'-bat (-bat-ed, -bat-ing),v. to fight 
(in battle) ; to contend against ; to 
oppose : n. com'-bat-ant, n. a fighter. 
com'-bat-iye, adj. non-combatants, officers in the army (as doctors, 

chaplains, etc.,) who do not fight. [F. 
combattre<h. com- + bdtuo, I beat.] 

com-bine' (-bined', -bi'-ning), v. to join 
together ; to unite ; to agree together : 
n. com-bi-na'-tion (-W-), n. an alli- 
ance ; a union, com-bi-na'-tions, a close-fitting under-garment (com- 
bining vest and drawers) worn next the 
skin by men and women, a combine, 
a league (esp. of traders) formed to pro- 
tect their own interests, and to control 
the production and distribution of cer- 
tain commodities (as, a soap — , an oil 
— , a meat — , etc.). [L. comblno, I 

corn-bus' -ti-ble (-ti-), adj. burning read- 
ily, com-bus'-tion (-tyiin, or -chun) , n. 
burning. [F. <L comburo, I burn up.] 

come (Mm), (came, com'-ing, come), v. 
to arrive here, com'-er, n. com'-ing, 
n. arrival, come-at'-a-ble, adj. able to 
be found or got at. [A.S. cuman, to come] 

com'-e-dy, n. a lively stage-play, one 
which ends happily, co-me'-di-an, 
n. to. («./. -enne), one who acts in a — . 
com-e-di-et'-ta, n. a short comic play. 
[F.<L.<Gr. komodia.] 

come'-ly, adj. handsome ; graceful ; 
pleasing, come'-li-ness, n. [A.S. 
cf/mlic< cuman, to come.] 

com-es'-ti-bles (-ti-blz), articles of 
food. [F.<L. comedo, I eat up.] 

com'-et, n. a heavenly body with a lumin- 
ous tail. [L. cometa <Gr. kome, hair.] 

com'-fit (kiim'-), n. a small sweet-meat. 
[F. conftKh.'confectus, made up.] 

com'-fort (kum'-), (-ed, -ing), v. to con- 
sole ; to relieve from grief : n. consola- 
tion ; a happy state of body or mind 
(free from grief or pain), com'-fort-a- 
ble, adj. feeling comfort, com'-fort-er, 
n. one who — . com '-fort-less, adj. 
miserable ; wretched ; forlorn. [F. < 
L. com-+fortis, strong.] 

com '-ic, adj. droll ; causing mirth ; relating 
to comedy. com'-ic-al,adj. [L. coniicus] 

com'-i-ty (-l-tl), n. courtesy; good-feel- 
ing, comity of nations, that courtesy 
between nations which leads each to 
respect the laws and usages of other 
nations. [L. comitas, courtesy.] 

com'-ma, n. a mark of punctuation (,). 
[Gr. komma, a cutting.] 

com-mand' (-ed, -ing), v. to order ; to 
rule ; to have at disposal : n. an order ; 
a message, com-man-dant', n. a com- 
mander, cora-man-deer' (-deered', 

Comme il faut 



-deer'-ing), v. to force into or seize for 
military service, corn-man' -der, n. 
one who — . com-man'-ding, adj. 
controlling; impressive, com-mand- 
ment, n. something commanded, corn- 
man' -do, n. a party called out for mili- 
tary purposes ; a raid, commander- 
in-chief, n. formerly the highest staff 
officer in the British army. [F.<L. 
com-+mando, I entrust.] 
comme il faut {kom el Jo), [F.] as it 

ought to be. 
com-mem'-o-rate (-ra-ted, -ra-ting),t. 
to call to memory ; to celebrate or keep 
the memory of. com-mem-o-ra'-tion, 
n. [L. commemoro, I call to mind.] 
com-mence' (-menced', -men'-cing), v. 
to begin ; to originate, com-mence'- 
ment, n. [F. < L. com- -f initio, I begin .] 
com-mend' (-ed', -ing), v. to give in 
charge ; to praise ; to recommend as 
worthy, com-men'-da-ble, adj. worthy 
of being commended, com-men-da'- 
tion, n. com-men'-da-to-ry, adj. 
giving praise ; recommending to notice. 
[L. commendo, I entrust.] 
com-men'-su-ra-ble, adj. having a com- 
mon measure ; measurable by the same 
standard. com-men'-su-rate, adj. 
adequate ; equal ; proportional ; suit- 
able. [L. com--\-mensura, a measure.] 
com-ment' (-ment'-ed, -ment'-ing), v. 
to make notes or remarks (on), com'- 
ment, n. com'-men-ta-ry (-ta-ri), n. 
a collection of notes in explanation. 
com'-men-ta-tor, n. one who — . [L. 
commentor, I think upon.] 
com'-merce, n. trade on a large scale 
between nations. com-mer'-cial 
(shal) , adj. relating to trade or com merce 
[F.<L. commercium, traffic, trade.] 
com-min'-gle (-gled, -gling), v. to mix or 

mingle together. [L. com- + mingle.] 
"com-mis'-er-ate (-miz'-), (-a-ted, -a- 
ting), v. to feel ior another ; to sympa- 
thize with. [L. commiseror.'] 
com'-mis-sa-ry, n. one who has some 
special duty committed to his charge. 
com-mi-sa'-ri-at,n. the supply depart- 
ment (for food, etc.) of an army ; the 
officers of that department ; the supplies 
themselves. [F. <L. commissio, a com- 
com-mis'-sion (-mish'-un), n. entrusting 
to another ; authority ; allowance ; a 
certificate conferring rank in the army 
or navy ; a body of persons appointed to 

perform some duty ; the duty they 
perform: v. (-sioned, -sion-ing), to 
authorize, com-mis-sion-aire' (-mis- 
syon-ar'), n. a messenger ; a light porter. 
com-mis'-sion-er, n. one who holds a 

— to perform some business ; (in India) 
a ruler of a province or district, com- 
mission—agent or —merchant, n. one 
who sells goods for another for a per- 
centage of the money received, com- 
monly called his "commission." com- 
missioned officer, one appointed by 
commission — in the army from the 
ensign, and in the navy from the lieu- 
tenant, upwards, to put in commis- 
sion, to man and equip (a ship) for active 
service. [F.<L. commissio.'} 

com-mit' (-mit'-ted, -mit'-ting), v. to 
entrust ; to send ; to perpetrate (crime) ; 
to pledge or bind ; to compromise (one- 
self) ; to send for trial or to prison. 
com-mit'-tal, n. the act of committing; 
being committed. [L. com-+viitto, I 

com-mit' -tee, ». a body of persons ap- 
pointed to manage, control, or consider 
certain affairs, in — , (in parliament) 
the members discussing matters in a free 
and informal manner, without the 
Speaker in the chair, standing — , a 

— appointed to carry on work of a 
more or less permanent character. 
[See commit.] 

com-mo'-di-ous (-di-us), adj. convenient ; 
suitable ; roomy. [L. commodus, suit- 
able, convenient.] 

com-mod'-i-ty (^L -ties), n. an article 
of trade ; that which is useful or con- 
venient ; in pi. goods ; merchandise. 
t.See commodious.] 

com'-mo-dore, n. the commander of a 
division of a fleet ; a senior captain. 
[Sp. comendador (?)<L. commendo, I 

com'-mon, adj. not rare ; usual ; public ; 
mean ; vulgar : n. a large open public 
ground, com'-mon-al-ty, n. the — 
people, com'-mon-er, n. one of the 

— people. Com'-mons, members 
of the " Lower House " of the British 
Parliament, com'-mon-place, adj. — ; 
trite, com'-mon-weal, or com'-mon- 
wealth, n. the general state (or com- 
munity), common council, the council 
of a city or corporate town, common 
law, tbe unwritten law, based on usage, 
as distinguished from statute law. 




common measure, number or quantity 
exactly dividing two or more numbers. 
Common Pleas, a division of the High 
Court of Justice. Common Prayer, the 
book containing the religious services of 
the Church of England, common- 
sense, n. ordinary good judgement on 
practical matters : adj. on short 
commons, having meagre diet, to make 
— cause with, to take sides with. [O.F. 
comin < L. communis, common, general.] 

com-mo'-tion, n. an excited state ; a dis- 
turbance. [L. commotio < com- +moveo, 
I move.] 

com-mune' (-munecT, -mu'-ning), v. to 
converse together, com'-mune, n. a 
small district (esp. in France) having its 
own laws and customs, com'-mu-nal, j 
adj. com'-mu-nism (-nizm), n. the I 
doctrine of common property (esp. in 
land) ; socialism. [See common.] 

com-mu'-ni-on (-m-uri), n. intercourse ; 
the celebration of the Lord's Supper. 
com-mu'-ni-cant, n. a partaker of the 
Lord's Supper, com-mu'-ni-cate (-ca- 
ted, -ca-ting), v. to give or impart 
(information, etc.) ; to join ; to partake 
of the Lord's Supper, com-mu'-ni- 
ca-tiye, adj. ready at giving informa- 
tion ; candid, com-mu-ni-ca'-tion, n. 
the act of communicating ; intercourse 
by words, letters, messages, etc. ; means 
of passing from place to place ; that 
which is communicated (as a letter, 
news, etc:). [See common.] 

com-mu'-ni-ty, n. the body of the people ; 
an association. [See common.] 

com-mute' (-mu'-ted, -mu'-ting), v. to 
change ; to lessen (as a punishment, 
from one more severe), com-mu-ta'- 
tion, n. com'-mu-ta-tor, n. a contriv- 
ance attached to many pieces of electrical 
apparatus for reversing the current. 
[L. com- + muto, I change.] 

corn-pact', adj. close together ; firm ; 
handy ; useful : v. (-ed, -ing), to join 
closely together, com'-pact, n. an 
agreement. [L. compactus < com- +pango 
I join.] 

com-pan'-ion (-yun), n. an associate; a 
mate, com'-pan-y (-*}, n. an assembly 
of persons ; a body of guests, of traders, 
or of soldiers ; a ship's crew, com- 
panion ladder, the ladder (in a ship) 
leading from one deck to another. 
companion way, a ladder or stairs from 
the deck (of a ship) to a cabin. [F. < 

L. com--\-pdnis t bread.] 

com-pare' (-pared', -pa'-ring), v. to find 
out or shew in what respects things are 
alike, com'-par-a-ble, adj. able to be 
compared, com-par'-a-tiye {-tiv), adj. 
as compared with others, com-par'-i- 
son, n. the act (or state) of comparing 
or of being compared ; likeness. [F.< 
L. comparo<com-+par, equal.] 

com-part'-ment, n. a division (as of a 
railway-carriage, etc.). water— tight 
compartments, divisions (as in the hull 
of a ship) so cut off from the other parts 
and from one another by tight-fitting 
doors, that if water gets into one part 
it cannot get into an adjoining part. 
[F.<L. corn- + pars, part.] 

com'-pass (-passed, -pass-ing), v. to pass 
or go round ; to obtain (one's ends) : n. 
a passing round ; a circuit ; limits 
assigned to anything, mariners' com- 
pass, a magnetized needle which always 
points out the N. and S., used to steer a 
ship, etc., by. (a pair of) compasses, 
n. an instrument for drawing a circle. 
[F.<L. com--\-passus, a step.] 

com-pas'-sion (-pash'-un), n. pity ; sym- 
pathy : v. (-a-ted, -a-ting), to have pity 
for. com-pas'-sion-ate, adj. [F.< 
L. com-+pdtior, I suffer.] 

com-pat'-i-ble(-£-M),adj. agreeing; suit- 
able ; in keeping with, com-pat-i-bil'- 
i-ty, n. [F. <L. com--\-pdtior, I suffer.] 

com-pa'-tri-ot,w. one of the same country 
or fatherland : adj. [L. com- -(-patriot.] 

corn-peer', n. an equal ; a companion. 
[L. com--\- peer.] 

corn-pel ' (-pelled' , -pel ' -ling) , v . to force ; 
to drive; to necessitate. [L. com--\- 
pello, I drive.] 

corn-pen' -di-um, n. a summary ; an 
abridgement, com-pen'-di-ous (-di-us), 
adj. conveniently short. [L.<com- + 
pendo, I weigh.] 

com' -pen-sate (-sa-ted, -sa-ting), v. to 
recompense ; to pay for loss, com-pen- 
sa'-tion, n. com-pen-sa'-to-ry, adj. 
Compensation Acts, acts of parliament 
providing for certain payments when 
land is compulsorily purchased, when 
icorkmen (and others) are inj ured at work, 
and when licensed houses are closed as 
unnecessary, compensation balance, 
(in a watch or clock) one so constructed 
as to adapt itself to changes of tempera- 
ture. [L. com--\-pendo, I weigh.] 

com-pete' (-pe'-ted, -pe -ting), v. to 




strive (with or against others), com- 
pe-ti'-tion (-tish'-un), n. rivalry, com- 
pet'-i-tor, n. one who — . com-pet'- 
i-tiye (-tiv), adj. open to, or producing, 
competition. [Li.<com--\-peto, I seek.] 

com'-pe-tent, adj. of sufficient ability 
(for) ; well qualified (for) com'-pe- 
tence,n. sufficient ability ; fitness, com'- 
pe-ten-cy, ». sufficient wealth for one's 
needs. [F. <L. com-+peto, I seek.] 

corn-pile' (-piled', -pi'-ling), v. to make 
up (tup» a book) from other materials. 
com-pi-la'-tion, n. [F.<L. compllo, 
I plunder.] 

cora-pla'-cent (sent), adj. pleased; show- 
ing pleasure or satisfaction ; self-satis- 
fied, com-pla'-cence (sens), or com- 
pla'-cen-cy (sen-si), n. \L. com- + 
placens, pleasing <placeo, I please.] 

com-plain' (-plained', -plain'-ing), v. 
to express displeasure ; to find fault ; to 
murmur, com-plain'-ant, n. one who 
makes a charge against another ; one 
who brings a complaint, or accusation, 
into court, com-plaint', n. a complain- 
ing ; an accusation against some one ; 
an ailment. [F.<L. com--\-plango, I 

com-plai'-sance (-pla'-zans), n. readiness 
to oblige; courtesy, com-plai'-sant, 
adj. — ; affable. [F.<L. com-+pldceo, 
I please.] 

com'-ple-ment, n. that which makes full 
or complete ; the full number or quan- 
tity, com-ple-men'-ta-ry, adj. [L. 
com-+pleo, I fill.] 

com-plete' (-ple'-ted, -ple'-ting), v. to 
finish ; to perfect ; to realize : adj. 
finished; perfect, com-plete'-ly, adv. 
com-ple'-tion, n. [F.<L. com-+pleo, 
I fill.] 

com'-piex, adj. composed of two or more 
parts ; not simple ; intricate, com- 
plex'-i-ty (-l-tl), n. [L. com-+plico, 
I fold.] 

com-plex'-ion (-plek'shun), n. the colour 
of the skin ; appearance ; temperament. 
[F.<L. complexio<plecto, I plait.] 

com'-pli-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to 
twist or plait together ; to tangle ; to 
involve, com'-pli-ca-ted, adj. intri- 
cate, com-pli-ca'-tion, n. [L. com- + 
pllco, I fold.] 

com-plic'-i-ty (-plis'-l-tl), n. being an 
accomplice or helper (in evil). {See 

com'-pli-ment, n. a polite expression of 


praise or respect ; flattery ; a greeting : 
v. (-ed, -ing). com-pli-raen'-ta-ry, 
adj. {See complement.] 

com'-pline (-plln), or -plin, n. the last 
religious service of the day in the Horn. 
Cath. Ch. [F. < L computus, complete.] 

com-ply' (-plied', -ply'-ing), v. to give 
way ; to yield ; to agree, com-pli'- 
ance, n. com-pli'-ant, adj. [L. com- 
+pleo, I fill.] 

com-po'-nent, adj. making up or com- 
posing, component part, one which 
helps to form the whole. [L. com- + 
pono, I place.] 

com-port' (-ed, -ing), v. to bear (oneself) ; 
to agree ; to suit, com-port'-ment, n. 
behaviour ; bearing. [L. com- +porto, 
I bear, carry.] 

com-pose' (-pdz'), (-posed', -po'-sing), v. 
to put together ; to form ; to set at rest ; to 
calm ; to write (a book), corn-posed', 
adj. quiet ; calm, com'-po-site, adj. 
made up of parts ; compounded, com- 
po-si'-tion (-zish'-un), n. a putting 
together ; something put together ; a 
thing composed, as a piece of literature, 
music, or a painting ; amount the cred- 
itors agree to receive in discharge of 
a bankrupt's debts, com-pos'-i-tor 
(-poz'-i-), n. (in printing) one who puts 
together the type. com-po'-sure(-2/m/*), 
n. calmness. [F.<L. com-^-posttus, 
placed or set.] [mind. 

com'-pos men'-tis f [L.] in one's right 

com'-post, 11. a mixture (esp. of manures). 
{See compose.] [syrup. [F.] 

com' -pote (-pot), n. whole fruit stewed in 

com '-pound, adj. not simple ; made up of 
more than one element or part : n. a 
substance made up of two or more ele- 
ments, ingredients, or parts combined ; 
an enclosure : v. corn-pound' (-ed, 
-ing), to make up ; to mix together; to 
settle amicably, corn-pound -er, n. 
compound fracture, a breaking of a 
bone with a severe wound in the flesh. 
compound householder, one whose 
rates are paid through the landlord in the 
form of rent. [F. <L. com- + pono Iput.] 

com-pre-hend' (-ed, -ing), v. to grasp 
(with the mind) ; to understand ; to 
comprise; to include, com-pre-hen'- 
si-ble, adj. able to be understood, com- 
pre-hen'-sion,?i. understanding; inclu- 
sion, com-pre-hen'-siye, adj. includ- 
ing much; extensive. [L. com- -{-pre- 
Iiendo, I seize.] 




com-press' (-pressed', -press'-ing), v. 

to press together ; to condense ; to force 
into smaller space : n. com '-press, (in 
surgery) a soft pad for applying pressure. 
com-pres'-si-ble, adj. able to be — . 
com-pres'-sion (-presh'-un), n. [L. 
com- + press.] 

com-prise' (-priz'), (-prised', -pri'-sing), 
v. to contain ; to include ; to sum up. 
[See comprehend.] 

com'-pro-mise (-mlz), (-mised, -mi- 
sing), v. to endanger a person's character 
or interests ; to settle by mutual con- 
cession : n. [F.<L. com- -\-promitto, I 

comp-trol'-ler (Icon-), n. same as con- 
troller, q.v . 

com-pul'-sion, n. being compelled ; force ; 
constraint, com-pul'-so-ry, adj. by 
force or — ; not voluntary, compul- 
sory service, forced service in the army 
or navy. {See compel.] 

COm-punc'-tion, n. an uneasy feeling of 
the conscience ; remorse ; deep regret. 
[L. com-+pungo, I prick.] 

com-pute' (-pu'-ted, -pu'-ting), v. to 
reckon ; to calculate ; to value, com- 
pu'-ter, n. com-pu-ta'-tion, n. [L. 
com-+puto, I think, I reckon.] 

com'-rade, n. a close companion ; a mate. 
[F.<L. camera, a chamber.] 

con, against, pro and con, for and against. 
[L. contra, against.] 

con (conned, con'-ning), v. to study at- 
tentively ; to learn by heart, conning— 
tower, the pilot-house of a war-ship ; 
the look-out tower on a submarine. 
[A.S. citnnan, to know.] 

con a-mo'-re (kon-a-mo'-rl), [I.] with 
love ; with all the heart. 

con'-caye, adj. curved inwards ; hollow : 
*. con-cay'-i-ty (-i-tl), n. [L. con- 
cdvus<cdvus, hollow.] 

con-ceal' (seV), (-cealed', -ceal'-ing), 
v. to hide ; to keep close or secret ; to 
shelter, con-ceal'-ment, n. [L. con- + 
celo, I hide.] 

con-cede' (sed f ), (-ce'-ded, -ce'-ding), 
v. to grant; to allow; to yield, con- 
ces'-sion (sesh'-un), n. [L. con--\-cedo, 
I yield.] 

con-ceit' (seet'), n. thinking too highly of 
oneself ; vanity ; affectation ; a fine idea. 
con-ceit' -ed, adj. having too high an 
opinion of oneself ; vain. [Sec conceive.] 

con-ceive' (sev'), (-ceiyed', -ceiy'-ing), 
v. to form an idea in the mind ; to under- | 

stand ; to imagine, con-ceiy'-a-ble, 
adj. con-cep'-tion (sep'-shun), n. 
[O.F.<L. concipio.] 

con'-cen-trate (sen-), (-tra-ted, -tra- 
ting), v. to bring close together; to con- 
dense, con-cen-tra'-tion, n. con- 
cen'-tric, adj. having the same centre. 
[F.<L. con- + centrum, centre.] 

con-cern' (-cerned', -cern'-ing), v. to 
relate or belong to ; to have to do with : 
n. a business *or affair ; anxiety, con- 
cerned', adj. interested ; anxious, con- 
cern'-ing, prep, relating to ; about. 
[F.<L. concemo, I regard.] 

con-cert' (-ed, -ing), v. to plan together ; 
to arrange, con' -cert, n. an agreeing 
or acting together ; a musical perform- 
ance by several persons, con-cer-ti'- 
na (-te'-),n. a small musical reed instru- 
ment, con-cer'-to (-cher'- or -ser'-), n. 
an important musical composition for a 
solo instrument with orchestral accom- 
paniment, concert pitch, a standard 
pitch for musical instruments as used in 
concerts. [F. and I. <L. con- + certo, 
I contend.] 

conch (konk), n. a spiral marine shell. 
con'-choid (-koid), n. shell-form ; a kind 
of curve : adj. con-chol'-o-gy (-kol'-o- 
ji), n. the science of shells. [L. concha , 
a shell.] [keeper ; a porter. [F.] 

con-cierge' (koh-sydrzh'), n. a door- 

con-cil'-i-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to win 
over ; to gain the favour of ; to make 
peace with, con-cil'-i-a-to-ry, adj. of 
a conciliating kind or manner, con- 
cil-i-a'-tion,n. [L. concilium, council.] 

con-cise' (sis ), adj. short ; brief, con- 
cise'-ly, adv. con-cise'-ness, n. [F. 
<L. con- + caedo, I cut.] 

con'-claYe, n. an assembly (esp. of car- 
dinals) ; a private or secret meeting. [L. 
conclave, a room < con- + cldvis, a key.] 

con-elude' (-clu'-ded, -clu'-ding), v. to 
finish ; to infer ; to form an opinion. 
con-clu'-sion (-zhun), n. end; infer- 
ence, con-clu'-siye (siv), adj. finish- 
ing ; settling ; decisive. [L. con- -f- 
claudo, I shut.] 

con-coct' (-coct'-ed, -coct'-ing), v. to 
cook up ; to plan ; to plot ; to make up 
(as a story), con-coc'-tion, n. some- 
thing concocted ; scheming. [L. con- 
-\-coquo, I cook.] 

con-com'-i-tant, adj. accompanying ; 
happening with, con-com'-i-tance, n. 
[h. con- + comes, a companion.] 




COn'-cord,ft. agreement ; harmony; union. 
con-cor' -dance, ft. agreement ; an index 
of words occurring in a book (esp. the 
Bible), con-cor' -dant, adj. agreeing. 
con-cor'-dat, ft. an agreement between 
the Pope and some foreign government ; 
a compact. [F. <L. concordia, concord 
<cor, cordis, the heart.] 

con'-course, ft. an assembly ; a crowd ; a 
meeting. [F. < L. concnrsus, a running 
together ; a meeting.] 

con' -crete, adj. dealing with actual things : 
n. actual existence (opposed to " ab- 
stract ") ; a kind of cement : v. (-cre'- 
ted, -cre'-ting). con-cre'-tion, n. a 
growing together ; formation into a mass. 
concrete— steel or ferro— concrete, ft. 
(in building) a framework of light steel 
filled in and round with cement. [L. 
concretus <con- + cresco I grow.] 

con-cur' (-curred', -cur'-ring), v. to run 
together ; to meet ; to agree, con-cur '- 
rence, v. con-cur' -rent, adj. [L. 
eoncurro <con- + curro, I run.] 

con-cus'-sion (-cush'-un), n. a shaking; 
a violent shock by striking against. 
concussion of the brain, the stunning 
effect produced on the brain by a fall or 
a blow causing unconsciousness. [L. 
conditio, I shake together.] 

con-demn' (-dew'), (-demned', -demn- 
ing), v. to pronounce guilty ; to sentence ; 
to censure ; to pronounce unfit for use or 
service, con-dem-na'-tion, n. [L. 

con-dense' (-densed', -dens'-ing), v. to 
reduce in volume ; to turn vapour into 
liquid ; to abbreviate, con-den-sa'- 
tion, ft. con-den'-ser, ft. that which 
condenses ; any device for turning 
vapours and gases into liquids ; a lens j 
for concentrating light ; an apparatus i 
for accumulating and concentrating j 
electricity, condensed milk, milk pre- J 
served by driving off the water by heat j 
and then sweetening. [L. condenso< \ 
densus, thick.] 

con-de-scend' (send'), (-ing, -ed), v. to 
lower oneself ; to stoop ; to yield ; to 
deign, con-de-scen'-sion (sen' -shun), 
ft. [F.<L. con- + descend.] 

con-dign' (-din'), adj. well-merited; well- 
deserved (punishment). [L. condignus, 
very worthy.] 

con'-di-raent, n. a seasoning for food ; a 
relish. [L. cotidlmentum.] 

con-di'-tion (-dwh'-un), n. mode or state 

of being ; circumstances ; rank ; an 
article or term of a contract, con-di'- 
tion-al, adj. depending on conditions. 
con-di'-tion-al-ly, adv. [L. conditio."] 

con-dole' (-doled', -do'-ling), v. to grieve 
(with) ; to sympathize, con-do '-lence, 
ft. [L. con- + dbleo, I grieve.] 

con-done' (-don'), (-doned', -do'-ning), 
v. to forgive ; to pardon, or overlook (a 
fault), con-do-na'-tion, n. [L. con- 
+ dono, I give.] 

con'-dor, n. a kind of vulture (a bird of 
prey) found in America. [Sp.] 

con-duce' (-dies'), (-duced', -du'-cing), 
v. to lead (to) ; to contribute, con-du'- 
ciye (siv), adj. leading to ; helping to 
cause. [L. con--\-duco, I lead.] 

con-duct' (-ed, -ing), v. to lead or guide; 
to direct ; to manage ; to behave ; (of 
electricity) to carry or transmit, con'- 
duct, n. guidance ; behaviour, con- 
duc'-tion, ft. con-duc-tiy'-i-ty, ft. the 
power that bodies have of transmitting 
heat and electricity, con-duc'-tor, h. 
a leader ; a manager ; one in charge of 
a 'bus, car, etc. ; a transmitter (of heat, 
electricity, etc.). [See conduce.] 

con'-duit (-dlt), n. a channel; a water- 
pipe ; a groove, passage, or subway 
underground for containing gas-pipes, 
water-pipes, electric cables, etc. [F.< 
L. con--\-duco, I lead.] 

cone, ft. a pointed figure (like a sugar-loaf) 
on a circular base ; the fruit of pines, 
firs, etc. con'-i-cal, adj. cone tree, 
a pine tree. [F.<L.<Gr. konos, a 
pine-cone ; a peak.] 

co'-ney, ft. See co'-ny. 

con-fab'-u-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. 
(sometimes con'-fab) to talk together; 
to chat, con-fab-u-la'-tion, ft. [L. 
confdbulatio <jdbulor , I talk.] 

con-fect' (-ed, -ing), v. to make up ; to 
compose (by mixing), con-fee '-tion, ft. 
a making (esp. of sweetmeats) ; a sweet- 
meat, con-fee '-tion-er, n. a maker or 
seller of sweetmeats, pastry, etc. con- 
fee '-tion-er-y, ft. sweetmeats and 
pastry. [L. con-+facio, I make.] 

con-fed' -er-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
unite in a league ; to combine : adj. 
leagued together : ft. one who is joined 
in a league with others ; an ally ; an 
accomplice, con-fed '-er-a-cy (si), n. 
a league or alliance ; a conspiracy. 
con-fed-er-a'-tion, w. two or more 
parties, states, or societies leagued 




together. [L. con- -f foedus , a treaty, a 
con-fer' (-ferred', -fer'-ring), v. to con- 
suit together ; to grant ; to bestow. 
con'-fer-ence, n. an assembly for con- 
sultation or discussion ; a discussion. 
con-fer'-ra-ble, adj. [L. con-+fero, 
I bear, bring.] 

con-fess' (-fessed', -fess'-ing), v. to own 
or acknowledge (faults) ; to disclose ; to 
make known (as sins to a priest) ; to 
profess belief in. con-fess' -ed-ly, adv. 
as owned or acknowledged ; by confes- 
sion, con-fes'-sion (-fesh'-un),n. con- 
fes'-sion-al, n. the place where a priest 
hears confession, con-fes'-sor, n. one 
who confesses ; a priest who hears con- 
fessions and grants absolution ; one who 
suffers persecution, but not death, for 
his faith. [F.<L. conjiteor."] 

con-fet'-ti (-te), n. pi. small discs of , 
coloured paper used, instead of rice, at j 
weddings, to throw after the bride and i 
bridegroom, for good luck ; also used 
in mock battles in carnivals ; small j 
sweetmeats ; comfits. [I. confetto, j 
a sugar-plum.] 

con-fide' (-fi'-ded, -fi'-ding), v. to trust ! 
(in) ; to rely (on), con'-fi-dant, n. m. j 
(/. -dante), one in whom trust is placed j 
(esp. in private affairs) ; a bosom friend. ] 
con'-fi-dence, n. trust ; reliance ; a ; 
feeling sure, con-fi-den'-tial (shal), I 
adj. able to be trusted ; private, con- j 
fi'-ding, adj. feeling trust, in conn- ! 
dence, as a secret or private matter not I 
to be told to anyone else, to take into 
confidence, to let another share secret 
or private matters with you. [L. con-  
fido, I trust.] 

con-fig'-u-rate (-ra-ted, -ra-ting), v. to 
form ; to fashion, con-fig-u-ra'-tion, 
n. form ; outline. [L. con- + figure.] 

con-fine' (-fined', -fi'-ning), v. to shut 
up ; to limit ; to enclose, con'-fine 
(usu. in pi. con'-fines), n. a boundary. 
con-fine'-ment, n. imprisonment; re- 
straint. [F. < L. con- + fmis, an end.] 

con-firm' (-firmed', -firm'-ing), v. to 
strengthen ; to ratify ; to make sure. 
con-fir-ma'-tion, n. a strengthening ; 
a rite of the Church by which baptized 
persons are admitted to full fellowship. 
[F.<L. conjirmo, I strengthen.] 

con'-fis-cate (-ca-tedj -ca-ting), v. to 

. seize as forfeited ; to take possession of. 

con-fis-ca'-tion, n. con'-fis-ca-tor, n. 

[L. con--\-jiscus, a basket, a purse.] 

con-flag-ra'-tion, n. a very large fire. 
[L. con-+Jldgro, I burn.] 

con-flict' (-ed, -ing), v. to fight ; to be at 
variance, con'-flict, n. a fight ; a 
struggle; strife, con-flict' -ing, adj. con- 
trary ; opposite. [L. con- +Jiiyo, I dash.] 

con'-flu-ence, n. a flowing together or 
junction (of streams) ; a tributary stream. 
con'-flu-ent, adj. and n. [L. con- + 
fluo, I flow.] 

con-form' (-formed', -form '-ing), v. to 
make like ; to adapt ; to apply, con- 
form'-a-ble, adj. con-for-ma'-tion, 
n. shape, con-form '-i-ty (-i-tl), n. like- 
ness ; agreement. [L. con- + form.] 

con-found' (-ed, -ing), v. to overthrow ; 
to confuse or throw into disorder ; to 
perplex; to amaze. [L. con- +f undo, 
I pour.] 

con-fra-ter'-ni-ty (-ni-tt), n. a brother- 
hood or society of friends. [L. con--\- 

con-frere' (koh-frar'), n. an intimate 
associate; a fellow-member. [F.<L. 
con- +f rater, a brother.] 

con-front' (-frunf), (-ed, -ing), v. to put 
face to face; to oppose. [L.con-+ front.] 

Con-fu'-cian {-shy an), adj. of or belonging 
to Confucius, the great Chinese philos- 
opher and teacher (551-479 b.c). Con- 
fu'-cian-ism, n. 

con-fuse' (-fuz'), (-fused', -fu'-sing), v. 
to mix together ; to disorder ; to perplex. 
con-fu'-sed-ly, adv. in a disorderly 
manner, con-fu'-sion (-zhnri), n. over- 
throw ; defeat ; ruin. [See confound.] 

con-fute' (-fu'-ted, -fu'-ting),v. to prove 
to be wrong, con-fu-ta'-tion, n. [F. 
<L. confuto, I check, I confute.] 

con-ge' (koii-jd'), or con'-gee (kon'-je). 
n. £F.] leave ; dismissal. conge 
d' el ire (koh-jd' da-leer'), a letter from 
the sovereign (when a see is vacant), 
giving permission to the dean and chapter 
of the cathedral, to elect as bishop the 
person named in the letter. 

con-geal' (-jeV), (-gealed', -geal'-ing), 
v. to freeze ; to thicken (a liquid) by 
cold, con-gel-a'-tion, n. [L. con--\- 
gelu, frost.] 

con'-ge-ner {-je-, or con-je'-), n. one of 
the same kind, nature, or genus. [L. 
con- + genus, race ; kind.] 

con-ge' *ni-al, adj. of like disposition; 
suited to. con-ge-ni-al'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. 
[L. con++genidlis, genial.] 




con-gen' -i-tal, adj. belonging to a person 
from birth (esp. of diseases). [L. con- 
-\-genus, race ; kind.] [[L. conger.] 

con'-ger (kong'-ger), n. a very large sea-eel. 

con-gest' (-ed, -ing), v. to bring or carry 
together ; to accumulate, con-ges'- 
tion (-tyun), n. accumulation (esp. of 
blood) ; over-crowding, congested area, 
an over-populated district. £L. congestio 
<congero, I carry together.] 

con-glom'-er-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
collect into a ball or round mass : 11. a 
kind of rock made up of small rounded 
fragments : adj. con-glom-er-a'-tion, 
n. [L. con- -{-glomus, a ball (of silk).] 

con-grat'-u-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. 
to wish joy (on or to), con-grat-u-la'- 
tion, n. [L. con-+grdtulor, I wish joy 
(to) <grdtus, pleasing.] 

con'-gre-gate (-ga-ted, -ga-ting), v. to i 
meet together ; to assemble, con-gre- 
ga'-tion, n. an assembly (esp. of wor- 
shippers), con-gre-ga'-tion-al, adj. 
[L. con- -\-grex, a flock. ] 

con'-gress, n. an assembly ; the parlia- 
ment of the United States, etc. [L. 

I co)i- + gressns, a step.] 

con'-gru-ent,orcon'-gru-ous,ad/. agree- 
ing with ; suitable, con'-gru-ence, n. 
suitability ; agreement, con-gru'-i-ty, 
n. fitness. [L. congruo, I agree.] 

co-nif'-er-se, n. pi. (s. co'-ni-fer), the 
cone-bearing trees, as pines, firs, etc. 
co-nif -er-ous, adj. bearing cones, 
[cone + L./eYo, I bear.] 

con-jec'-ture (-tured, -tur-ing), v. to 
form an opinion without evidence ; to 
guess : n. an idea ; a notion, con-jec'- 
tu-ral, adj. [L. conjicio, I throw 
together <jdcio, I throw.] 

con-join' (-joined', -join'-ing), v. to join 
together; to combine, con-joint', adj. 
con-joint'-ly, adv. by united labour ; 
unitedly. [F.<L. co;i-+join.] 

con'-ju-gal, adj. relating to marriage. 
[F.<L. conjugdlis<jugu»i, a yoke.] 

con'-ju-gate (-ga-ted, -ga-ting), v. to 
put together the parts of a verb : adj. 
united in pairs ; yoked together, con- 
ju-ga'-tion, n. [L. con-+jungo, 1 join 
<jugniu, a yoke.] 

con-junc'-tion,w. a joining; (ingrammar) i 
a word which joins sentences, phrases, 
or words, con-junc'-tive (-tiv), adj. 
con-junc'-ture, n. a combination of cir- 
cumstances. [F. < L. con- -\-jungo, I join] 

con-jure' (-jured', -jur'-ing), v. to im- 

plore (or appeal to) solemnly, con-ju- 
ra'-tion, it. con-ju'-ror, n. one who 
takes an oath with (one or more) others. 
[F.<L. conjuro,<juro, I swear.] 

con'-jure (kun'-jer), v. to juggle ; to per- 
form wonderful tricks, con'-ju-rer, n. 
one who conjures or juggles. [See above.] 

con-nect' (-ed, -ing), v . to fasten together ; 
to join; to associate, con-nect'-ed-ly, 
adv. con-nec'-tion, or con-nex'-ion 
(-nek' -shun) , n. con-nec'-tiye (-tiv), 
adj. having the power of uniting : n. a 
connecting word. [L. con- -\-necto, I tie.] 

con-niye' (-niyed', -ni'-Ying),t>. to wink 
at or overlook (a fault) ; to take no 
notice of . con-ni'-Yance, n. [F.<L. 
connlveo, I wink.] 

con-nois-seur ' [kon-nis-sulir' , or -sur') , n. 
one who knows a subject (esp. music, 
painting, or sculpture) thoroughly, and 
is able to pass sound judgement on it. 
[F.<L. cognosco, I know.] 

con-note' (-no'-ted, -no'-ting), or con'- 
no-tate (-ta-ted, -ta-ting), v. to note 
or imply along with something else. 
con-no-ta'-tion, n. [L. con- + note.] 

con-nu'-bi-al, adj. relating to marriage ; 
nuptial. [L. con- + nubo, I marry.] 

con'-quer (kong'-ker), (-quered, -quer- 
ing), v. to gain by force ; to get the 
victory over ; to subdue, con'-quer-or, 
n. one who — ; a title given to the 
English king, William I. con '-quest, 
n. the act of conquering ; that which is 
— . £F.<L. con- + quaero, I seek.] 

con-san-guin'-i-ty (-gwin'-l-tl), n. re- 
lationship by blood (not by marriage). 
[L. con- -{-sanguis, blood.] 

con'-science (-shens), n. a knowledge and 
estimation of one's own thoughts, actions 
and duties as regards right and wrong. 
con-sci-en'-tious (-s)ii-en'-slius), adj. 
acting uprightly according to — . Con- 
science Clause, a clause in an Act of 
Parliament which gives to parents the 
right to withdraw their children from 
religious instruction (in school) to which 
they have conscientious objections. 
conscience money, money paid (often 
secretly) to relieve the conscience, as an 
unpaid debt, a tax evaded, a theft com- 
mitted, etc. [F. < L. conscientia < 
consclo, I know along with.] 

con'-scious (-situs), adj. knowing; aware. 
con'-scious-ness, n. knowledge of 
things round about ; sense of feeling. 
[L. conscius.] 




con'-script, ft. one compelled by law to 
serve in the army or navy, con-scrip'- 
tion, n. the system under which con- 
scripts are forced to serve, conscript 
fathers, the senators of ancient Rome. 
[L. conscribo, I write together (in a list) .] 

con'-se-crate (-cra-ted, -era-ting), v. to 
make holy ; to set apart for sacred uses. 
con-se-cra'-tion, n. the act of — . [L. 
consecro<sdcer, sacred.] 

con-sec'-u-tiye, adj. following in regular 
order ; following one after another. 
[L. con- + sequor, I follow.] 

con-sen'-sus, w. general agreement. [L.] 

con-sent' (-ed, -ing), v. to agree ; to 
yield: n. agreement; approval; permis- 
sion . [L. consentio < con- + sentio, I feel.] 

con'-se-quence, ft. what follows ; result ; 
importance, con'-se-quent, adj. con- 
se-quen'-tial (shal), adj. giving one- 
self airs of importance, con'-se-quent- 
ly, adv. in consequence. [F.<L. con- 
sequentia< sequor, I follow.] 

con-serYe' (-served', -ser'-ving), v. to 
save ; to protect ; to preserve (as fruit, 
etc.) : n. preserved fruit, con-ser-Ya'- 
tion, ft. act of conserving ; reserved 
territory, con-ser'-Ya-tism, ft. the 
principles of conservatives, con-ser'- 
Ya-tive, adj. averse to change : n. (in 
politics) one who is opposed to consider- 
able changes in Church or State for 
which the time does not seem ripe. 
con-ser'-Ya-tor, ft. one who preserves 
from injury. con-ser'-Ya-to-ry, ft. a 
place where things (esp. tender plants) 
are kept from injury ; a green-house. 
con-ser'-Ya-toire (-twor), n. an acad- 
emy for teaching music, elocution, etc. 
[L. con- -\- servo, I keep.] 

con-sid'-er (-ered, -er-ing), v. to think 
seriously about ; to reflect upon ; to 
reflect, con-sid'-er-a-ble, adj. worth 
considering ; rather large or important. 
con-sid-er-a'-tion, n. regard for ; 
an allowance, con-sid'-er-ate, adj. 
thoughtful ; making allowance, con- 
sid'-er-ing, -prep, regarding ; respect- 
ing ; seeing that. [F.<L. con- -\-sidus, 
a star.] 

con-sign' {-sin'), (-signed', -sign'-ing), 
v. to give or send to ; to entrust to. 
con-sign-ee' (-si-ne'), n. one to whom 
anything is consigned. con-sign'- 
ment, n. that which is — . con-sign'- 
or, ft. one who consigns. [F. <L. con- 
+ signum, a sign or seal.] 

con-sist' (-ed, -ing), v. to be composed 
(of) ; to be comprised or contained (in). 
con-sist'-ence, con-sist'-en-cy, ns. a 
holding together ; agreeing ; firmness, 
density, or solidity, con-sist'-ent, adj. 
agreeing ; fixed ; uniform, con-sist- 
or-y, n. an assembly or council (esp. 
ecclesiastical) ; the place of assembly. 
[F.<L. consisto<con- + sisto, I stand.] 

con-sole' (-soled', -so'-ling), v. to com- 
fort ; to cheer in distress, con-so' -la- 
ble, adj. able to be comforted, con- 
so-la'-tion, n. con-sol' -a-tor-y, adj. 
conveying consolation. consolation 
prize (in competitions) one given for 
work, etc., which, though good, does not 
win a principal prize. [F.<L. con- + 
solor, I comfort.] 

con'-sole, n. a kind of bracket to support 
an ornament. [F. < root of consolidate] 

con-sol' -i-date (-da-ted, -da-ting), v. to 
make solid or compact ; to harden or 
grow into a mass ; to unite, con-sol- 
i-da'-tion, n. con'-sols, n. short for 
consolidated annuities, that part of 
the British National Debt which consists 
of several public debts consolidated (in 
1751) into one fund, consolidated 
fund, the money derived from customs, 
excise, stamps, and other taxes, forming 
the public money of the country. [L. 
con- + solldus, solid .] 

con-som-me' (-via'), n. a clear, strong 
meat soup. [F.] 

con'-so-nance, ft. an accord or union of 
sounds ; agreement. con'-so-nant, 
adj. sounding or agreeing together: ??. 
a letter sounded only with a vowel. 
consonant with, agreeing or in keeping 
with. [L. con- + sono, I sound.] 

con-sort' (-ed, -ing), v. to keep company 
(with) . con' -sort, n. a husband or wile 
(esp. of a sovereign or a prince) ; a com- 
panion. [F.<L. comors<con- + sors, 
a lot.] 

con-spec' -tus, ft. a short sketch or abstract 
of a subject. [L.<coii- + specio, I see.] 

con-spic'-u-ous, adj. readily seen ; mani- 
fest ; prominent, con-spi-cu'-i-ty, v, 
[h.<con- + specio, I see.] 

con-spire' (-spired', -spi'-ring), v. to 
plot together ; to plan or devise, con- 
spir'-a-cy, n. con-spir'-a-tor, n. [F. 
<L. conspiro<con--rspiro, I breathe.] 

con'-sta-ble (kun'-), n. an officer of the 
peace ; a policeman ; a warden of a 
castle ; (formerly) a state officer of high 




rank, con-stab '-u-la-ry, n. the whole 
body of constables. [O.F.<L. comes 
stdbuli, count of the stable.] 

con'-stant, adj. fixed ; firm ; unchang- 
ing : n. a fixed number or quantity. 
con'-stan-cy, n. con'-stant-ly, adv. 
continually. [F.<L. constans<con- + 
sto, I stand.] 

con-stel-la'-tion, n. a group of stars. [F. 
<L. constellatio <con--\- stella, a star.] 

con-ster-na'-tion, n. great and sudden 
fear ; surprise and alarm. [F.<L. con- 
sternatio<con- + sterno, I throw down.] 

con-sti-pa'-tion, n. a state of being bound 
in the bowels ; costiveness. [L. con- 
stipdtus, pressed together.] 

con -sti-tute (-tu-ted, -tu-ting), v. to 
set up ; to establish ; to compose, con- 
stit'-u-en-cy, n. the whole body of 
electors in a place, or the place itself. 
con-stit'-u-ent, adj. elementary ; that 
which makes a thing what it is : n. one 
voter ; a component part, con-sti-tu'- 
tion, n. the natural condition of body 
or mind ; formation ; the established 
form of government in a country ; a 
particular law or regulation, con-sti- 
tu'-tion-al, adj. belonging to or inher- 
ent in (the body, mind, government, 
etc.) ; in accordance with, or authorized 
by, the constitution of a country, a 
society, etc. : n. a walk for the sake of 
one's health, [h. constituo, I cause to 
stand together.] 

con-strain' (-strained', -strain' -ing), v. 
to compel ; to confine ; to limit, con- 
strained', adj. forced ; wanting in free- 
dom, con-strain'-ed-ly, adv. con- 
straint', n. compulsion ; necessity ; 
restraint ; embarrassment. [F. <L. con- 
+ stringo, I bind.] 

con-strict' (-ed, -ing), v. to bind or pull 
closer together ; to cramp, con-strict'- 
iye, adj. con-strict' -or, n. the name 
of one of the muscles of the body ; a 
class of serpents which crush their 
victims in their folds. [F.<L. con- + 
stringo, I bind.] 

con-struct' (-ed, -ing), v. to build ; to 
form ; to put together the parts of a 
thing ; to invent, con-struc'-tion, n. 
a building or forming ; interpretation or 
meaning. con-struc'-tiYe (-tiv), adj. 
[L. con- + 8trno, I build.] 

con-strue' (stroo'), (-strued', -stru'- 
ing), v. to arrange ; to explain ; to 
understand, con-strue, n. an explana- 

tion ; a translation. [L. constrilo, I 
heap together.] 

con' -sal, 11. the title of two chief magis- 
trates elected annually in the Roman 
republic ; a representative of a sovereign 
or government in a foreign country. 
con'-su-lar, adj. con'-su-late, n. the 
office of a — ; the official residence of 
a — . con'-sul-ship, n. the office of — ; 
the period during which a — serves. 
[L. consul. ] 

con-sult' (-ed, -ing), v. to seek advice ; 
to confer with, con-sul-ta'-tion, n. 
consultative committee, one appointed 
to advise upon particular matters when 
called upon, but having no vote in 
coming to a decision. [L. consulto< 
consulo, I consult.] 

con-sume' (-sumed', -su'-ming), v. to 
eat or use up ; to destroy by wasting, 
fire, evaporation, etc. ; to waste away. 
con-sump'-tion, n. the act of consum- 
ing ; a wasting disease, con-sump'- 
tive, adj. [L. consunto<sumo, I take.] 

con'-sum-mate (-ma'-ted, -ma'-ting), 
v. to complete ; to make perfect, con- 
sum'-mate, adj. of the most finished 
kind ; perfect, con-sum-ma' -tion, n. 
completion ; perfection ; end. [L. con- 
+ summus, highest.] 

con'-tact, n. touching ; touch ; close 
union, to make contact, to join up an 
electric current, contact— breaker, an 
instrument for interrupting an electric 
current. [L. contactus< tango, I touch.] 

con-ta'-gion (~jun), n. catching (disease) 
by contact, con-ta'-gious {-jus), adj. 
(disease) liable to be caught or taken by 
contact. [See contact.] 

con-tain' (-tan'), (-tained', -tain'-ing), 
v. to hold ; to include, con'-tents, things contained. [F. < L. con- -f 
teneo, I hold.] 

con-tam'-i-nate (-na-ted, -na-ting), v. 
to defile ; to stain, con-tam-i-na'- 
tion, n. [L. contamino <con- -\- tango, 
I touch.] 

con-tan'-go, n. (on the Stock Exchange) 
a sum of money paid to enable a buyer 
to carry over a transaction to the next 
settling-day. [(?) < continue.] 

con-temn' (-tern'), (-temned', -temn'- 
ing), v. to scorn ; to despise, con- 
temn'-er, n. [L. contemno<temno, I 

con'-tem-plate (or con-tem'-), (-pla-ted, 
-pla-ting), v. to consider ; to intend ; to 




meditate on. con-tem-pla'-tion, n. 
con-tem'-pla-ti-ze (-tiv), adj. of a con- 
templating disposition, con'-tem-pla- 
tor, n. £L. contemplor < con- + templum, 
a temple.] 

con-tem'-po-ra-ry (-rd-ri), adj. living, 
occurring, or existing,at the same time : 
n. (pi. -ries), one living at the same 
time as another (or others), con-tem- 
po-ra'-ne-ous (-tis), adj. [L. con- + 
tempus, time.] 

COn-tempt', n. scorn ; disrespect ; dis- 
obedience of the rules or orders of a 
court of law. con-temp'-ti-ble (-tl-bl), 
adj. worthy of contempt ; mean ; despic- 
able, con-temp'-tu-ous (-tii-ih), adj. 
showing — ; scornful. [See contemn.] 

con-tend' (-ed, -ing), v. to fight ; to dis- 
pute ; to reason, con-ten'-tion, n. that 
which forms matter of dispute, con- 
ten'-tious (-shus), adj. given to con- 
tending. [F. < L. contendo < con- -f 
tendo, I stretch, I strive.] 

con-tent', adj. satisfied : v. (-ed, -ing), 
to satisfy ; to please : n. con-tent -ed, 
adj. content, con-tent'-ment, n. state 
of being contented. [F. < L. contentus.] 

con'-tents, n. pi. See contain. 

con-ter'-mi-nous (-nus), adj. having the 
same boundary. [L. conte r minus <con- 
+ terminus, a boundary.] 

con-test' (-ed, -ing), v. to strive ; to dis- 
pute ; to fight ; to call in question. 

, con'-test, n. con-test'-a-ble, adj. 
con-test'-ant, n. contested election, 
one in which more than one candidate 
offers himself for election to a vacancy ; 
one in which the declared result is dis- 
puted by one of the candidates. [F. < L. 
contestor<con--\- testis, a witness.] 

con'-text, n. what comes before and after 
(in a book). [L. contexo<con--\-texo, 
I weave.] 

con-tig'-u-ous (-us), adj. touching; very 
near ; neighbouring, con-ti-gu'-i-ty 
(-l-tl), n. the state of being — . [L. 
contiguus< con- + tango, I touch.] 

con'-ti-nence (tl-), or -nen-cy, it. re- 
straining oneself from evil, con'-ti- 
nent, adj. [L. contlneo, I hold together.] 

con'-ti-nent (-tl-), n. the largest mass of 
land, the — , Europe, con-ti-nent'-al, 
adj. [F. <L. contlneo, I hold together.] 

con-tin' -gent, adj. liable to happen ; 
dependent on ; accidental : n. a detach- 
ment (esp. of an army), con-tin' -gen- 
cy (si), n. something liable to happen. 

con-tin'-gent-ly, adv. [L. contingo< 
tango, I touch.] 

con-tin'-ue (-ued, -u-ing), v. to keep on ; 
to remain ; to extend ; to prolong, con- 
tin'-u-al, adj. con-tin'-u-al-ly, adv. 
con-tin'-u-ance, n. duration ; a keep- 
ing on. con-tin-u-a'-tion, n. con- 
ti'-nu-i-ty (-l-tl), n. a keeping on with- 
out interruption . con-tin'-u-ous (-us), 
adj. without stopping or interruption. 
[F.<L. con- + teneo, I hold.] 

con-tort' (-ed, -ing), v. to twist violently ; 
to writhe, con-tor'-tion, n. a twisting 
(esp. of the body), con-tor'-tion-ist, 
n. one who practises and exhibits con- 
tortions of his body ; a gymnast. [L. 
con--\-torqueo, I twist.] 

con'-tour (-toor), n. an outline (of a figure 
or body) ; a boundary line ; the general 
form and arrangement of the elevations, 
plains, valleys, etc., of a country. 
contour lines, lines on a map drawn 
through places all at the same height 
above the sea. [F. < L. con- -f- Gr. tomos, 
a lathe.] 

contra-, contro-, contr-, counter-, pref. 
[L.] against. 

con'-tra-band, adj. prohibited ; (goods) 
forbidden by law to be imported except 
on payment of duty : n. goods so prohib- 
ited, con'-tra-ban-dist, n. one who 
introduces contraband goods ; a smug- 
gler, contraband of war, anything 
forbidden by the Law of Nations to be 
supplied by a neutral power to belliger- 
ents (esp. arms, stores, etc.), which could 
be made use of during the war. [Sp. < 
I.<L. contra + Jj.Jj. bandum, a pro- 

con-tract' (-ed, -ing),t\ to draw together; 
to bring on ; to shorten ; to make a bar- 
gain or agreement ; to undertake ; to 
incur (as a debt), con' -tract, n. an 
agreement or bargain, con-trac'-tion, 
n. the act or process of contracting. 
con-trac'-tor, n. one who works to a — . 
[L. contractus <con- + traho, I draw.] 

con-tra-dict' (-ed, -ing), v. to say the 
contrary ; to deny, con-tra-dic'-tion, 
n. con-tra-dic'-to-ry, adj. [L.< 
contra- -\-dlco, I speak.] 

con-tral'-to, n. (pi. -tos), sometimes 
called al'-to, (in music) the lowest voice 
of women and children. [I.<L. altus, 

con'-tra-ry, adj. opposite ; in an opposite 
direction ; opposing : n. that which is —  




or opposite, con-tra-ri'-e-ty, n. the 
state of being — . con'-tra-ri-ly, adv. 
con'-tra-ri-wise (-wiz), adv. in a — 
manner ; on the other hand, on the 
contrary, quite the reverse or opposite. 
[F.<L. contrdrius < contra, against.] 

con-trast' (-ed, -ing), v. to set side by 
side or put in opposition so as to show 
the differences (in persons or things). 
con'-trast, n. opposition or difference. 
[F.<L. contra- + sto, I stand.] 

con-tra-Yene' (-Yened', -Ye'-ning), v. to 
come in opposition to ; to oppose, con- 
tra-Yen'-tion, n. [F.<L. contra--\- 
venio, I come.] 

con-tre-temps' (koh-tr-toh'), [F.] an in- 
opportune occurrence ; a mischance ; a 
hitch. [L. contra- -\-tempus, time.] 

con-trib'-ute (-u-ted, -u-ting), v. to give 
along with others ; to assist, con-tri- 
bu'-tion, n. that which is — ; money 
paid at regular intervals to a joint fund 
(as to a lodge, club, etc.) ; a written 
article for a paper, magazine, etc. con- 
trib'-u-tiye (-tiv), adj. con-trib'-u- 
tor, n. one who — . con-trib'-u-to-ry, 
adj. helping forward the same object ; 
aiding : n. [L. con--\-tribuo, I give.] 

con'-trite, adj. truly penitent, con-tri'- 
tion (-trish'-un), n. deep sorrow and 
repentance for sin. £F.<L. contntus 
<tero, I bruise.] 

con-triYe' (-triYed', -tri'-Ying), v. to 
bring about; to invent. con-tri'-Yance, 
n. something contrived. con-tri'-Yer, 
n. one who — . [F. <trouver, I find.] 

con-trol' (-troV), (-trolled', -trol'-ling), 
v. to manage ; to rule ; to repress ; to 
restrain : n. con-trol'-ler, n. one who 
— ; an officer who checks accounts, 
registers, etc. ; the apparatus by which 
the driver of an electric car, etc., regu- 
lates the power, and, hence, the speed 
of the vehicle. [F. controle < L. contra- 
+ rotulus> a little wheel.] 

con'-tro-Yert (-ed, -ing), v. to argue 
against; to oppose (esp. by words). 
con-tro-Yer'-ti-ble, adj. con'-tro- 
Yer-sy (not kon-trov'-), n. a dispute; a 
discussion. con-tro-Yer'-sial (shal), 
adj. relating to disputed matters. [L. 
contra- -\-ver to, I turn.] 

con-tu-ma'-cious (situs), adj. opposing 
authority ; wilfully disobedient ; obsti- 
nate, con'-tu-ma-cy, n. obstinate dis- 
obedience or resistance. [L. contumaciam 

con'-tu-me-ly, n. {pi. -lies), haughtiness 

and contempt; rudeness, con-tu-me'- 
li-ous, adj. insolent ; disdainful. [L. 
continue lia.J 

con-tuse' (-tuz'), (-tused', -tu'-sing), v. 
to bruise, con-tu'-sion (-zhun), n. 
[L. con--\-tundo, I bruise] 

co-nun' -drum, n. a short riddle or puzzle 
in words. [?] 

con-Ya-les'-cence (sens), n. recovery of 
health after illness ; state of a person 
recovering from sickness. con-Ya-les'- 
cent (sent), adj. and n. [L. con- + 
vdleo, I am strong or well.] 

CDn-Yec'-tion, n. the act of carrying; the 
transmission of heat by means of cur- 
rents in liquids or gases, and of electric- 
ity by the motion of charged particles of 
air. con-Yec'-tiye (-tiv), adj. [L. 
co/i--f veho, I carry.] 

con-Yene' (-Yened', -Ye'-ning), v. to call 
together ; to assemble, con-ve'-ner, 
n. [F. <L. convenio, I come together.] 

con-Ye'-ni-ent, adj. suitable ; handy, 
con- Ye'-ni-ence,n. an accommodation; 
something suited to one's wants. [F. < 
L. conveniens, coming together.] 

con'-Yent, n. a house for nuns ; a nun- 
nery, con-ven'-tu-al, adj. [O.F.<L. 
cqnventus <conve nio, I come together.] 

con-Yen'-ti-cle, n. a secret meeting 
(formerly for worship by dissenters from 
the established church) ; a meeting- 
house for such purposes. [L. conventi- 
culum< convenio, I come together.] 

con-Yen'-tion, n. an assembly ; an agree- 
ment. con-Yen'-tion-al, adj. accord- 
ing to agreement ; based on usage or 
custom. con-Yen-tion-al'-i-ty, n. any 
of the customary usages of social life. 
[F.<L. conventio< convenio, I come 

con-verge' (-verged', -Yer'-ging), v. to 
tend to one point. con-Yer'-gence, n. 
con-Yer'-gent, adj. [L. con- + vergo, 
I incline.] 

con-Yerse' (-versed', -Yer'-sing), v. to 
talk together. con'-Yerse, n. talking 
together. con'-Yer-sant, adj. well 
acquainted (with). con-Yer-sa'-tion, 
n. familiar talk together ; behaviour. 
con-Yer-sa'-tion-ist or con-Yer-sa- 
tion-al-ist, n. one good at conversation. 
con-Yer-saz-i-o'-ne (-vdrsatsi-o'-nd) 
(pi. -nes or -ni), [I.] n. a friendly 
meeting for conversation, discussion, 
and entertainment; an "at home" ; 
a soiree. £F. <L. con-+verto, I turn.] 




con'-verse, n. the exact opposite (said of 
a proposition or statement). con- 
Yerse'-ly, adv. [L. conversus, turned 
about <verto, I turn.] 

con-vert' (-ed, -ing), v. to change the life 
or opinions of ; to change from one state 
or use to another. con'-Yert, n. a con- 
verted person, con-Yert'-er, n. con- 
Yer'-sion (shun), n. the act of — . con- 
Yert'-i-ble (-i-bl), adj. capable of being 
— . [F.<L. converto, I turn about.] 

Con'-Yex, adj. curved outwards (the oppo- 
site to concave), con-vex'-i-ty (-l-tl) , 
n. degree of roundness of surface (as of 
a lens, etc.). [L. convexus <con- + veho, 
I carry.] 

con-Yey' (-vd'), (-Yeyed', -Yey'-ing), v. 
to carry ; to transport ; to transfer 
property ; to communicate. con-yey'- 
ance, u. the act of conveying ; a vehicle 
for carrying persons or goods ; a legal 
deed for transferring property, con- 
Yey'-an-cer, n. one whose business is 
con-vey'-an-cing, or drawing up deeds 
of conveyance. con-Yey'-er, n. one 
who — . con-Yey'-or, n. an apparatus 
for—. [F.<L. con- + via, away, road.] 

con-yict' (-ed, -ing), v. to prove or find 
guilty. con'-Yict, n. one who has been 
convicted ; one undergoing penal servi- 
tude. con-yic'-tion,w.aprovingguilty ; 
a strong belief. [L. convinco<con--\- 
vinco, I conquer.] 

v. to fully persuade. [See conyict.] 

con-yiy'-i-al, adj. festive; social; jovial. 
con-YiY-i-al'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. [L. con- 
+ vivo, I live.] 

con-Yoke' (-Yoked', -yo'-king), v. to call 
together ; to assemble. con-YO-ca'- 
tion, n. an assembly (esp. of clergy or 
the heads of a university). [F.<L. 
convoco, I call together.] 

con-Yolye' (-Yolyed', -yol'-Ying), v. to 
roll together. con'-YO-lu-ted, adj. 
rolled or twisted together. con-YO-lu'- 
tion, 11. a state of being rolled, folded, 
or doubled together (as in the brain, 
the intestines, etc.). [L. convolvo, I 
roll together.] 

con-Yol'-YU-lus, n. (pi. -lus-es),a genus 
of twining, trailing plants; the bind- 
weed. [See convolve.] 

con-yoy' (-Yoyed', -Yoy'-ing), v. to 
escort (esp. provisions and stores for an 
army) ; to guard ; to protect. con'-yoy, 
n. an escort ; that which is convoyed ; 

supplies. [F. convoy er < root of conYey] 

con-Yulse' (-vulsed', -Yul'-sing), v. to 
agitate or stir up violently ; to affect by 
spasms. con-Yul'-sion, n. an involun- 
tary contraction, stiffening, or drawing 
up of a muscle, limb, etc. (usu. in pi.) ; 
a fit ; any violent social or political agita- 
tion or disturbance ; a disturbance in 
nature (as an earthquake, etc.). con- 
Yul'-siYe (siv), adj. [L. con- + vello, 
I pull.] 

co'-ny (-in), n. (pi. -nies), or coney, a 
rabbit ; a simpleton. [F. < L. cuniculus, 
a rabbit.] 

cool, adj. rather cold ; indifferent ; impu- 
dent: v. (cooled, cool'-ing). cool'-ly, 
adv. in a cold manner; calmly; deliber- 
ately; impudently. cool'-ness, ». 
[A.S. col.] 

cool'-ie (-1), n. a labourer imported from 
India, China, or other Eastern countries. 
[Hindustani kuli, a labourer ; a porter.] 

coop ( hoop), n. a cage for fowls: i;. (cooped, 
coop '-ing), to shut up (as in a cage) ; 
to confine in limited space, coop'-er, 
h. one who makes casks, coop'-er-age, 
n. a cooper's workshop. [L. cupa, a 

co-op'-er-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
work together (with), co— op-er-a'- 
tion, n. a working together, co— op'- 
er-Si-tiYe(-d-tiv),adj. working together. 
co— op-er-a'-tor, n. co-operative 
society, a union of persons for the pro- 
duction or distribution of goods for their 
common benefit. [L. co- + operate.] 

co— opt' (-ed, -ing), v. to elect by the votes 
of existing members (of a club or other 
body of persons), co— op-ta'-tion, n. 
co-op'-tion, it. co-op'-ta-tiYe, adj. 
[h. co- + opto, I choose.] 

co— or'-di-nate, adj. of the same order, 
kind, or rank : v. (-na-ted, -na-ting), 
to arrange in order ; to harmonize. 
co-or-di-na'-tion, n. [L. co-+ordo, 
order.] [koetJ} 

coot, n. a British fresh- water bird. [D. 

co'-pal, ii. a transparent resinous sub- 
stance used in making varnishes. [Sp.] 

co-part' -ner, n. one who is partner with 
one or more others, co-part' -ner-ship, 
n. [L. co- + partner.] 

cope (coped, co'-ping), v. to compete 
(with) ; to contend. [F. < L. < Gr. 
kolaphos, a blow.] 

cope, 11. a kind of cloak worn by a priest 
on certain occasions, co'-ping, co'- 




ping-stone or cope'-stone, n. the top- 
most course of a wall. [ < root of cap.] 

co'-peck, n. a Russian copper coin worth 
about %d. [Rus.] 

co'-pi-ous (-pi-as), adj. plentiful ; over- 
flowing, co'-pi-ous-ly, adj. co'-pi- 
ous-ness, n. [F.<L. copia, plenty.] 

cop '-per, n. a common metal of a reddish 
colour ; a coin made of — (or bronze) ; 
a boiler (made of copper, sometimes of 
iron) : v. (-pered, -per-ing), to cover 
or sheathe with copper, cop-per— 
plate', n. a thin plate of — used for 
engraving upon ; an engraving printed 
from such a plate, cop '-per— smith, n. 
a worker in — . [ < Cyprus, whence the 
ancients obtained much copper.] 

cop '-per- as, n. sulphate of iron or green 
vitriol, used in dyeing black and in 
making inks. [F.<L. cupri rosa, rose 
of copper.] 

cop '-pice, or copse, n. a wood of small 
trees or bushes. [O.F. <L.<Gr. kola- 
phos, a blow.] 

cop'-y, n. (pi. -ies), an imitation or re- 
production ; that which is imitated ; one 
of a number of books, writings, etc. : 
v. (-ied, -y-ing), to imitate ; to tran- 
scribe, cop'-i-er, or cop'-y-ist, n. one 
who copies, cop'-y-hold, n. a kind of 
holding of land based on a copy of the 
rolls from which the tenant derives his 
rights, cop'-y-hold-er, n. the owner 
of a copyhold, cop'-y-right, n. the 
aole right of publishing (a book, etc.) : 
v. (-ed, -ing), to get copyright for. [F. 
<L. cdpia, plenty.] 

coque (kok) feathers, the tips of the 
white feathers of various birds (properly 
young ostriches) fastened in a long 
ribbon and used for ladies' boas, ruffles, 
etc. [F.<L. concha, a shell.] 

co-quet' (-kef), (-ted, -ting), v. to flirt ; 
to trifle (as with love), co'-quet-ry 
(ko'-ket-rl), n. the act or practice of 
coquetting, co-quette' (-kef), n. a 
woman who — . co-quet' -tish, adj. 
[F. coq, a cock.] 

cor'-a-cle (-a-kl), n. a kind of boat made 
of a wicker frame and skin. [W.coriogl.] 

cor'-al, n. a hard substance growing from 
the bottom of the sea and composed of 
the skeletons of very minute creatures : 
adj. of coral, cor'-al-line, adj. of or 
like coral, coral-reef, a reef or bank 
formed by the growth and deposit of 
coral. [F.<L.<Gr. korallion.J 

corb, n. a kind of basket. [L. corbis, a 

cor'-ban, ». a giving or consecrating (of 
anything) to God. [H. qorban; see 
Mark vii. 11.] 

cor'-bel, n. a kind of bracket of wood or 
stone projecting from a wall to support 
a pillar. [F. see corb.] 

cord, n. a string ; a line : v. (-ed, -ing), 
to fasten with cord, cord' -age, n. ropes ; 
the rigging of a ship. [F.<L.<Gr. 
chorde, a string.] 

COr'-di-al, adj. warm (of heart) ; hearty; 
sincere : n. a refreshing drink, cor'-di- 
al-ly, adv. cor-di-al'-i-ty ( -i-tl), n. 
[F.<L. cor, cordis, the heart.] 

cor'-dite, n. a kind of smokeless gun- 
powder, so called from its resemblance 
to small pieces of cord. 

cor' -don, n. a protecting line (of troops, 
sentries, policemen, etc.), enclosing or 
guarding a place, cordon— bleu (kor- 
doh-bluh), n. [F.] a first-class cook. 
[F.<root of cord.] 

cor-du-roy', n. a thick, cotton stuff, 
corded or ribbed on the surface. [F. 
corde du roi, the king's cord.] 

core, n. the heart ; the inmost part (esp. 
of the apple and other fruits) ; the centre 
of anything ; the insulated wires (gener- 
ally copper) of an electric cable ; the 
soft iron central part of an electro-mag- 
net. [O.F.<L. cor, the heart.} 

co-rel'-a-tive. See correlative. 

co— re-spond'-ent, n. one who is charged 
along with another in a divorce case. 
[L. co- + respond.] 

cor-i-an'-der, n. a plant whose seeds are 
much used in medicine and for flavour- 
ing. £F.<L. coriandrwiK Gr. korion."] 

cork, n. the outer bark of the cork-tree ; 
a stopper (esp. for bottles) of cork : v. 
(corked, cork'-ing), to stop with a — . 
cork' -screw, n. an instrument for 
taking out a — . [Sp. < L. cortex, bark.] 

corm, n. a solid bulb-shaped root, as of a 
crocus. [Gr.] 

cor'-mo-rant, n. a large sea-bird of prey ; 
a greedy person; a glutton. [F.<L. 
corvus martnus, sea raven.] 

corn, n. grain (as wheat, barley, maize, 
etc.). corn'-crake, or land'-rail, n. a 
bird which frequents fields of growing 
corn. corn'-field,n. corn'-flour, n. 
the finely ground meal of maize or 
Indian corn. Corn Laws, several laws 
passed to regulate the exportation and 




importation of corn (repealed 1846). 
corned (beef), (beef or other flesh 
meat) preserved in brine and cooked by 
boiling-. [A.S. corn."} 

corn, n. a horny growth (esp. on the toes). 
cOr'-ne-ous (-us), adj. horny. [F.< 
L. co rnu, a horn.] 

COr r -ne-a, n. the horny, transparent part 
of the eye (through which the light 
passes). [L. <comu, a horn.] 

cor'-ner, n. an angle ; a nook or recess : 
v. (-nered, -ner-ing), to put into a — , 
or difficult place or state ; to buy up (all 
the stock of a commodity) in order to 
sell at an advanced price, corner- 
stone, n. a stone uniting two sides of a 
building ; the chief stone ; something 
of very great weight or importance. 
cor'-ner-wise, adv. diagonally, to 
turn the — , to get over a difficulty. 
[O.F.<L. comu, a horn.] 

cor'-net, n. a little horn ; a kind of trum- 
pet; a cornet-player ; formerly an officer 
in the cavalry (now sub-lieutenant). 
[F. <L. comu, a horn.] 

cor'-nice (-nis), n. the upper moulding 
(of a column, wall, etc.). [F. (?)] 

cor-nu-co'-pi-a(-jji-a), n. (pi. -asor-ae), 
the horn of plenty, an emblem of abund- 
ance. £L. comu copiae."} 

co-rol'-la, n. (pi. -las), the inner part of 
a flower, next the calyx, usually bright- 
coloured, and consisting of one or more 
petals. [L. corolla, dim. of corona, a 

co-rol'-la-ry (or cor'-ol-), n. an inference 
drawn from proved facts ; a conse- 
quence. [L., see corolla.] 

co-ro'-na, n. (pi. -nae or -nas), a name 
given to various objects resembling a 
crown ; the circle of florets (as in a 
daisy) ; a luminous circle or halo seen 
round the sun during a total eclipse of 
that body, co-ro'-nal, cor'-o-nate, 
adjs. of or belonging to a crown, cor- 
o-na'-tion, n. the ceremony of crown- 
ing the sovereign, cor'-o-ner, 11. an 
officer of the Crown appointed to enquire 
into causes of suspicious death, suicide, 
etc._ cor'-o-net, n. a small crown. [L. 
corona, a crown.] 

cor'-o-nach, n. a Highland dirge or 
lamentation for the dead. [Ga.] 

cor' -po-raI,n. anon-commissioned officer 
of a company or troop, next below a 
sergeant. [F.<L. corpus, the body.] 

cor'-po-ral, adj. belonging to the body ; 

having a body or substance ; not spirit- 
ual, cor-po'-re-al, adj. having a body 
or substance, corporal punishment, 
punishment inflicted on the body, as 
flogging, etc. [F. <Ij. corpus, the body.] 

cor'-po-rate, adj. united in a body and 
acting as an individual ; united : v. (-ra- 
ted, -ra-ting), to unite into one body. 
cor-po-ra'-tion, n. a body or society 
authorized by law to act as one individ- 
ual (as the municipal authorities of a 
town ; a trade guild ; a city company). 
[L. corpus, a body.] 

corps (kor), n. (pi. corps (korz)), a body 
of soldiers ; a division of an army. 
corps dip-lo-ma-tique' (-teek'), [P.] 
the body of ambassadors in a country. 
[F.<L. corpus, a body.] 

corpse (korps), n. (pi. corps'-es), a dead 
body. [F.<L. corpus, a body.] 

cor'-pu-lent, adj. very stout, cor'-pu- 
lence, or cor'-pu-len-cy (-si), n. [F. 
<L. corpus, a body.] 

Cor'-pus Chris'-ti, n. a festival of the 
E.C. Church, kept on the Thursday 
after Trinity Sunday, in honour of the 
Eucharist. [L. the body of Christ.] 

cor'-pus-cle (-kl). n. a minute particle ; 
a minute animal or vegetable cell, cor- 
pus'-cu-lar, adj. {Dim. of L. corpus, 
a body.] 

cor'-ral, n. an inclosure (often formed of 
waggons) for cattle or horses, or for 
defence, made by emigrants, esp. in 
America: v. (-railed, -ral-ling), to 
surround and enclose. [Sp. corral, an 

cor-rect\ adj. right ; straight ; perfect ; 
true : v. (-ed, -ing), to make right or 
straight ; to reprove or punish, cor- 
rection, n. cor-rec'-tiYe i-tiv), adj. 
cor-rect'-ly, adv. house of correc- 
tion, a prison. [L. corrlgo, I correct.] 

cor'-re-late (-la'-ted, -la'-ting), v. to 
have relation to each other, as parent 
and child ; to connect or bring together 
(ideas which have a mutual relationship) . 
cor-re-la'-tion, n. cor-rel'-a-tiye 
(-tlv), adj. [L. co- + relate.] 

cor-res-pond' (-ed, -ing), v. to answer ; 
to agree ; to communicate (esp. by 
letter) ; to be like something else, cor- 
res-pond'-ence, n. cor-res-pond'- 
ent, adj. agreeing : n. one who com- 
municates by letter. [F.<L. cor- + 

cor'-ri-dor (-rl-),n. a covered passage in 




a building, corridor-carriage, or 
—train, n. one in which there is a passage 
from end to end. [F.<I.<L. curro, 
I run.] [thing to be corrected. 

cor-ri-fen'-dum (pi. -da), [L.] some- 

cor-rob'-o-rate (-ra-ted, -ra-ting), v. to 
make more certain ; to confirm, cor- 
rob-o-ra'-tion, n. cor-rob'-o-ra-tiYe 
(-rd-tiv), cor-rob'-o-ra-to-ry, adjs. 
[L. co- + robur, oak, strength.] 

cor-rode' (-ro'-ded, -ro'-ding), v. to 
gnaw or eat away ; to rust, cor-ro'- 
sion (-zhun), n. cor-ro'-siYe (siv), 
adj. causing corrosion: n. [F.<L. 
cor-+rodo, I gnaw.] 

cor'-ru-gate (-ga-ted, -ga-ting), v. to 
wrinkle ; to draw into folds by contrac- 
tion, cor-ru-ga'-tion, n. corrugated 
metal, metal bent into a series of ridges 
and grooves (thus n^s^O, to give it 
greater strength. [L. cor-+riiga, a 

cor-rupt' (-ed, -ing), v. to make rotten 
or bad ; to infect ; to bribe ; to become 
rotten, etc. : adj. tainted ; made bad or 
foul ; full of errors, cor-rupt'-er, ft. 
one who — . cor-rup'-ti-ble (-tl-bl), 
adj. able to be corrupted, cor-rup'- 
tion, n. the state or process of being or 
becoming corrupt. [F.<L. corrumpo 
<rumpo, I break.] 

cor'-sage (-sdj), n. the body part of a 
lady's dress. [F., see corset.] 

cor'-sair, ft. a pirate ; a sea-robber ; a 
pirate's vessel. [F.<I.<L. cursus, a 
running < curro, I run.] 

corse, n. See corpse. 

corse '-let, or cors'-let, ft. armour to cover 
tha breast. [F. <L. corpus, the body.] 

cor' -set, n. a dress bodice ; a pair of 
stays. [F.<L. corpus, the body.] 

cor-tege' (-tdz)i'), n. a train of attend- 
ants ; a procession. [F.<I.<root of 

Cor'-tes (kor'-tds), n. the parliamentary 
bodies of Spain and Portugal. [Sp. < 
root of court.] 

cor'-tex, n. (pi. -ti-ces), the bark (of a 
plant) ; a covering, cor'-ti-cal, adj. 
[L. cortex."] 

cor'-us-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to 
flash with light ; to sparkle ; to gleam. 
cor-us-ca'-tion, n. [L. corusco, I 

cor-Yette' (-vet'),n. formerly, a small ship 
of war with one tier of guns. [F. <Po. 
<L. corbis, a basket.] 

C.O.S., Charity Organisation Society. 

cos-met'-ic, adj. relating to personal 
adornment : ft. or cos-me-tique' (-ma- 
teek'), [F.] a preparation used for the 
purpose of beautifying the skin or hair. 
[Gr. kosmos, order, embellishment.] 

cos'-mic, or cos'-mi-cal. See cosmos. 

cos-mo-pol'-i-tan, or cos-mop'-o-lite, 
ft. a citizen of the universe ; one who is 
at home everywhere : adj. common 
everywhere ; widely spread ; free from 
prejudice; not provincial. [Gr. kosmos, 
the universe ; polis, a city.] 

cos'-mos (koz'-),n. the world, or universe, 
as a system of order, cos'-mic, or cos'- 
mi-cal, adj. relating to the universe. 
[Gr. kosmos, order ; the universe.] 

Cos'-sack, it. the name of a Russian war- 
like tribe ; a light-armed Russian cav- 
alry soldier, [Rus. kozak<T. quzzaq.] 

cost (cost, cost'-ing), v. to be of a certain 
price ; to cause to be suffered : ft. amount 
paid (or to be paid) for something ; 
expense ; any labour, self-denial, suffer- 
ing, etc., necessary to secure a benefit, 
cost'-ly, adj. of high price ; valuable ; 
expensive. [O.F.<L. consto, I stand 

cos'-tal, adj. relating to the ribs or the 
side of the body. [L. costa, a rib.] 

cos'-tard, n. a kind of apple ; the head. 
[b\<L. costa, arib; i.e., a ribbed apple ] 

cos'-ter or cos'-ter-mon-ger,n. a hawker 
of fruit and vegetables. [< costard -f 
A.S. mangere, a trader.] 

cos'-tiYe, adj. constipated ; bound or con- 
fined in the bowels. [F. < constipate.] 

cos'-tume, n. dress ; mode of dressing ; a 
lady's dress consisting of coat and skirt. 
cos-tu'-mer (or -mi-er), n. one who 
makes or deals in ladies' dresses, jackets, 
etc. [< root of custom.] 

co'-sy (-zi), adj. snug ; comfortable : n. a 
cloch cover to keep food warm, as a tea- 
cosy, an egg-cosy. co'-si-ly,adv. [?] 

cot, ft. a small house or cottage ; a small 
bed. [A.S. cot, a cottage ; a den.] 

cote, ft. a shelter for small animals, etc., 
as sheep— cote, doYe— cote. [A.S.] 

co-te-line' (-leu') , n. a kind of white muslin 
generally ribbed. [F. <L. costa, a rib.] 

co'-te-rie (-re), n. a circle or set of friends 
who meet together for familiar talk ; a 
social society; a clique. [F.<root of 

co-til'-lion (-til'-yun), or co-tiMon' 
(•tl-yon'), n. a dance for eight persons ; 




the music for such a dance. [F.] 

cot'-tage, n. a small dwelling-house. 
cot'-ta-ger, n. one who dwells in a — . 
[See cot.] 

cot'-tar or cot'-ter, n. a cottager, often 
cultivating a small plot of land, cot'- 
ti-er, n. an Irish cottager. [See cot.] 

cot'-ton, n. a soft, downy substance got 
from the seed-pod of the cotton-plant ; 
cloth made from it : adj. cot'-ton-y, 
adj. cotton— wool, — in its raw or 
woolly state. [F. coton< Ar. qutun."] 

cot-y-le'-don (kot-i-le'-), n. the seed-leaf 
of a plant. [Gr. < kotule, a cup.] 

couch, n. a place of rest ; a bed : v. 
(couched, couch'-ing), to lay one- 
self down ; to lay (a lance) in position ; 
to lie down or recline ; to stoop down ; 
to put into phrases. couch '-ant, 
adj. (of a beast) lying down with head 
erect. [F. coucher<L. colloco, I place 

cough (kof), n. a sudden, noisy, and 
violent expulsion of air from the lungs, 
usu. resulting from a cold : v. (coughed, 
cough'-ing). [Imitative.] 

cou-leur' de rose (koo-lur' duh), [F.] 
rose-coloured ; fair in appearance. 

cou'-lomb (koo'-lom), n. the unit of quan- 
tity in measuring elec. [<C. A. de 
Coulomb, a French scientist (1736-1806)] 

coul'-ter (less correctly colter), n. the 
front or cutting part of a plough. [L. 
culter, a knife.] 

coun'-cil, n. an assembly met for consul- 
tation, deliberation, or advice ; a body 
of men elected to direct the affairs of a 
corporate town or city, etc. coun'-cil- 
lor, n. a member of a — . council of 
.war, a conference of officers consulting 
with the commanding-officer on a matter 
of emergency ; any meeting of officials 
to discuss a plan of action. £F.<L. 
concilium, a council.] 

coun'-sel, n. advice given ; deliberation ; 
consultation ; a barrister (as a K.C. or 
Q.C., q.v.) : v. (-selled, -sel-ling), to 
advise. coun'-sel-Ior, n. one who gives 
advice ; a barrister, counsel of per- 
fection, good advice which it is impos- 
sible to carry out. King's (or Queen's) 
— , a barrister officially appointed as  — 
to the Crown (he wears a silk robe and 
ranks before ordinary barristers) . to keep 
one's own — , to keep a secret or plan to 
oneself, to take — , to consult (with). 
£L. consilium, counsel.] 

count, n. a foreign title of nobility equiva- 
lent to the English earl, count' -ess, 
/. of count ; the wife of an earl. £F. 
comte<h. comes, a companion.] 

count (-ed, -ing), v. to number (one by 
one) ; to reckon ; to esteem ; to con- 
sider : n. the act of numbering ; a state- 
ment of a plaintiff's case in court ; a 
particular charge in an indictment. 
count'-less,adj. innumerable, count- 
ing— house, n. the room or office where a 
merchant keeps accounts and transacts 
business, to count out, to adjourn a 
meeting on finding, by counting, that a 
quorum (q.v.) is not present. [F.<L. 
compute, I reckon.] 

coun'-ten-ance, n. the face ; appearance: 
v. (-anced, -an-cing), to favour or 
approve, in — , in a composed manner ; 
in favour, out of — , abashed ; ashamed. 
to keep one's — , to keep a calm look. 
[F. < L. continentia, self-restraint ; 

coun'-ter, n. one who counts ; a table in 
a shop for money or goods : adv. in 
opposition. [L. contra, against.] 

coun-ter-act' (-ed, -ing), v. to act in 
opposition ; to hinder ; to defeat. 
coun-ter-ac'-tion, n. coun-ter-act'- 
ive, adj. [F. contre < L. contra, against 
-f act.] 

coun-ter-bal'-ance (-anced, -an-cing), 
v. to oppose with equal weight, power, 
or force: n. [F. contre <L. contra, 
against -f balance.] 

coun'-ter-blast, n. a contrary blast; a 
strong opposition (esp. by speech or 
writing). [F. contre <L. contra, against 
+ blast.] 

coun'-ter-check (-checked, -check-ing), 
v. to check by force ; to stop entirely ; to 
rebuke. [F . contre <L. contra -f check.] 

coun'-ter— cur'-rent, n. a current flowing 
in an opposite direction. [F. contre < 
L. contra, against f current.] 

coun'-ter-feit (-fet), (-ed, -ing), v. to 
imitate ; to forge (as a coin, or a signa- 
ture) : n. a fraudulent imitation. [F. 
contre <L. contra, against +facio, I do.] 

COun'-ter-foil,n. that portion of a cheque, 
receipt, or other document, retained by 
the sender as a record of the particulars 
contained on the portion which is parted 
with. [F. contre<h. contra, against-f- 
folium, a leaf.] 

coun-ter-mand' (-ed, -ing), v. to give an 
order contrary to a previous one : n. 




[F. contre<Jj. contra, against + mando } 
I command.] 

coun'-ter-march (-marched, march- 
-ing), v. to march in the opposite direc- 
tion to a previous one. [F. contre<h. 
contra, against + march.] 

coun'-ter-mine, n. a gallery under ground 
constructed to oppose, surprise, and 
destroy the value of the mines of an 
enemy ; any scheme to upset the plan 
of an opponent : v. (-mined, -mi-ning), 
[F. contre <L. contra, against +• mine.] 

coun'-ter-pane, n. a coverlet for a bed. 
[F. contre<h. contra, against +pannus, 

coun'-ter-part, n. a thing (or person) 
exactly resembling, fitting, or agreeing 
with another ; a copy ; a duplicate. 
[F. contre <L. contra, against -f part.] 

coun'-ter-poise (-poiz), (-poised, pois- 
ing), v. to weigh against ; to act in 
opposition to ; to balance. [F. contre 
<L. contra, against + poise.] 

coun'-ter-scarp, n. (in fortification) the 
outer wall, or slope of the ditch. [F. 
contre<L. contra, against + scarp.] 

coun'-ter— shaft, n. (in machinery) an 
intermediate shaft conveying motion. 
[F. co7itre<h. contra, against + shaft.] 

coun'-ter-sign (-signed, -sign-ing), v. to 
sign again as a check : n. a private sign ; 
a pass- word, or watch-word. [F. contre 
<L. contra, against + sign.] 

coun-ter-yail' (-Yailed', -Yail'-ing), v. 
to act against with equal force or effect : 
n. equal weight, strength, or value ; 
compensation, countervailing duties, 
taxes put on goods imported from a 
country as a set-off against taxes im- 
posed on other goods by that country. 
|T. contre <L. contra, against + valeo, I 
am strong.] 

coun'-try, n. a rural part (as opposed to 
town) ; land under the same government ; 
a state ; one's birth -land or residence : 
adj. coun'-tri-fied, adj. having the 
manners or appearance of a rustic. 
coun'-try-man, n. one living in the — ; 
one of those born in the same country. 
country cousin, a relative or friend 
from the — unused to the town, to go 
(or appeal) to the — , to ascertain the 
opinions of the electors throughout the 
country by a general election for mem- 
bers of parliament. [F. <L.L. contrdta, 
(a region lying) opposite to (the observer)] 

coun' -try-dance, n. sometimes corrupted 

into con'-tra-dance, one in vvhich the 
partners are disposed in lines opposite 
to each other. [L. contra."} 

coun'-ty, n. a division of a country in 
the British Isles, county borough, a 
borough of over 50,000 inhabitants which 
has certain rights and privileges of local 
government. county council, the 
elected body which manages the affairs 
of a county or a division of a county. 
county court, a court in which county 
business is transacted and justice is 
administered in certain cases, county 
town, (formerly) an important town in 
every county (and still so in many cases) 
where county business is transacted and 
assizes are held. [Properly a province 
ruled by a Count, q.v.~\ 

coup (koo), [F.] n. a sudden stroke or 
blow ; a successful hit. coup d'etat 
(koo dd-td'), [F.] a sudden stroke of 
state policy, coup de grace (de 
grds'), [F.] a finishing stroke. 

coup'-le (cup' -pi), n. two ; a pair ; a man 
and his wife : v. (-led, -ling), to 
unite, coup'-lct (kup'-), n. two lines 
of verse rhyming with each other, 
coup'-ling, n. that which couples ; a 
band. [F. <L. copula, a band, a tie.] 

cou'-pon (koo'-poii), n. an interest note 
intended to be cut or torn off when pre- 
sented for payment ; one of a series of 
tickets which are vouchers for certain 
payments to be made or services 
rendered ; a ticket. [F. couper, to cut.] 

cour'-age (kur'-aj), n. bravery ; fearless- 
ness, cour-a'-geous (-jus), adj. [O.F. 
<L. cor, cordis, the heart.] 

cou'-ri-er (koo'-), n. a runner; a mes- 
senger ; a travelling attendant. [F. < 
L. curro, I run.] 

course (kon), n. a running; a road or 
track ; way of life ; a career ; a regular 
method of proceeding ; a series (as lec- 
tures) ; the food served in each of the 
successive parts of a meal : v. (coursed, 
cours'-ing), to chase (esp. hare or 
rabbit), cour'-ser, n. a swift or spirited 
horse. [F.<L. cursus<curro, I run.] 

court (kort), n. an enclosed space ; a yard ; 
a king's palace ; the persons forming the 
retinue of a sovereign ; a meeting of 
these persons ; a hall for the adminis- 
tration of justice, and the judges or 
magistrates who preside there: v. (-ed, 
-ing), to pay marked attention to ; to 
woo; to attract, cour'-te-ous (kur'- 




tl-ws), adj. polite; well-bred; affable. 
cour'-te-sy (kur'-), n. politeness, by 
courtesy, by favour rather than by 
right. Court of Common Pleas, 
formerly a court for the trial of actions 
brought by one subject against another, 
but merged, in 1880, into the King's 
Bench Division of the High Court of 
Justice. Court of St. James, the Court 
of the British Sovereign, so called from 
being formerly held at St. James's 
Palace, London, court'-i-er (kort'-), n. 
one who frequents a king's — . court— 
mar'-tial (-shal), n. (pi. courts- 
martial), a court held by military (or 
naval) officers for breaches of military (or 
naval) law, or discipline. court'-ship,n. 
wooing, court-yard', n. a small yard or 
enclosure adjoining a house, courtesy 
title, a title to which one has no right, 
but which is allowed by the usages of 
society, as Esq. to any gentleman, Lord 
or Honourable to the son of a peer. 
[F.<L. cohors, an enclosure.] 

cous'-in (kuz'-n), n. a child of an uncle or 
aunt ; a term used by a sovereign in 
addressing another sovereign, or one of 
his own noblemen, cous'-in— ger'-man, 
w. (pi. cous'-ins-ger'-man), a true or 
first cousin (by blood, not by marriage). 
[F.<L. consobnnus, a cousin.] 

cou-til' (koo-), or -telle', or -tille', ft. a 
close-woven cotton canvas. [F.] 

coy'-e-nant (kuv'-),n. an agreement (esp. 
in writing) ; a bargain : v. (-ed, -ing), 
to make an agreement or bargain, coy'- 
e-nant-er, ft. one who makes a — ; one 
who agreed to, and defended, The 
National Covenant, 1&38. [L. con--\- 
venio, I come.] 

coY'-er (kuv'-), (-ered, -er-ing), v. to 
hide ; to clothe ; to shelter ; to protect : 
n. that which covers, coy '-er-ing, n. 
something which covers. C0Y'-er-let, 
n. a bed-cover. coY'-ert, n. a thicket ; 
a place of protection (for game) : adj. 
secret. coYert coat, a short, light 
overcoat, under coYer, enclosed in an 
envelope with a letter ; under shelter. 
[F.<L. cooperio, 1 cover.] 

C0Y'-et {law'-), (-ed, -ing), v. to have a 
very strong wish for something ; to wish 
for what is unreasonable, unlawful, or 
forbidden. coy' -e-tous (-tus) , adj . coy'- 
e-tous-ness, n. [F. < L. cupio, I wish, 

COY'-ey (kiiv'-l), n. a brood (of birds). 

[O.F. couvee <L. cubo, I lie down.] 
| cow (cowed, cow '-ing), v. to subdue ; to 
dishearten. [Scand.] 

cow'-ard, n. a person lacking courage. 
cow'-ard-ice (-»««) f n. want of courage ; 
timidity. cow'-ard-ly,ad;\ cow'-ard- 
li-ness, n. [O.F.<L. cauda, a tail.] 

cow'-er (-ered, -er-ing), v. to crouch (or 
shrink from) esp. through fear ; to stoop. 
[Scand. <Dan. kure, to doze.] 

cowl, n. a monk's hood; the top of a 
chimney. [A.S. cugle, a cowl (L. 
cucxdlus) ."] 

Cowper— Temple Clause, a provision 
made in the Education Act (1870) by 
which parents may, if they wish, 
withdraw their children from religious 
instruction in Elementary Schools. [< 
the name of the proposer.] 

cow'-rie (or -ry) (-rl), n. (pi. -ries), a 
small shell, used as money in parts of 
Africa and Asia. [Hindustani kauri.] 

cow'-slip, ft. a kind of wild primrose. 
[A.S. cu'-slyppe."] 

cox'-comb (-kom), n. a vain, conceited 
fellow (so called from the crest, like a 
cock's comb, worn by jesters). 

cox-swain (kok'-swdn or kok'-s'n), n. a 
sailor who has charge of the boats on a 
ship; the steersman of a boat. [< 
cock, a boat + swain.] 

coy, adj. bashful ; shy. coy'-ness, n. 
[F. co;<L. quietus, quiet.] 

coz'-en (kuz'-n), (-ened, -en-ing), v. to 
cheat ; to deceive, coz'-en-age, n. 
[F. cousiner, to play the cousin ; to live 
on others. See cousin.] 

cr., credit ; creditor. 

crab, n. a kind of shell-fish ; a kind of 
crane or windlass, to catch a — , to 
miss a stroke in rowing and fall back- 
wards. [A.S. crabba."] 

crab, n. a sour wild apple, crab'-bed, 
adj. sour ; ill-tempered. [?] 

crack (cracked, crack' -ing), v. to split ; 
to make a splitting noise : n. a chink ; 
a short, sharp, splitting noise : adj. very 
superior ; first-rate, crack'-er, n. a 
small fire-work, crack'-le (-led, -ling), 
v. to make a splitting noise, crack'- 
ling, n. the well-browned, crisp rind of 
roast pork, crack'-nel, ft. a hard, dry 
biscuit. [A.S. cracian, to resound.] 

cra'-dle (-dl), n. a baby's bed or crib ; the 
place of nurture or origin ; a frame in 
which anything rests ; a framework 
under a ship for launching it ; a case 




for a broken limb : v. (-died, -dling), 
to lay or rock in a cradle ; to nurse. 
[A.S. cradoL] 

craft, n. skill ; trade ; deceit ; cunning ; 
a small ship ; ships collectively, craf- 
ty, adj. cunning. craf'-ti-ly, adv. 
craf-ti'-ness, n. crafts'-man, n. an 
artificer ; a workman in a trade. [A.S. 
craft, skill, power.] 

crag, n. a steep, rugged rock, crag'-gy, 
adj. [W. craig, a rock.] 

cram (crammed, cram'-ming), v. to stuff 
full ; to squeeze in ; to prepare hurriedly 
for an examination : n. the process of 
cramming, cram'-mer, n. one who 
crams (esp. knowledge into students' 
heads for examinations), cram— full, 
adj. [A.S. crammian."} 

cramp, n. a convulsive and painful con- 
traction of the muscles ; anything which 
confines or contracts : v. (cramped, 
cramp'-ing), to confine in too small 
space, cram'-pons, pieces of iron 
fixed to the shoes to assist in climbing. 
[D. kramp.2 

cran'-ber-ry, n. a sour red berry much 
used for sauces, preserves, etc. [< 
crane-berry ; origin unknown.] 

crane, n. a large wading-bird ; a machine 
for raising heavy weights : v. (craned, 
cra'-ning), to stretch out the neck ; to 
hoist with a crane, crane'— fly, n. a 
kind of gnat with long legs ; the daddy- 
long-legs. [A S. era?/.] 

cra'-ni-um, «. the skull, cra'-ni-al, 
adj. cra-ni-ol'-o-gy(-ji),n. the science 
relating to the skull, cra-ni-ol'-o-gist, 
n. [L.<Gr. krdnion, the skull.] 

crank, n. an angle or bend (as on an axle or 
machine shaft) ; a peculiarity or whim. 
crank' -y, adj. given to cranks ; crooked ; 
infirm; shaky; loose. [O.E. and D. 
krank, sick, weak.] 

cran'-ny, n. a chink ; a crevice, cran'- 
nied, adj. [F. cran, a notch <L. crena, 
a notch.] 

crape, n. a thin, crimped stuff made of raw 
silk (usu. black, and worn in mourning). 
[F. crepe <L. crispus, crisp, wrinkled.] 

crash, n. a noise of breaking, esp. through 
falling ; ruin ; failure : v. (crashed, 
crash'-ing). [Imitative.] 

crash, n. a kind of coarse linen towelling. 
[A form of crass, L. crassus, thick.] 

crass, adj. coarse ; dense ; gross, as crass 
ignorance. [L. crassus, thick.] 

crate, n. a case with open sides (wicker- 

work, or wooden laths) for packing. [L. 
crates, a hurdle.] 

cra'-ter (krd'- not krd'-), n. the mouth of 
a volcano. [L.<Gr. krater, a bowl.] 

cra-vat', n. a neck-cloth or tie (esp. for 
men). [F. cravate."} 

craYe (craYed, cra'-ying), v. to beg 
earnestly ; to long for; to desire, cra'- 
Ying, n. a strong desire or longing. 
[A.S. crafian, to demand.] 

era' -Yen, n. a coward : adj. cowardly ; 
spiritless. [< crave ; a ' craven ' is one 
who craves for mercy.] 

craw,w. the crop, throat, or first stomach 
of fowls ; the stomach of an animal. 
[(?) D. kraag.2 

crawl (crawled, crawl'-ing), v. to creep 
along ; to move slowly : n. [Dan. 

cray'-fish (less correctly craw'-fish), n. a 
small kind of fresh-water lobster. [< 
O.F. crevisse, a crab.] 

cray'-on, n. a pencil of black or coloured 
chalk ; a drawing made with such a 
pencil : v. (-oned, -on-ing), to draw 
with a crayon. [F.<L. creta, Cretan 
earth, chalk.] 

craze (crazed, cra'-zing), v. to put (the 
mind) out of order ; to become insane : 
n. an infatuation ; a strong habitual 
desire or fancy, cra'-zy, adj. weak 
(esp. in mind) ; idiotic ; unsound, cra'- 
zi-ness, n. [Sc. krasa, to crackle.] 

creak (creaked, creak'-ing), v. to make 
a harsh, grating sound : n. creak'-y, 
adj. [Imitative.] 

cream, n. the thick, oily part of milk from 
which butter is made ; the best of any- 
thing : v. (creamed, cream'-ing), to 
skim, as cream from the surface of milk ; 
to become thick like cream, cream '- 
er-y, n. (jrt. -ies), a factory where butter 
and cheese are made from cream, or a 
shop where they are sold, cream'-y, 
adj. full of cream, cream-laid paper, 
cream-coloured writing-paper with paral- 
lel water-marks (woye paper has no 
such marks). [OF. cresme < L. chrUma."} 

crease, ». a mark made by folding ; a line 
in cricket used to mark the boundary 
near the wicket : v. (creased, creas'- 
ing), to make creases. [?] 

cre-ate' (-a'-ted, -a'-ting), v. to bring 
into being ; to cause to exist ; to form ; 
to invent, cre-a'-tion, n. the act of 
creating ; that which is created or made. 
cre-a'-tiye (-tiv), adj. having power to 




create ; belonging to creation, cre-a'- 
tor, n. one who creates . The Creator, 
God. [L. creo, I create.] 

crea'-ture (Jcree'-tshur), n. any living 
thing created ; a servile dependant ; a 
tool ; a human being (used in contempt 
or pity), creature comforts, things 
which help to make life comfortable, as 
good food, clothing, shelter, and lux- 
uries. [See create.] 

creche (krdsh or kresh), n. [F.] a day- 
nursery for young children whose 
mothers are out at work. 

cre'-dence, n. belief ; trust ; a small table 
beside the altar or communion table on 
which the bread and wine are placed 
before being consecrated. [See next icord"} 

cre-den'-tial (shal) , n. that which enables 
a thing to be believed or credited. 
cre-den'-tials, testimonials as to 
truth, genuineness, or character. [L. 
credo, I believe.] 

cred'-i-ble, adj. capable of being believed ; 
worthy of belief ; probable, cred-i-bil'- 
i-ty,n. cred'-i-bly,adv. [See credit.] 

cred'-it, n. belief; faith; trust; confi- 
dence; good name; reputation : v. (-ed, 
-ing), to give trust to ; to believe ; to 
sell on trust ; (in book-keeping) to enter 
into an account book or ledger money or 
other value received from a customer. 
cred'-i-ta-ble, adj. bringing credit or 
honour to ; praiseworthy, cred'-i-tor, 
n. one to whom a debt is owing. [P. < 
L. credo, I believe.] 

cred'-u-lous, adj. believing too readily ; 
simple-minded ; easily imposed upon. 
cre-du'-li-ty, n. [L. credo, I believe.] 

cree (creed, cree'-ing), v. to soften grain 
by boiling or steaming. [F. crever, to 

creed, n. a summary of the essential 
articles of religious belief (as in the 
Apostles' Creed) ; any system of prin- 
ciples professed or believed. [L. credo, 
I believe.] 

creek, n. a small inlet. [D. kreek."\ 

creel, n. a basket, esp. for fishing. [Ga. (?)] I 

creep (crept, creep '-ing), v. to move 
slowly along the ground like a worm ; to j 
move slowly and stealthily, creep'-er, j 
n. one who creeps ; a creeping plant. 
creep'-y, adj. chilled with fear. [A..S. | 
creopan, to creep.] 

cre-mate' (-ma'-ted, -ma'-ting), v. to 
burn (esp. dead bodies), cre-ma'-tion, 
n. the act of cremating, cre-ma-to'- 

ri-um, n. or cre'-ma-to-ry, n. a place 
where bodies are cremated : adj. [F. < 
L. cremo, I burn.] 

cre-na'-ted, adj. notched at the edges. 
[L. crena, a notch.] 

cre'-ole, n. (in the West Indies and other 
parts of the New World) a descendant of 
European ancestors but born and natur- 
alized in the country. [F. through Sp. 
<L. creo, I create.] 

cre'-o-sote, or cre'-a-sote (sot), n. a 
thick, oily liquid obtained from wood- 
tar, having the power of preserving 
meat, wood, etc., from decay. [Gr. 
kreas, flesh, soter, preserving.] 

crepe, n. same as crape, ctepe de 
chine (krdp de sheen') [F.] a kind of 
crape (thicker than ordinary and not so 
much crinkled) used for ladies' blouses, 
dresses, etc. ere'-pon (crd'-poh or 
crep'-on), n. a fabric of silk or wool, or 
both mixed, woven like crape, but 
thicker. [See crape.] 

crep'-o-line (-len), n. a thin crape-like 
material (for ladies' dresses). [See crape] 

cre-scen' -do (-shen'-), [I.<L. cresco, I 
increase] a term (in mus.) denoting 
increasing in sound or loudness. 

cres'-cent (kres'-ent), n. a figure the shape 
of the new moon ; a row of houses 
arranged on a curve : adj. — ; increas- 
ing. [L. cresco, I increase.] 

cress, n. edible garden and water-plants. 
[A.S. tcersc.'] 

crest, n. the comb or tuft on a bird's 
head ; the top or summit ; a plume of 
feathers, etc., on a helmet; the orna- 
ment above the shield in a coat-of-arms. 
crest'— fallen, adj. in a low or depressed 
state , dejected ; cowed. [L. crista, a 
crest or plume of feathers.] 

cre-ta'-ceous (-shus), adj. consisting of or 
like chalk. [L. creta, chalk.] 

cre-tonne' (-ton f ), n. a kind of strong 
cotton cloth (originally white) now 
printed and often glazed. [F.] 

cre-Yasse', n. a rent or fissure (esp. in a 
glacier). [F.<L. crepo, I crackle.] 

crev'-ice (-iss), n. a crack; a rent; a 
narrow opening. [See crevasse.] 

crew (croo), n. a company (esp. of the men 
who work a ship) ; a company, squad, or 
gang (often in a bad sense). [F.<L. 
accresco, I grow to.] 

crew '-el, n. fine worsted yarn used for 
embroidery. [(?)] 

crib, n. a manger or rack in a stable ; a 




stall (for oxen) ; a child's bed ; a cabin ; 
a confined place ; a translation or key 
used dishonestly : v. (cribbed, crib'- 
bing), to confine ; to pilfer, crib'-bage, 
n. a game at cards. [A.S. crib, a crib, 

crick (krik), n. a spasm or cramp of the 
muscles (esp. in the neck). [< crack.] 

crick' -et (krik'-), n. a small insect of the 
grasshopper family known by the chirp- 
ing sound it makes by rubbing its wing- 
covers together. [F. criquet. Imit.] 

crick' -et (krik'-), n. a well-known game 
played with bats and a ball, crick' - 
et-er, n. [F. criquet. <(?)] 

crime, n. an offence against the law ; any 
outrage or great wrong, crim'-i-nal, 
adj. guilty of — ; of the nature of — ; 
depraved : n. one who has committed — . 
crim-in-al'-i-ty (-i-tl), n. the state of 
being criminal ; guiltiness, crim'-i- 
nate (-na-ted, -na-ting), v. to accuse 
of crime. [F.<L. crimen, an accusa- 
tion ; crime] 

crimp, adj. crisp and brittle : v. (crimped, 
crimp'-ing), to make crisp ; to curl or 
frill ; to decoy sailors or soldiers : n. 
one who decoys. [< cramp.] 

crim'-son (-zn), adj. of a deep-red colour : 
n. [F. cramoisin < Ar. qironiz, the 
cochineal insect (from which the colour 
was obtained).] 

cringe (cringed, cring'-ing), v. to bow 
very low ; to be servile ; to flatter ; to 
shrink with fear. [A.S. cringan."} 

crin'-kle (-kl), (-kled, -kling), v. to 
wrinkle up ; to curl ; to make a rustling 
sound. [< root of crank.] 

crin' -o-line (-len or -lin), n. a stiffened 
petticoat. [F.<L. crvnis, hair-f linum, 

crip'-ple (-pi), n. a lame person : v. 
(-pled, -pling), to make lame ; to dis- 
able ; to weaken the power or efficiency 
of ; to lessen the resources of. [A.S. 

cri'-sis, n. (pi. -bob) (-sez), a turning 
point ; a decisive moment ; the stage in 
an illness which decides whether or not 
a patient is likely to recover ; any crit- 
ical state in life or public affairs. [L. 
<Gr. krisis<krino, I judge.] 

crisp, adj. curling closely ; brittle ; fresh 
(as air) : v. (crisped, crisp '-ing), to 
curl ; to make wavy ; to ripple. [L. 
crispus, curly, wrinkled.] 

cri-te'-ri-on, n. (pi. -a), a test (for judg- 

ing) ; a standard ; a rule. [Gr.] 

crit'-ic, n. one who is skilled in estimating 
and judging the quality of a thing ; an 
adept; a fault-finder, crit'-i-cal, adj. 
decisive; discerning; fastidious ; fault- 
finding ; dangerous, crit'-i-cize (-siz), 
(-cized, -ci-zing), v. to judge ; to find 
fault with or praise, crit'-i-cism 
(sizm), n. cri-tique' (-tek'), n. [F.] a 
critical judgement (esp. in a newspaper 
or other periodical publication); a 
review. [Gr. krino, I judge.] 

croak (krok), n. the hoarse noise made by 
a frog or a raven : v. (croaked, croak'- 
ing), to make such noise ; to grumble ; 
to forebode evil, croak'-er, n. [Imit.] 

cro'-chet (-sha), n. fancy-work done with 
thread, etc., and a hooked needle: v. 
(-dieted (shad), -chet-ing (-shd-ing)). 
[F. croc, a hook ] 

crock, n. a pitcher ; a pot. crock'-er-y, 
n. earthenware. [A.S. crocca."\ 

croc'-o-dile, n. a large amphibious lizard- 
like reptile. — tears, pretended sorrow. 
[F.<L.<Gr. krokodeilos.] 

cro'-cus, n. (pi. -cus-es), a bulbous plant 
with light-yellow or purple flowers. 
[L. crocus.'} 

croft, n. a small field ; a small farm. 
croft' -er,w. a dweller on and cultivator 
of a croft (esp. in Scotland). [A.S. 
croft, a small field.] 

crom'-lech (-lek), n. (in Eng.) an ancient 
monument consisting of a large, flat 
stone resting on the top of two or more 
upright stones ; a Druidical circle (per- 
haps a sepulchre). [W.] 

crone, n. an old woman, cro'-ny, n. (pi. 
-nies), a familiar companion. [?] 

crook, n. a bend ; a staff bent at one end. 
crook'-ed, adj. bent ; deformed ; per- 
verse ; dishonourable. [Dan. krog, a 

croon (crooned, croon'-ing), v. to make 
a low, singing, humming sound : n. — ; 
a murmur. [Imitative.] 

crop, n. the stomach or craw of a bird ; 
produce (esp. of a field or garden) ; a 
riding-whip with a loop instead of a 
lash: v. (cropped, crop'-ping), to cut 
short off ; to cause to bear a crop, crop 
out, to come to light ; to appear above 
the surface, crop up, to come up, or 
appear, unexpectedly, come a cropper, 
to fail badly in some undertaking or 
effort; to receive a decided check. 
[A.S. cropp, a bunch.] 




cro'-quet (-led), n. a game played on the 
grass with wooden balls and mallets. 
cro-quette' (-kef), n. a fried ball of 
minced and seasoned meat, fish, rice, 
etc. ; a rissole. [F ] 

cro'-sier, less correctly cro'-zier (-zher), 
n. a bishop's pastoral staff. [O.F.c/ois.] 

cross, n. two lines passing over each other 
at an angle (thus X, or thus +) i an 
instrument of punishment (in the form 
of a cross) ; a monument, model, or 
ornament in the form of a cross ; any- 
thing that crosses or thwarts ; adversity 
or affliction : v. (crossed, cross' -ing), 
to mark with a cross ; to pass over ; to 
intersect ; to interlace ; to cancel ; to 
thwart ; to vex ; to interfere with : adj. 
ill-tempered ; contrary, cross'— bill, n. 
a bird the parts of whose bill cross each 
other near the points, cross'-bow (-bo), 
n. a bow in the form of a cross, cross'— 
bred, adj. of mixed breed, cross'— 
ex-am'-ine (-ined, -in-ing), v. to test (a 
witness) by the opposing party examin- 
ing him. cross'— grained, adj. crabbed ; 
perverse. cross'-ing, n. a passage 
across, at — purposes, having con- 
trary aims, cross'— ques-tion (-tioned, 
-tion-ing), v. to cross-examine, cross'— 
road, 11. a by-path, cross'— wise, adv. 
in the form of a cross ; across. South- 
ern Cross, a group of stars in the south- 
ern hemisphere in the form of a cross. 
[O.F. crols<h. crux, a cross.] i 

crotch'-et (kroch'-), n. a hook ; a note » 
in music; a whim, crotch'-e-ty, adj. 
whimsical. \¥.< croc, a hook.] 

crosse, n. the long-handled racquet used 
in the game of lacrosse. [< cross.] 

cro'-ton, n. an East Indian plant from 
the seeds of which a medicinal oil 
(cro'-ton— oil) is obtained. [Gr. kroton, 
a tick (insect), the shape of the seeds.] 

crouch (crouched, crouch'-ing), v. to 
stoop or bend low ; to cringe ; to fawn. 
[A. variation of crook.] 

croup (kroop), n. a disease of the throat 
(exp. of children) with a hoarse cough 
and difficult breathing. [Imitative.] 

croup (kroop), n. the hind quarters (esp. 
of horse, or fowl). [F. croupe."} 

crou-pi-er' (kroo-pl-'e'r'), n. the one who 
collects the money staked at a gaming- 
table ; an assistant-chairman at a public 
dinner. [F.] 

croiile (kroot), n. [F.] crust, crou'- 
tons, n. pieces of oread cut into shapes 

and used in cooking for garnishing. 

crow (crowed or crew, crow '-ing, 
crowed], v. to cry like a cock; to use 
boasting language ; to utter a sound of 
joy or pleasure (as an infant) : n. a large 
black bird, as the — flies, in a straight 
line, crow' -bar, n. a bar used as a 
lever to raise heavy objects, crow's 
feet, wrinkles at the outer corners of the 
eyes, crow's nest, a box or perch near 
the top of a mast to shelter the look-out 
man. to have a crow to pluck, to 
require an explanation ; to have a griev- 
ance to settle. [AS. crawe, a crow.] 

crowd {kroud), n. aT large assembly; a 
throng ; a mob : v. (-ed, -ing), to press 
together. [A.S. crudan, to push.] 

crown (krowij, n. a state covering for the 
head of a sovereign ; the top (esp. of the 
head) ; completion ; honour ; reward ; a 
silver coin value 5s. : v. (crowned, 
crown'-ing), to deck with a crown ; to 
complete. Crown colony, one ruled 
directly by the Home Government. 
crown'— glass, n. very fine window-glass. 
crown lands, real estate heired by the 
sovereign. crown living, a church 
living in the gift of the sovereign. 
Crown— Prince, u. the heir to the throne 
(in Germany). f_O.F.<L. cordna, a 

cro'-zier. See crosier. 

cru'-ci-al (kroo' -si-al or kroosh'-yal), adj. 
belonging to a cross ; searching or deci- 
sive (test or experiment). f_F. <L. cruxj 
a cross.] 

cru'-ci-bie (sl-bl), n. a pot for melting 
ores, minerals, etc. (often of clay). [< 
root of crock.] 

cru'-ci-fer (-d-f'e'r), n. a flower having 
four petals in the shape of a cross ; a 
cross-bearer, cru-cif -er-ae, the 
order of flowers (crucifers) having four 
petals in the form of a cross, cru-cif '- 
er-ous, adj. [L. crux, cross -\-fero, I 

cru'-ci-form, adj. in the form of a cross. 
[L. crux, a cross + form.] 

cru'-ci-fy (-fled, -fy-ing), v. to put to 
death by nailing on a cross, cru'-ci- 
fix, n. a figure or image of Christ upon 
the cross, cru-ci-fix'-ion (-jik'-xhun), 
n. death on the cross (esp. of Jesus 
Christ). [L. crux, a cross -\-fujo, I 

crude, adj. raw ; immature ; unripe ; un- 
finished ; ill-considered, crude'-ness, 




n. cru'-di-ty (-di-t%), n. state of being 
crude. [L. criidus, raw.] 

cru'-el, adj. disposed to give pain ; un- 
feeling; pitiless. cru'-el-ly,«tZy. cru'- 
el-ty (-tl), n. [F.<L. crudeUs."] 

cru'-et, 11. a small bottle or jar for holding 
vinegar, etc. ; the stand for these 
vessels ; a castor, cruet— stand, n. 
[F.<L.L. cruga, a pitcher.] 

cruise (krooz), n. the sailing (of a ship) 
here and there : v. (cruised, cruis'-ing), 
to sail hither and thither, esp. for plea- 
sure, or in search of an enemy, or for 
the protection of vessels, crui'-ser 
(kroo'-zer), n. a war-vessel with a high 
rate of speed but less fighting power than 
a man-of-war, used especially for protect- 
ing merchant-vessels, for scouting, etc. 
[D. Jcruisen, to cross the sea,<L. crux, 
a cross.] 

crumb (Lrum), n. a small fragment, esp. of 
bread; the soft part of bread, crumb'-y, 
adj. crum'-ble (-bled, -bling), v. to 
break into crumbs or small pieces. 
crumb'— cloth, n. a cloth placed over a 
carpet to protect it, esp. under a dining- 
table. [A S. cruma.'] 

crum'-pet, 11. a kind of soft, spongy cake 
for tea, made from batter, unsweetened, 
and baked on an iron plate. [< crumb.] 

crum'-ple (-pled, -pling), v. to bend into 
wrinkles or folds ; to crease. [ < crimp.] 

crunch (crunched, crunch'-ing), v. to 
crush with the teeth. [Imitative.] 

crup'-per, n. a leather loop passing under 
a horse's tail and fastened to the saddle 
to keep it in its place ; the hind-quarters 
(of a horse). [F. croupttre.] 

cru-sade', n. a war, under the banner of 
the Gross, to recover the Holy Land from 
the Turks ; any enterprise carried on 
with great zeal and enthusiasm, esp. one 
against existing or supposed evils, cru- 
sa'-der,?i. [F.croisade<L.crux, cross.] 

cruse (Icrooz), n. an earthen cup, pot, or 
vessel (for water, oil, etc). [F.<Ic. krus."} 

crush (crushed, crush '-ing), v. to break 
in pieces ; to press down ; to subdue ; 
to overwhelm (as with sorrow) : n. the 
act of crushing ; a pressing crowd of 
people, crush'— hat, a tall hat which is 
so made as to be collapsible and become 
flat for easy carrying ; an opera-hat. 
[O.F. cruisir."] 

crust, ii. the hard outside covering (as of a 
loaf, a pie, the. earth, etc.) ; a piece of 
a loaf : v. (-ed, -ing), to cover with a — . 

crus'-ty,ad/. having a — ; ill-tempered ; 
surly, crus'-ti-ness, n. the state of 
being crusty. [O.F.<L. crusta.] 

crus-ta'-ceous (-alius), adj. belonging to 
the crus-ta'-ce-a (-slil-a), n. pi. an 
order of animals having a hard outside 
shell (like the lobster, etc.). crus-ta'- 
ce-an, n. s. one of the Crustacea : adj. 
[< crust.] 

crutch, ». a staff with a top cross-piece for 
a cripple; a prop or support. [A.S. 
cryce.~\ [puzzling. [L.] 

crux, n. a cross ; anything very diiftcult or 

cry (cried, cry '-ing), v. to make a loud, 
shrill sound ; to shout ; to weep ; to 
proclaim (esp. for sale) ; to pray or im- 
plore : n. (pi. cries), cri'-er, n. one 
who cries out public notices, to cry 
down, to dispraise or condemn ; to 
silence by loud noises, to cry off, to 
withdraw from, a far — , a long dis- 
tance, in full — , in full pursuit (as 
dogs hunting), to — quits, to declare 
to be even, to — up, to praise unduly. 
[F. crier <L. qidrlto, I call for help.] 

crypt (Jcript), n. the basement or under- 
ground part of a church or large build- 
ing, cryp'-tic, adj. hidden ; secret. 
cryp'-to-gram (or -graph), n. some- 
thing written in secret symbols, or char- 
acters, or with a hidden meaning. [L. 
<Gr. krupto, I hide.] 

crys'-tal (*H»'-)» a dj- like glass ; very 
clear : n. a kind of fine glass ; a trans- 
parent quartz (called rock crystal) 
resembling glass ; the regular geometrical 
form which certain substances tend to 
assume when solidifying, crys'-tal- 
line, adj. crys'-tal-lize (-lized, -li- 
zing), v. to form, or cause to form, 
crystals ; to assume a definite form or 
shape, crys-tal-li-za'-tion, n. crys'- 
tal-loid, adj. like a crystal : u. [F. < L. 
crystallum < Gr. krimtallos.'} 

C S., Civil Service. 

C.S.I. , Companion of the Star of India. 

C.T.C., Cyclists' Touring Club. 

cub, n. the young of some quadrupeds (as 
lion, bear, fox, etc.) ; a boy. cub'-bing 
or cub— hunting, hunting young foxes 
at the beginning of the season. [?] 

cube, n. a solid body with six equal square 
faces ; the product of a number multi- 
plied by itself twice, cu'-bic, cu'-bi- 
cal, adjs. pertaining to a cube; solid. 
[F.<L.<Ur. kilbos, a cubical die.] 

cu'-bi-cle, it. a sleeping-room partitioned 




off from a large dormitory. [L. cubic- 

ulum, a bed-room.] 
cu'-bit, n. an ancient measure, the length 

from the elbow to the tip of the middle 

finger (varying from 18 to 22 inches). 

[L. cubitum, the elbow.] 
cuck'-oo (kook'-koo),n. a bird well known 

by, and called after, its note. 
cu'-cum-ber, ft. a well-known creeping 

plant and its fruit. [F.<L. cucumis.] 
cud, n. food returned to the mouth from 

the first stomach of a ruminant to be 

re-chewed (as by the cow, camel, etc.). 

to chew the cud, to perform the above 

operation ; to meditate. [A.S. cudu, 

what is chewed.] 
cud'-gel (cuj'-el), ft. a heavy, rough stick ; 

a club : v. (-gelled, -gel-ling), to beat 

with a — . to — one's brains, to 

exercise one's wits, to take up the 

cudgels, to engage in a contest. [A.S.] 
cue (ku), ft. the last word in an actor's 

speech used to guide the next speaker ; 

a hint ; a stick used to drive the balls 

in a game of billiards, cue'-ist, ft. a 

skilful billiard-player. [F. queue, tail 

<(?) L. cauda, a tail.] 
cuff, n. a blow with the open hand : v. 

(cuffed, cuf'-fing). [(?) Scand. kuffa, 

to thrust.] 
cuff, ft. the end of a sleeve (near the 

wrist). [(?) F. coiffe.\ 
cui bo' -no? (ki bo' -no), [L.] for what 

end or purpose is it ? ; who is the 

gainer ? Often used wrongly to mean, 

" what good will it do ? " 
cui-rass' (kice-),n. a breast-plate (armour) 

cui-ras-sier' (-ser'), n. a horse-soldier 

wearing a — . £F. cuirasse < L. cdrium, 

hide, leather.] 
cui-sine' (kwe-zen'),^ n. a kitchen; style 

or manner of cooking ; cookery. [F. < 

L. coquo, I cook.] 
cul'— de— sac (ku'- or kul'-de-sak), n. (pi. 

culs-de-sac), [F.] a blind alley ; a 

road or street open only at one end. 
cu'-li-na-ry,ad;'. belonging to the kitchen 

and cooking. [L. culma, a kitchen.] 
cull (culled, cul'-ling), v. to gather; to 

select. [F.<L. colligo, I collect.] 
cul'-mi-nate (-na-ted, -na-ting), v. to 

rise to the highest point, cul'-mi-na- 

ting, adj. cul-mi-na'-tion, ft. [L. 

culmen, summit.] 
cul'-pa-ble (-pa-bl) , adj. deserving blame ; 

faulty, cul-pa-bil'-i-ty, ft. cul'-pa- 

bly, adv, [¥.<L. culpa, a fault.] 

cul'-prit, ft. one who has done wrong ; a 
criminal ; a prisoner accused but not 
yet tried. [F.<L. culpa, a fault.] 

cult, or cul'-tus, ft. worship ; rites em- 
ployed in religion ; homage ; something 
to which great attention or devotion is 
given. [L. cultus, worship <colo, I 

cul'-ti-yate (-Ya-ted, -ya-ting), v. to 
prepare (ground) for crops ; to till ; to 
train or improve (as the mind) ; to 
devote time and thought to ; to seek the 
society of ; to civilize ; to refine, cul- 
ti-Ya'-tion, n. cul'-ti-Ya-tor, ft. one 
who — . [L. colo, I till.] 

cul'-ture, ft. cultivation ; refinement (of 
mind or taste) ; the cultivation of bac- 
teria for experimental purposes, cul'- 
tured, adj. cultivated ; refined. [L. 
colo, I till.] 

cul'-Yer-in, ft. a long, slender cannon. 
[F.<L. coluber, a snake ; a serpent.] 

cul'-Yert, w. an arched watercourse or 
drain. [O.F. (?) < L. colo, I drain.] 

cum'-ber (-bered, -ber-ing), v . to hinder ; 
to burden ; to occupy uselessly, cum'- 
ber-some, cum'-brous [-brus), adjs. 
[O.F. <L. cumulus, a heap.] 

cum gra'-no sal'-is, [L.] with a grain 
of salt, that is, with allowance for 

cum'-mer-bund, ft. a sash, girdle, or belt 
worn round the waist by men. [P. = 

cu'-mu-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to ac- 
cumulate ; to heap together, cu-mu- 
la'-tion, ft. cu'-mu-la-tiYe (-tiv), adj. 
accumulating. [L. cumulus, a heap.] 

cu'-mu-lus, ft. a cloud which takes a 
heaped-up form, cu'-mu-lo-stra'-tus, 
ft. cumulus mingled with cloud of a 
stratified form. [L. cumulus, a heap.] 

cu'-ne-al, cu-ne'-i-form, or cu'-ni- 
form, adj. wedge-shaped (usually ap- 
plied to the wedge-shaped letters of old 
Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions). 
r_L. cuneus, a wedge.] 

cun'-ning, adj. knowing ; sly ; crafty : n. 
skill ; deceit. [A.S. cunnan, to know.] 

cup, ft. a small drinking-vessel : v. 
(cupped, cup'-ping), to draw blood (in 
surgery) in a special manner, cup'— 
bearer, ft. an attendant at a feast who 
serves out wine, etc. cup-board (kub'- 
urd), ft. a place for keeping cups, dishes, 
provisions, etc. cup'-ful, ft. (pi. cup'- 
fuls). cup'— tie, ft. (in football, cricket, 




etc.), a match for a prize (often a silver 
cup) between teams that have won in 
previous matches. [A.S. cuppe<L. 
cupa, a cup.] 

Cu'-pid, n. the Roman god of love, cu- 
pid'-i-ty (-****), ft. strong desire to 
possess (esp. wealth) ; avarice. [L. 
cupldus<cupio, I desire.] 

cu'-po-la, ». a round, cup-shaped vault 
or dome on the top of a building. [I. < 
L. cupa, a cup.] 

cu'-pre-ous (-«*), adj. of copper. [L. 
cuprum, copper.] 

cur, n. a dog (esp. of a low breed) ; a 
low, worthless fellow, cur'-rish, adj. 
[Seand. kurre, a dog.] 

cu-ra-cao' (wrongly -coa'), (koo-ra-so' or 
-sd-o'), n. a sweetened liqueur flavoured 
with orange peel. [< Curacao, an 
island north of Venezuela.] 

cu'-rate, n. an assistant clergyman, cu'- 
ra-cy {-si), n. the office of a — . cu- 
ra' -tor, n. (/. -trix), one who has care 
or charge of anything ; a superintendent. 
[L. cura, care.] 

curb, ft. a part of a bridle ; a check ; the 
edge of the pavement ; a low fender : v. 
(curbed, curb'-ing), to check ; to re- 
strain ; to guide or manage ; to subdue. 
curb'— stone, or kerb'— stone, n. a stone 
placed edgeways against earth or other 
stones as a support or check. [F. 
courier, to bend,<L. curvus, bent, 

curd, n. the solid or cheese part of milk 
separated from the whey, cur' -die 
(-died, -dling), v. to thicken (as curd). 
cur'-dy, adj. [M.E. crud, (?) A.S. 
crudan, to crowd together.] 

cure (cured, cu'-ring), v. to heal ; to 
preserve (by salting, etc.) ; to reform : 
n. healing ; care {esp. of souls) ; treat- 
ment to improve the health ; a place (a 
spa) where such treatment is undergone. 
cu'-ra-ble, adj. able to be — . cu'-ra- 
tiye (-tiv), adj. relating to healing. 
[F.<L. cura, cure.] [France. [F.] 

cu-re' (ku-rd'), n. a parish priest in 

cur'-few, ft. a bell anciently rung as a 
signal to cover or put out fires, extinguish 
lights, and retire to rest ; an evening 
bell. [F. couv,e-feu, cover-fire.] 

Cu'-ri-ous (-rl-us) , adj . wishing to know ; 
prying ; rare ; skilfully made ; fanciful. 
cu-ri-os'-i-ty (-l-tl), n. a desire of 
knowing ; a rare article, cu'-ri-ous-ly, 
adv. cu'-ri-O, n. (pi. -os), anything 

rare or curious. [L. curiosus<cura, care] 

curl, n. a ringlet (esp. of hair) : v. (curled, 
curl'-ing), to twist ; to curve ; to raise 
in waves or undulations ; to bend over. 
curl'-ing, n. a winter game (esp. in 
Scotland) of sliding large, round stones 
on the ice towards a mark, curl'-er, n. 
[D. krullen, to curl.] 

cur'-lew, n. an aquatic wading-bird with 
a long, curved bill. [F. corlieu, imita- 
ting its cry.] 

cur'-mud-geon (-muj-un), n. a mean, 
avaricious fellow ; a miser. [?] 

cur'-rant, n. a small, dried grape ; the 
fruit of certain garden bushes. [< 
Corinth, a well-known city of Greece.] 

cur'-rent, n. a flowing or passing of water, 
air, electricity, etc. ; a stream ; a general 
course : adj. running ; generally received 
(esp. coin) ; of the present day. cur'- 
ren-cy, n. general acceptance ; the 
money (as coin, notes, etc.) of a country. 
[F.<L. curro, I run.] 

cur-ric'-u-lum (-rlk'-), n. (pi. -la), a 
course of study (at school, university, 
etc.). [L. cur riculum< curro, I run.] 

cur'-ry, n. a kind of hot sauce or condi- 
ment ; a stew cooked with curry : v. 
(-ried, -ry-ing), to flavour with curry. 
[Tamil (Indian) kari, sauce.] 

cur'-ry (-ried, -ry-ing), v. to dress 
leather ; to comb (a horse, etc.) ; to try 
to gain (favour), cur'-ri-er, ft. a 
leather-dresser, curry-comb, ft. an 
instrument for currying a horse. [O.F. 

curse (cursed, cur'-sing), v. to swear ; 
to call down evil on : ft. an oath ; an 
imprecation of evil ; an affliction ; the 
cause of great harm, evil, or misfortune. 
cur'-sed or curst, adj. under or subject 
to a curse ; doomed ; accursed ; hateful. 
cur'-sed-ness, ft. [A.S. cursian, to 

cur'-sive (-siv), adj. running (of hand- 
writing) ; flowing. [L. curro, I run.] 

Cur'-SO-ry (-rl), adj. running; hasty; 
rapid, cur'-so-ri-ly (-ri-ll), adv. [L. 
curro, I run.] 

curt, adj. short ; concise ; short and sharp 
in manner, tending to rudeness, curt'- 
ness, n. [L. curtus, shortened.] 

cur-tail' (-tailed', -tail'-ing), v. to cut 
short ; to shorten, cur-tail' -ment, n. 
[O.F. courtaulKh, curtus, shortened.] 

cur'-tain (-tin), n. hanging drapery, as for 
a bed, window, etc. ; part of a fortifica- 




tion : v. (-tained, -tain-ing), to screen 
with a curtain. [F.<L. cortlna, a 

curt'-sy or curt'-sey, n. (pi. -sies), a 
downward movement of the body by 
bending the knees, to denote respect : 
v. (-sied, -sy-ing). [See courtesy.] 

curye, n. a bent line ; an arch ; anything 
bent : v. (curved, cury'-ing). cur'- 
va-ture, n. a bending ; the amount or 
degree of bending. [L. curvus, crooked, 

cur'-yet, ft. a low leap of a horse in which 
all the four feet are oil the ground 
together: v. (-yet-ted, -yet-ting or 
-yet-ed, -yet-ing). [See curye.] 

cush'-ion (kush'-un), n. a soft, padded 
case ; a pillow ; the elastic edge of a 
billiard-table. [F. comsin.] 

cusp, ft. a point or sharp horn (as of the 
moon, a tooth, etc.). cus'-pi-dal, adj. 
cus'-pi-dor, n. a spittoon. [L. cuspis, 
a point.] 

tcus'-sed,a<(/'. mean and perverse; deliber- 
ately and wilfully contrary, fcus'-sed- 
ness, n. [< curse.] 

cus'-tard, ft. a dish (food) made of milk, 
eggs, sugar, etc. [O.F. croustade, a 
pasty <L. crustdtus, crusted.] 

cus'-to-dy, n. care ; charge ; confinement ; 
a keeping or guarding ; imprisonment. 
cus-to'-di-an, it. one who has charge, 
custody, or care (esp. of a public build- 
ing). [L. custos, a watchman, guard.] 

cus'-tom, n. what is usual ; fashion ; 
habit ; usual practice ; the buying of 
goods, cus'-toms, or customs- 
duties, taxes on goods imported (and 
sometimes on those exported), cus'- 
tom-a-ry, adj. cus'-tom-ar-i-ly, adv. 
cus'-tom-er, ». a buyer ; a person (esp. 
*me with some peculiarity), custom- 
house, n. the place (building) where 
customs-duties are paid. [O.F. custume 
<L. consuetudo, custom.] 

cut (cut, cut'-ting), v . to make a gash ; to 
cleave; to divide; to intersect or cross ; 
to ignore or refuse to recognize ; to hurt 
or wound the feelings of : n. a stroke or 
blow given to the ball (at cricket, tennis, 
etc.) ; a cutting ; a ditch ; style ; fashion ; 
an engraving, cut and dried, (a scheme) 
all ready prepared, a short — , a short 
way, road, or path, cut'-ting, n. a 
piece cut off ; an excavation ; a paragraph 
from a newspaper or book, cut— off, 
n. an automatic switch which stops the 

How of an electric current when it rises 
above a certain number of amperes* 
cut— out, n. a safety-piece in an electric 
circuit that fuses when the current 
becomes too strong, cut— throat, it* a 
ruffian ; an assassin, to — a dash or 
figure, to make a great show, to — 
according to the cloth, to adapt oneself 
to circumstances, to — off, to stop 
supplies, to — off with a shilling, to 
disinherit, to — out, to supplant ; to 
step in and take the place of. to — 
down, to lessen (as expenses). [(?) C. 
as in W. cwtt, a small piece.] 

cu-ta'-ne-ous (-as), adj. relating to the 
skin. [L. cutis, the skin.] 

cute, adj. acute; sharp; cunning, cute'- 
ness, n. [L. aciltus, sharp.] 

cu'-ti-cle (-tl-kl), ft. the outside skin. 
[L. cutis, the skin.] 

cut'-lass, u. a short, broad, curved sword. 
[F. coutelas < L cultellus, a small knife] 

cut'-ler, ft. a maker or seller of knives and 
other cutting instruments, cut'-ler-y 
(-1), n. cutting instruments. [F.<L. 
culte lus, a small knife.] 

cut'-let, ft. a small slice of meat (esp. of 
mutton or veal) cut, for cooking, from the 
rib or side. [F. c6telette<L. costa, rib.] 

cut'-ter, ft. one who cuts ; a small vessel 
with one mast ; a man-of-war's boat. 

cut'-tle— fish, ft. a species of mollusc which 
has the power of emitting a black, inky 
liquid. [A..S. cudelej 

cut'— wa-ter, ft. the front part of the prow 
of a ship or boat. [See cut and water.] 

C.Y.O., Commander of the lioyal Victorian 

c.w.o., cash with order. 

cwt., hundred-weight [c. for centum (L., 
hundred), wt. for weight]. 

cy-an'-ic (si-), adj. of the colour blue. 
cy'-an-ide, ft. a compound formed with 
cyanogen, cy'-an-i-ding, ft. the pro- 
cess, now used very largely, of extracting 
gold and silver from their ores by means 
of cyanide of potassium. [Gr. kudnos, 
a dark-blue substance.] 

cy-an'-o-gen (si- -jen) n. a poisonous gas 
composed of carbon and nitrogen, form- 
ing a component part of Prussian blue, 
prussic acid, etc. [Gr. kudnos, a dark- 
blue substance + gennao, I produce.] 

cyc'-la-men (sik'-), n. a genus of bulbous 
flowering plants of the primrose family. 
[Gr. kuklos, a circle.] 




cy'-cle (sl'-kl), n. a period of time; a 
series ; a vehicle (bicycle or tricycle) 
driven by the feet of the rider, or by a 
motor : v. (-cled, -cling), cy'-clic, adj. 
moving in a certain cycle or order, cy'- 
clist, v. the rider of a cycle. [F.<L. 
<Gr. kiiklos, a circle.] 

cy'-clone (*»'•), n. a storm moving in a 
circle ; a whirlwind, cy-clon'-ic, adj. 
[F.<L.<Gr. kiiklos, a circle.] 

cy-clo-pae'-di-a i-pi'-di-a), (or-pe'-), n. 
a guide to knowledge arranged alpha- 
betically. [Gr. kiiklos, a circle -\-paideia, 

Cy'-clops (si'-), 11. (pi. Cy'-clops, or Cy- 
clo'-pes, or Cy'-clop-ses), one of a 
fabled race of one-eyed giants, cy-clo- 
pe'-an, adj. of the Cyclops ; gigantic. 
[Gr. kiiklos, a circle-f dps, an eye.] 

cy'-clo-style, n. an apparatus for readily 
obtaining a large number of copies of 
a writing, drawing, etc., made with a 
pen having a tiny toothed-wheel for its 
point, which cuts a stencil : v. (-styled, 
-sty-ling). [Gr kiiklos, a circle + L. 
stylus, a writing instrument ] 

cyg'-net (sig'-), n. a young swan. [F.< 
L. cygiius, a swan + -et.~\ 

cyl'-in-der (sil'-), n. a solid, roll-like 
figure ; any hollow vessel of the same 
shape, cyl-in'-dric (-al), adj. [L<\< 
L.<Gr. kulindros <kulindo, I roll.] 

cym'-bal (sini'-), n. a brass dish-like 
musical instrument struck together in 
pairs. [F. < L. < Gr. kumbdlon, cymbal.] 

Cym'-ric (kirn'-), adj. of the Cymri, an 
ancient Welsh people ; Welsh : n. the 
Welsh language. 

cyn'-ic (sin'-), n. a surly, sneering, or 
captious person ; one who believes that 
people act chiefly from motives of self- 
interest : adj. cyn'-i-cism (-sizm), n. 
cyn'-i-cal, adj. [L. < Gr. kunikos, dog- 
like <kuon, a dog.] 

cy'-no-sure (si'-no-slioor or sin'-), n. the 
constellation of the Little Bear, contain- 
ing the pole-star ; a centre of attraction. 
[L.<Gr. kunosoura, dog's tail.] 

cy'-press (si'-), n. a large, gloomy, conif- 
erous, evergreen tree, branches of which 
were carried at funerals. [F.<L.< 
Gr. kiiparissos."] 

cy-pri-pe'-di-um (sl-pri-), n. a genus of 
orchids including the lady's slipper. 
[<Gr. = lady's (or Venus's) slipper.] 

cyst (sist), n. a bladder like bag in animal 
bodies containing morbid matter; one 

of the air-vessels of certain sea-weeds. 
cys'-tic, adj. [L. < Gr. knstis, a bladder] 

Czar or Tsar (zdr), u. (in Kussia) the title 
of the Emperor. Czar-i'-na (-£'-), or 
Tsar-it'-sa, n. the title of the Empress. 
Ce-sar'-e-witch (-vich), n. the title of 
the Czar's eldest son ; Ce-sar-ey'-na, 
his wife. Czar-ey'-na, n. a daughter of 
a Czar. Czar'-e- witch (-vich), n. a son of 
a — . [Polish <R. tsarc < rootof Ccesar.] 

Czech (chek), n. the native name of the 
Slavs of Bohemia ; also their language : 

d., de-nd'-ri-us, [L.] often translated a 
penny (its real value was about tyd. of 
our money) ; died. D., 500. 

dab'-ble (-bled, -bling), v. to splash 
water about ; to meddle ; to trifle. 
dab'-bler, n. one who — ; one who 
works in an uncertain or trifling manner. 
dab'-chick, n. a small water-fowl that 
dives and splashes in the water. [?] 

da capo (dd i>d'-po), [I.] (in mus.) repeat 
from the beginning. 

dachs'-hund (datsh'-lmnd, more correctly 
daks'- hoont), n. one of a breed of small 
dogs with long body and short, crooked 
legs. [G. = badger-dog.] 

da-coit', or da-koit', n. one of a gang of 
robbers in India and Burma. [Hind. 
ddkdit, a robber.] 

dad, dad'-dy, n. a familiar, childish name 
for father, daddy-long-legs, n, a well- 
known, long-legged insect, the crane-fly. 
[8a. tata, father.] 

da'-do, n. (pi. -dos), an ornamental border 
round the lower part of the walls of a * 
room. [l.<h.datus,p.part.oido,Igive] 

daf -fo-dil, n. a yellow flower of the lily 
kind ; a kind of narcissus. [O.F.<L. 
<Gr. asphodelos, a plant of the lily 

dag'-ger, n. a short sword for thrusting. 
at daggers drawn, in a state of open 
hostility, to look daggers, to look 
fiercely or angrily. [F. dague.] 

da-guerre'-o-type (da-ger'-o-tip), n. a 
method (now obsolete) of taking photo- 
graphic pictures on a plate of copper 
covered with silver. [<Lo»ts Daguerre 
(1789-185 1), a Frenchman, the inventor] 

da-ha-bee'-yah (ddhd-), (also -bi'-eh, 
or -bei'-ah), n. a large sailing-boat on 
the Nile. [Ar. dahabiyah.'] 

dahl'-ia(da£' yd), n. a garden -plant (from 


Mexico) with large flowers. [_< Andrew 
Dahl, a Swedish botanist (18th cent.).] 

dai'-ly. See day. 

Dai'-mio (di'-myo),n. the title of the chief 
feudal lords (acting as petty princes) of 
Japan, vassals of the Mikado. [Japan.] 

dain'-ty (ddn'-tl), adj. pleasing to the 
taste ; delicious ; of affected taste ; fastid- 
ious ; elegant : n. (pi. -ties), something 
dainty, dain'-ti-ly, adv. dain'-ti- 
ness, n. [O.F.<L. dignltas, worth; 

dai'-ry (dd'-ri), n. (pi. -ries), a place 
where milk is kept and butter and cheese 
are made from it. dairy— maid, n. a 
girl or woman employed in dairy-work. 
[Scand. deja, a dairy-maid.] 

da'-is, n. a raised floor at one end of an 
ancient dining-hall, where the high 
table was placed ; a slightly raised plat- 
form ; a chair of state. [O.F.<L. 
discus, a quoit, a dish.] 

dai'-sy (dd'-zi), n. (pi. -sies), a very 
common flower, a daisy-cutter, a 
cricket-ball which skims the ground ; a 
fast-going horse that does not lift its 
feet. [A.S. dceges cage, day's eye.] 

da-koit', see dacoit. 

Dal'-ai La'-ma (dal'-i Id' -md), n. the 
supreme ruler in Tibet. [Tibetan.] 

dale, n. a long valley, dales'-man, n. a 
dweller in a dale, esp. a small farmer in 
the dales of the English Lake District. 
[A.S. dal, a dale.] 

dal'-ly (-lied, -ly-ing), v. to trifle ; to 
sport ; to delay ; to fondle, dal'-li- 
ance, n. dal'-li-er, n. one who — . 
[O.F. dalier, to chat.] 

dal-ma'-tian (-shun), n. the spotted 
coach-dog shaped like a pointer. [< 
Dalmatia on the Adriatic Sea.] 

dal-rnat'-ic, n. an embroidered robe of 
silk or stuff with wide sleeves, worn by 
deacons, and sometimes by bishops ; one 
of the coronation robes of a king. [< 
Dalmatia, where the people wear a 
similar robe.] 

dal seg' -no (dal sd' -nyo) ,n. [I.] (in mus.) 
repeat from the sign }£ 

dam, n. a mother (of beasts). [<root of 

dam, n. a barrier to keep back flowing 
water ; an embankment (esp. of earth, 
stones, etc.) : v. (dammed, dam'- 
ming), to keep back water by a bank. 
[Scand. damm.2 

dam-age, n. hurt; injury; loss; cost; 




■aged, -a-ging). 

dam'-age-a-ble, adj. liable to be dam- 
aged. [O.F.<L. damnum, loss, injury.] 

dam'-ask, n. a figured, woven stuff, orig- 
inally silk, but now often of wool, linen, 
or cotton : adj. a red colour like that of 
a damask rose. [< Damascus, in Syria, 
where first made.] 

dame, n. a lady ; a mistress ; a noble lady. 
dame— school, n. a private school kept 
by a woman. [F.<L. domina, a mis- 
tress (/. of domlnus, a lord, master).] 

damn (dam), (damned, damn r -ing), v. to 
condemn ; to censure, dam-na'-tion, 
n. condemnation, dam'-na-ble, adj. 
hateful ; detestable ; abominable. [L. 
damno < damnum, loss.] 

dam'-o-sel (-zel), same as damsel, q.v. 

damp, adj. rather w r et ; moist : ft. vapour ; 
mist ; fog : v. (damped, damp'-ing), 
to make damp or moist ; to check the 
action of ; to deject ; to discourage. 
damp'-er, n. a sliding plate in a furnace 
to lessen the draught; that which de- 
presses or checks ; a large, thin cake, 
made of flour and water only, and baked 
in ashes, damp'-ness, n. [D. damp. 2 

dam'-sel (-zel), n. a young unmarried 
woman. [F. demoiselle, dim. of L. 
domina, a mistress.] 

dam'-son (-zn), n. a small dark-bluish 
plum. [< Damascene, of Damascus, 
where first grown.] 

dance (danced, dan'-cing), v. to move 
with measured steps to music ; to move 
nimbly or merrily ; to caper ; to frisk : 
n. — ; a tune to dance to ; a meeting 
for dancing, dan'-cer, n. one who 
dances, to — attendance on, to pay 
marked and almost servile attention to 
(some one), to lead one a — , to give 
one trouble in pursuit of an object. 
round — , one performed by two persons, 
as a waltz, square — , one in which 
the couples form sets in squares. [F. < 
O.G. danson, to drag along.] 

dan-de-li'-on, n. a common wild plant 
with yellow flowers. [F. dent de lion, 
lion's tooth, from the notched leaves.] 

dan'-der, n. a form of dandruff; angry 
passion. [?] 

dan'-dle (-died, -dling), v. to toss (a baby) 
fondly in the arms or on the knee. [< 
root of G. Tand, a toy.] [[? W.] 

dand'-ruff or -riff, n. scurf on the head. 

dan'-dy, n. (pi. -dies), a man too fond of 
dress ; a fop ; a kind of yacht, dan'- 




dy-ism (-izm), n. dandy— cart, n. a 

kind of spring-cart, used by milkmen. 
dandy— fever, n. dengue, q.v. [<root 
of dandle.] 

dan'-ger (ddn'-jer), n. exposure to injury, 
loss, pain, or other evil ; risk of being 
hurt ; peril ; insecurity, dan'-ger-ous 
(-ms), adj. unsafe ; risky. \0.¥. dangler 
< L. dominium, rule, < do minus, a lord.] 

dan'-gle(-gled,-gling),v. to hang loosely; 
to swing ; to follow about, dan'-gler, 
n. — ; a trifler. [Ic. dingla, to swing.] 

dank, adj. damp ; wet. [Scand. dagg, 

dan-seuse' (dan-suhz'), n. a professional 
female dancer. [See dance.] 

dap'-per, adj. quick ; neat ; spruce. [D. 
dapper, brave.] 

dap'-ple, or dap'-pled, adj. marked with 
spots. [Ic. depill, a spot.] 

dare (dared or durst, da' -ring), v. to be 
bold ; to venture ; to defy ; to challenge. 
da'-ring, n. boldness : adj. bold ; cour- 
ageous ; fearless, daren't (ddrnt), dare 
not. [A.S. dearr, I dare.] 

dark, adj. without light ; gloomy ; obscure ; 
mysterious ; ignorant : n. — ; the time 
between sunset and sunrise, dark'- 
ness, n. dark -en (-ened, -en-ing), v. 
to make dark, dark'-ey, n. a negro. 
dark'-ling, adj. and adv. in the dark. 
dark' -some, adj. rather dark ; gloomy. 
Dark Ages, the period from about 500 
to 1500 a. d., during which learning made 
little progress in Europe, a — horse, a 
person or thing about whose powers and 
capabilities little is known beforehand. 
a — room (in photography) , a room in 
which certain operations are performed, 
but from which all ordinary light is ex- 
cluded. [A.S. deorc."} 

dar'-ling, n. a beloved one ; a favourite : 
adj. [A.S. deorling<deor, dear.] 

dart, n. a pointed weapon for throwing ; 
anything that pierces ; (in dress-making) 
a seam which joins the two edges of a 
material left after cutting away a small 
shaped piece (triangular or lenticular), 
to secure close fitting : v. (-ed, -ing), 
to shoot forth. [O.F. dart."} 

Dar'-win-ism (-izm), n. the scientific 
teachings of Charles Darwin (1809 — 
1882), in which he explains the "origin 
of species," i.e., the manner and causes 
of the development of living things from 
certain original forms or elements. 
Dar-win'-i-an, n. a believer in — : adj. 

dash (dashed, dash'-ing), v. to come, 
rush, or strike with swiftness and vio- 
lence ; to frustrate ; to ruin ; to mix ; 
to execute rapidly : n. a violent move- 
ment ; the mark ( — ). dash'-ing, adj. 
spirited ; lively ; hasty ; impetuous. 
dash'— board, n. a board or leathern 
apron in front of a carriage to keep off 
splashes of mud. [Dan. daske, to slap.] 

das'-tard, n. one who basely or meanly 
shrinks from danger ; one who does base 
actions in a mean, underhand fashion. 
das'-tard-ly, adj. [Sc. dastr, ex- 

da'-ta, h. (pi. of da'-tum), facts given or 
admitted, esp. such as give a basis for 
reasoning or calculation. [L. datum, 
pi. data, given <do, I give.] 

date, n. the time when an event happened ; 
time generally : v. (da'-ted, da'-ting), 
to put a date to. da'-ta-ble, adj. 
date'— line, n. a meridian line, 180° E. 
or W. of Greenwich, on which the day 
is supposed to begin or end. E. of this 
line the day is dated one day earlier than 
on the W. of it. out-of-date, adj. 
old-fashioned, up— to— date, adj. on a 
level with (or quite according to) the 
times ; modern. [F.<L. datum, some- 
thing given.] 

date, n. the fruit of the date-palm. [F. 
datte<h. <Gr. daktiilos, a finger.] 

daub (daubed, daub '-ing), v. to smear ; 
to paint coarsely : n. a smearing ; an 
inferior painting, daub'-er, n. one who 
daubs; an inferior painter. [O.F.<L. 
dealbo, I whitewash <albus, white.] 

daugh'-ter (daw'-), n. a female child. 
daughter-in-law, n. a son's wife. 
[A.S. dohtor.] 

daunt (-ed, -ing), v. to make afraid ; to 
discourage ; to dishearten, daunt'- 
less, adj. fearless; intrepid. [O.F.< 
L. domito, I tame.] 

dau'-phin {-Jin), n. formerly the title of 
the eldest son of the King of France ; 
-ess, ii. J. the Dauphin's wife. [F.< 
L. delphinus, a dolphin (his crest).] 

day'-en-port,u. a small writing-table [< 
a Countess of Devonport, the inventor.] 

da'-Yit (less correctly dav'-), n. a spar 
used as a crane on board ship ; in pi. a 
pair of cranes on a ship's side with tack- 
ling for raising or lowering a boat. [?] 

Da'-yy-lamp, n. a safety-lamp for use in 
mines, invented by Sir Humphrey Davy 




daw'-dle (-dl), (-died, -dling), v. to waste 
time ; to dally ; to idle about, daw'- 
dler, n. one who — . [Imitative.] 

dawn, n. daybreak ; first appearance ; 
beginning : v. (dawned, dawn'-ing), to 
become day ; to become clear (to the 
mind). [A.S. dagian<dceg, day.] 

day (da), n. the time from morning to 
night ; a time or period, dai'-ly, adj. : 
adv. :n. (pi. -ies).anewspaperpublished 
every day. day '-break, n. the beginning 
of day. day'-light, n. day'-star, n. 
the morning star. day'-time,n. day'— 
book, n. (in book-keeping) a book in 
which money transactions are entered 
(during the day) as they occur, day'— 
dream, n. a vain fancy ; a reverie ; a 
castle in the air. days of grace, three 
days allowed for the payment of a bill of 
exchange, etc., after it becomes due. 
days of obligation, festival days upon 
which ltom. Caths. are bound to attend 
mass, name — , the festival of a saint 
after whom a person is called ; a day 
named on which certain transactions (on 
the Stock Exchange) are to be completed. 
to gain (or win) the — , to be victorious. 
a rainy — , a time of hardship, necessity, 
or misfortune. [A.S. dceg, day.] 

daze (dazed, da'-zing), v. to stupefy ; to 
stun ; to bewilder. [Scand. dasa, to 
lie idle.] 

daz'-zle (-zled, -zling), v. to overpower 
with light ; to confound with brilliancy, 
beauty, or cleverness. [See daze.] 

D.C.L., Doctor of Civil (or of Canon) Law. 

D.D., Doc'-tor Divin-i-ta' -tis [L.] = 
Doctor of Divinity. 

de-, pre/. [L.] down ; from. 

dea'-con, n. an assistant clergyman rank- 
ing below a priest ; (in some chapels) one 
who attends to the business affairs of the 
place of worship and to the wants of the 
poor, and advises the minister, dea'- 
con-ess, n.f. a woman who assists the 
clergy, esp. in attending to the poor and 
sick. [L.<Gr. diakoiios, a server.] 

dead (ded), adj. without life ; useless ; 
inactive ; cold and cheerless ; sure and 
complete, the dead, n. those who have 
ceased to live, dead'-ly, adj. causing 
death ; like death, dead'-li-ness, t*. 
dead'-en (-ened, -en-ingj, v. to mike 
dead ; to dull, dead-alive, adj. dull ; 
uneventful, dead— be at, a dj. quite over- 
come, dead'-head, n. one who obtains 
privileges(as admission to a theatre, etc.), 

without paying for them ; a " sponge." 
dead-heat', u. a race in which several 
arrive together, so that no one wins. 
dead— let' -ter, u. one that cannot be 
delivered owing to defective address ; 
anything which has lost its force or 
authority, dead— letter office, a depart- 
ment of the Post-office which deals 
with dead-letters, dead'— lock, n. such 
a confused state of things that no pro- 
gress can be made, dead men's shoes, 
an advantage to be derived from the 
death of some one. dead— slow, adj. (of 
a ship) nearly motionless, dead weight, 
a heavy or oppressive burden, dead- 
wind, n. a wind directly opposed to a 
ship's course, a — language, a language 
not now spoken (as Latin), a — level, 
anything perfectly level or equal ; mo- 
notony, a — march, solemn march 
music played at a funeral. [A.S. dead."} 

deaf (def), adj. unable or unwilling to 
hear, deaf -en (-ened, -en-ing), v. to 
make deaf, deaf'-ness, n. deaf- 
mute, n. one — and dumb. [A..S. deaf .2 

deal (dealt (delt) deal'-ing), v. to distri- 
bute ; to do business : n. a part ; a dis- 
tribution ; a fir or pine board ; (in busi- 
ness) a secret bargain made by parties 
for their mutual benefit. deal'-er, n. 
one who deals ; a trader, deal'-ing, n. 
distribution ; act of business. [A.S. 
dsel, apart.] 

dean (den), n. the clergyman in charge of 
a cathedral, dean'-er-y, n. the resi- 
dence of a — , or the district under his 
care, rural dean, one who, under the 
bishop, has the supervision of certain 
parishes in a deanery, dean and 
chapter, the governing body of a cathe- 
dral. [O.F.<L. decanus< decern, ten. 
A dean is, etymologically, one who is set 
over ten others ] 

dear (der), adj. beloved; of high price; 
costly : n. dearth (derth), n. a state of 
dearneas (high prices), scarcity, or 
famine. [A.S. deore, beloved.] 

death (deth),n. the state of being dead; 
manner of dying ; decease ; demise. 
death'— duty, n. a duty or tax payable 
to the government by the heir on the 
property left by a person at his death, 
if more than £100. death'-less, adj. 
not subject to death; immortal, death'- 
ly, adj. death'— rate, n. the proportion 
of persons in every 1,000 who die in one 
year, death'— roll, n. a list of persons 




who have died, death'— trap, n. a 
building so unsafe, or a condition so 
serious, that escape from — is almost 
impossible, in at the — , (in hunting) 
to be up to the animal before it is killed 
by the dogs. [A S. death.] 

de-ba -cle (dd-bd' kl) n. a sudden break- 
ing up (esp. of ice in a river) ; a hasty 
flight or stampede ; a sudden downfall. 
[F. debacle <debdcler, to unbar, <L. 
baciiluin, a stall ] 

de-bar' (-barred', -bar'-ring), v. to ex- 
clude ; to shut out (from). [F.<L. 

de-base' (-based', -ba'-sing), v. to lower; 
to degrade ; to adulterate, de-base- 
ment, n. [L. <7e- + base.] 

de-bate' (-ba'-ted, -ba'-ting), v. to dis- 
cuss ; to argue ; to reason out : n. de- 
ba'-ta-ble, adj. liable to be disputed. 
de-ba'-ter,?i.onewho — . [F.debattre ] 

de-bauch' (-bauched', -bauch'-ing), v. 
to corrupt in mind, manners, or morals ; 
to be intemperate : n. a fit of intem- 
perance, etc. deb-au-chee' {-she'), n. 
one given to debauchery, de-bauch'- 
er-y, n. {pi. -ies), drunkenness ; excess. 
[F. debaucher.] 

de-ben' -ture, n. a document acknowledg- 
ing a debt, or borrowed money, upon 
which a certain amount of interest is 
agreed to be paid ; a written security, of 
the nature of a mortgage, given by a 
joint-stock company for money raised in 
addition to the capital subscribed by the 
shareholders, and bearing a fixed rate 
of interest, the payment of which is a 
first charge on the undertaking. The 
persons holding these bonds, or deben- 
ture-stock, are called debenture- 
holders. [L. debeo, I owe.] 

de-bil'-i-ty (-i-tl), n. weakness (of health 
and body) ; loss of energy or of power. 
de-bil'-i-tate (-ta-ted, -ta-ting), v. to 
make weak. [L. debttis, weak.] 

deb'-it, n. a sum put down as debt : v. 
(-ed, -ing), to charge with debt ; to 
enter on the debtor side of an account. 
[L. debeo, I owe.] 

deb-o-nair' (-ndr'), adj. elegant ; of easy 
manners and appearance. [F. de bon 
air, of good air (appearance).] 

de-bouch' (-bouched',-bouch'-ing),v. to 
march or issue forth from a narrow pass 
(often said of troops). [F. deboucher.] 

de'-bris (dd'-bre), n. s. and pi. remains ; 
ruins ; rubbish ; the result Of ruin. 

[F. debris.] 

debt (det),n. what is owing, either money, 
goods, or services ; an obligation or 
duty, debt'-or, n. one who owes. 
debt of honour, a debt not recognized 
by law. but binding in honour, esp. 
betting and gambling debts, debt of 
nature, death. National Debt, money 
borrowed by the go vernment of a country 
from private individuals and not yet re- 
paid. [L. debeo, I owe.] 

de-but' (dd-bu'), n. a first appearance, or 
attempt, in public. de-bu-tant',n. m., 
-tante', n. f. one who makes his (or 
her) debut. [F. debut.] 

Dec., December. 

dec'-a- (dek'-d-), a pref. in the Metric 
System = ten. [Gr. delca, ten.] 

dec'-ade, n. a period of ten years. [F. < 
L.<Gr. delca, ten.] 

de-ca'-dence, n. a falling away ; decay. 
de-ca'-dent, adj. decaying ; deteriora- 
ting. [L. de- + cadence.] 

dec'-a-gon (dek'-d-), n. a plane figure 
with ten equal sides and angles. [Gr. 
delca, ten+ gonia, an angle.] 

dec'-a-gram or -gramme, n. a weight 
(in the Metric System) of 10 grams = 
0*355 oz. (about \ oz.). £Gr. delca, ten 

dec'-a-li-tre {-le-), n. a measure (in the 
Metric System) of 10 litres (about 2£ 
gallons). [Gr. delca, ten + litre.] 

dec'-a-logue (dek'-a-log),n. the Ten Com- 
mandments. [Gr. delca, ten + logos, 
a word.] 

dec'-a-me-tre, ». a measure (in the 

* Metric System) of 10 metres (about 32£ 
feet). [Gr. delca, ten + metre.] 

de-camp' (-camped', -camp'-ing), v. to 
hurry off ; to go away (quickly and 
secretly), de-camp' -ment, n. [F.< 
L. de- hcamp.] 

dec'-a-nal (dek'-d- or de-kd'-), ** belong- 
ing to a dean or deanery, de-ca'-ni, 
adj. pertaining to a dean, decani side, 
the south side of choir stalls, opposed to 
cantoris, q.v. [<dean.] 

de-cant' (-ed, -ing), v. to pour gently 
from one vessel to another (esp. wine, 
etc., from a bottle) and leave the sedi- 
ment behind, de-can'-ter, n. a vessel 
to hold decanted liquor (esp. wine). 
[F. decanter.] 

de-cap'-i-tate (-ta-ted, -ta-ting), v. to 
behead. de-cap-i-ta'-tion,n. [ 
+ caput, the head.] 




dec'-a-pod, n a shell-fish with ten feet 
(as the crab). [Gr. delta, ten, pons 
(podos), a loot.] 

de-cay' (-cayed', -cay'-ing), v. to fall 
away ; to waste away ; to decline ; to 
rot ; to perish : n. gradual failure of 
health, strength, soundness, prosperity, 
etc. [F.<L. de- + cddo, I fail.] 

de-cease' (-ceased', -ceas'-ing), v. to 
cease to live ; to die : n. death. [F.< 
L. decessus, departure.] 

de-ceiYe' (-sev'), (-ceiyed', -ceiv'-ing), 
v. to mislead intentionally ; to cheat ; 
to impose upon, de-ceit' (set'), n. that 
which deceives, de-ceit'-ful, adj. de- 
ceit'-ful-ness, n. de-ceiy'-er, n. one 
who — ; an impostor, de-cep-tion 
(sep'shun), n. cheating. [O.F.<L. 
declpio, I deceive.] 

De-cem'-ber {-sem'-), n. the last (twelfth) 
month of the year (formerly the tenth). 
[L. decern, ten.] 

de'-cent (sent), adj. becoming ; proper ; 
modest; respectable, de'-cen-cy (si), 
n. de'-cent-ly, adv. [F.<L. deceits, 

de-cen'-tral-ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. to 
withdraw from direct connection with a 
central authority, de-cen-tral-i-za'- 
tion, n. [L. de--f centralize.] 

de-cep'-tion. See deceive. 

dec'-i- (des'-i-), a pre/, in the Metric Sys- 
tem = one-tenth. [L. declmus, tenth.] 

de-cide' (-sid'), (-ci'-ded,-ci'-ding), v. to 
determine ; to resolve ; to settle ; to 
end ; to form a definite opinion on ; to 
judge, de-ci'-ded, adj. settled ; clear; 
unmistakable, de-ci'-ded-ly, adv. de- 
ci'-sion (sizh'-un), n. a settling ; an 
opinion, de-ci'-siye (si'-siv), adj. 
deciding; final. [F <~L.decido, I decide] 

de-cid'-u-ous (sid'-u-us), adj. falling; 
(tree or plant) whose leaves fall in the 
autumn. [F.<L. deciduus<de- + cado, 
I fall.] 

dec'-i-mal (des'-l-), adj. by tens: n. a 
fraction reckoned by tenths ; a tenth part. 
dec'-i-mal-ly,adt>. [F.<L. decern, ten] 

dec'-i-mate (des'-i-), (-ma-ted, -ma- 
ting), v. to destroy a large number or 
part (as though one in ten). [L. decern, 

de-ci'-pher (sl'-fer), (-phered, -pher- 
ing), v. to find the key to ; to unravel ; 
to explain. [L. de-+ cipher.] 

deck (dek), (decked, deck'-ing), v. to 
cover ; to clothe ; to adorn ; to embel- 

lish : n. the flooring of a ship, three, 
etc.— decker, n. a ship with three, etc. 
decks, quarter-deck, n, the part of the 
deck of a ship abaft the main-mast (i.e., 
towards the stern) . main'— deck, n. the 
uppermost of the decks reaching from 
stem to stern . poop'— deck, n . a — form- 
ing the roof of a cabin at the stern end 
of a ship, to clear the decks, to get 
ready for action, to sweep the — , to 
brush aside all opposition. [D. dekken, 
to cover.] 

deck'-le, n. (in paper-making) a contriv- 
ance for determining the size of the 
sheet, deckle'-edge, n. the raw, uncut 
edge of the paper shaped by the deckle. 
[G. Decke, a cover.] 

de-claim' (-claimed', -claim'-ing), v. to 
make a set speech ; to cry down, de- 
claim'-er, n. one who — . dec-la-ma'- 
tion, n. de-clam'-a-to-ry (-a-to-ri), 
adj. [L. de- + cldmo, 1 cry out.] 

de-clare' (-clared', -cla'-ring), v. to 
make known ; to assert ; to decide in 
favour of. dec-la-ra'-tion (-la-ra'- 
shun), n. a statement. [F.<L. declare 
<de- + clams, clear.] 

de-clen'-sion (-shun), n. a declining ; a 
falling away from excellence ; a slope ; 
a descent ; a class of nouns (esp. in G., 
L., and Gr.). [See decline.] 

de-cline' (-clined', -cli'-ning), v. to bend 
or fall away ; to refuse (politely) ; to 
lessen ; to waste away : n. a falling 
away ; decay ; (in disease) consumption. 
dec-li-na'-tion (-Z2-), n. a falling away ; 
the distance (in degrees) of a heavenly 
body from the celestial equator. [F.< 
L. de- + clino, I bend.] 

de-cliy'-i-ty (-i-ti),n. a slope downwards. 
[F.<L. de- + cllvus, a slope.] 

de-coct' (-ed, -ing), v . to prepare by boiling 
de-coc'-tion, n. an extract got by boil- 
ing. [L. decoquo < de- + coquo, I cook.] 

de-co-he' -rer, n. (in wireless telegraphy) 
a vibrating contrivance for restoring the 
coherer (q.v.) to its normal state after a 
current has passed through it. [L. de- 
+ coherer.] 

de-c<>l-Ie-te' (da-kol-luh-td' or da-kol- 
td'), adj. (of a dress) low-necked. d6- 
col-le-tage' (-tdzh'), n. [F.] 

de-com-pose' (-posed', -po'-sing), v. tc 
separate (a compound) into its com- 
ponent parts ; to decay ; to rot. de- 
com-po-si'-tion, n. — ; putrefaction. 
[F.<L. de-+compose.] 




dec'-o-rate (-ra-ted, -ra-ting), v. to 

beautify ; to adorn ; to honour with a 
badge or medal, dec-o-ra'-tion, n. 
Drnamentation ; a mark of honour. 
dec'-o-ra-tiye, adj. dec'-o-ra-tor, n. 
one who — . [L. decoro, I adorn.] 

de-co'-rous (-rus or dek'-or-us). adj. be- 
coming; decent; proper. de-co'-rum,n. 
what is becoming or proper in behaviour 
or speech. [L. decorus, becoming, 

de-cor'-ti-cate(-^-), (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), 
v. to take the bark off ; to peel. [L. de- 

' + cortex, bark.] 

de-coy' (-hoy'), (-coyed',-coy'-ing), v. to 
lead into a trap ; to ensnare : n. that 
which, or one who, ensnares, deeoy'— 
duck, n. a wild duck, or other bird, 
tamed and trained to entice others into 
a snare ; one who decoys. [F. <L. de- 
+ coy.] 

de-crease' (-creased', -creas'-ing), v. to 
become or make less ; to impair ; to 
lower ; to diminish gradually : n. [F. 
<L. de- + cresco, I increase.] 

de-cree', n. an order ; an edict ; a law ; a 
sentence : v. (-creed', -cree'-ing), to 
determine, de-cree ni'-si (nl'-si),n. 
a legal judgement (esp. one dissolving a 
marriage) which becomes absolute (that 
is, has force) after so long unless cause is 
shown to the contrary, de-cre'-tal, n. 
an order or decree (esp. of the Pope). 
[F <L. decenw, I decide ; decree.] 

de-crep'-it, adj. worn out ; wasted by age. 
de-crep'-i-tude, n. [L. decrepltus, 
very old, infirm.] 

de-cre-scen'-do (-shen'-), [I.<L. de- + 
crescendo], a musical term denoting 
decreasing in sound or loudness. 

de-cry' (-cried', -cry'-ing), v. to cry 
down ; to try to lessen the value of ; to 
censure. [L. de- + cry.] 

ded'-i-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to set 
apart (esp. for sacred purposes) ; to 
devote; to inscribe, ded-i-ca'-tion, n. 
ded'-i-ca-tor, n. [L. dedico<de- + 
dico, I speak, declare.] 

de di'-e in di'-em, [L.] from day today. 

de-duce' (-duced', -du'-cing), v. to draw 
from; to infer; to obtain or arrive at as 
the result of reasoning, de-du'-ci-ble 
(•sl-bl), adj. able to be deduced, de- 
duct' (-ed, -ing), v. to take from ; to 
subtract, de-duc -tion, n. an inference 
or conclusion ; what is taken away. [L. 
de--\-duco, I lead.] 

deed, n. something done ; an act ; a 
written agreement or undertaking, in 
deed, in reality. [A.S. dxd, deed< 
dun, to do.] 

deem (deemed, deem'-ing), v. to think ; 
to judge; to suppose, deem'-ster or 
demp'-ster, n. a judge (one of two) in 
the Isle of Man. [A.S. deman, to judge.] 

deep, adj. going far down ; difficult to 
understand ; secret ; artful : n. the sea ; 
something not easily perceived or under- 
stood, deep'-en (-ened, -en-ing), v. to 
make deep or deeper ; to intensify. 
deep'— laid, adj. deeply laid ; very art- 
ful, deep— seated, adj. firmly rooted ; 
having a strong hold. [A.S. deop, deep.] 

deer, n. a quadruped of the stag kind. 
deer'— stalk-ing (stale-), n. the hunting 
of deer (see stalk). [A.S. deor, a deer.] 

de-face' (-faced', -fa'-cing), v. to dis- 
figure ; to destroy the surface of ; to 
obliterate, de-face'-a-ble, adj. de- 
face'-ment, n. [F.<L. de--{- face.] 

de fad -to [L.] really ; in actual fact. 

de-fal'-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to 
take away (esp. money, dishonestly). 
de-fal-ca'-tion, n. — ; the amount 
embezzled, def '-al-ca-tor, n. one who 
— . [L. de-+falx, a sickle.] 

de-fame' (-famed', -fa'-ming),v. to take, 
or try to take, away the good name of ; 
to speak evil of ; to slander, def-a- 
ma'-tion, n. de-fam'-a-to-ry (-jam'- 
a-to-ri), adj. slanderous. [F.<L. de- 
+ fame.] 

de-fault', n. omitting to do what duty or 
law requires (esp. in money matters) ; 
neglect ; omission, de-f ault'-er, n. one 
who is in default (c*j). on the Stock 
Exchange, or in a Court of Justice) ; one 
who fails to appear in court, judge- 
ment by — , judgement given against a 
person who fails to plead or to attend 
the court. [F.<L. de- + fault.] 

de-feat' (-ed, -ing), v. to overcome ; to 
cause to fail ; to subdue : n. [F.<L. 
dis-+facio, 1 do] 

de-fect', n. a deficiency ; a failing ; a 
want ; a blemish ; a fault, de-fec'- 
tion, n. a falling away or abandoning (a 
person or cause) ; a failure in duty. 
de-fec'-tiye (-tic), adj. incomplete ; im- 
perfect. [L. defectus < de- +fdcio, I do.] 

de-fence', n. the aci of defending, or the 
state of being defended ; protection ; 
that which defends ; justification ; the 
reply of a defendant to a charge, first 




line of — , the royal navy, second 
line of — , the army. [See defend.] 

de-fend' (-ed, -ingj, v. to guard ; to pro- 
tect ; to keep off anything hurtful ; (in 
law) to resist a claim ; to uphold against 
argument, de-fend' -ant, n. one sued 
at law. de-fend'-er, n. de-fen'-siye 
(slv), adj. used for protection : n. 
Defender of the Faith, a title of the 
(Sovereign of Great Britain, abbreviated 
to F.D. or Fid. Def., q.v. on the 
defensive, in a state or position of 
defending oneself. [F.<L. defendo, I 

de-fer' (-ferred', -fer'-ring), v. to put 
off; to delay, de-fer '-rer, u. one who 
— . deferred annuity, one to be paid 
after a certain time has elapsed. 
deferred pay, an allowance to a soldier 
on his discharge, or to his relatives on 
his death, deferred share, one upon 
which interest is not paid until a speci- 
fied time.[l«\<L. dis-+fero, I bear.] 

de-fer' (-ferred', -fer'-ring), v. to give 
way (to the feelings, wishes, or judge- 
ment) of another, def'-er-ence, n. 
regard; respect, def-er-en'-tial (slial), 
adj. respectful in manners or bearing. 
[F.<L. de-+fero, I bear.] 

de-fi'-cient (-fislt'-ent), adj. wanting (in) ; 
imperfect, de-fi'-cien-cy, n. a lack ; a 
defect, def'-ic-it {-iss-}, n. a falling 
short ; shortness of income as compared 
with expenditure. [L. dejicio, I fail or 
fall short ] 

de-file' (-filed', -fi'-ling), v. to pollute. 
de-file' -ment, n. pollution ; unclean- 
ness. de-fi'-ler, n. [F.<L. de-+A.S. 
fy'-lan, to defile.] 

de-file' (-filed', -fi'-ling), v. to march in 
fde or line : n. a long, narrow pass. 
[F. dejiler<~L. dis-+filum, a thread.] 

de-fine' (-fined', -fi'-ning), v. to bound ; 
to limit ; to name ; to explain accurately. 
de-fi'-na-ble (-na-), adj. able to be 
defined, def'-in-ite (-it), adj. well 
defined ; exact ; certain, def'-in-ite- 
ly, adit, def-i-ni'-tion (-nish'-im), n. 
an exact description (in words), de- 
fin'-i-tive (-l-tiv), adj. limiting ; exact ; 
positive. [F.<L. de-+ftnU, end.] 

def -la-grate (-gra-ted, -gra-ting), v. 
to burn down (with sudden flame) ; to 
consume, def-la-gra'-tion, n. d-ef '- 
la-gra-tor, ». [L. dejlagro, I burn 

de-flect' (-ed, -ing), v. to turn or bend 

aside ; to divert, de-flec'-tion (better 
de-flex'-ion),n. [L de-+ flee to, I bend] 

de-fo-li-a'-tion, n. the falling off of 
leaves. [L. de- -{-folium, a leaf.] 

de-for'-est (-ed, -ing), v. to clear away 
forests, de-for-es-ta'-tion, n. [L. de- 
+ forest.] 

de-form' (-formed', -form'-ing), v. to 
disfigure; to damage, de-for-ma'-tion, 
ft, de-formed', adj. misshapen, de- 
for'-mi-ty (ml-tl), n. defect ; ugliness. 
[F.<L. de- + forma, shape, beauty.] 

de-fraud' (-ed, -ing), v . to cheat ; to 
withhold wrongfully, de-fraud'-er, n. 
[F.<L. de-+f rails, fraud.] 

de-fray' (-frayed', -fray'-ing), v. to pay 
(expenses), de-fray '-al, n. de-fray '- 
ment,?i. [O .F . deafrayer <, 
a fine.] 

deft, adj. handy ; skilful ; clever, deft'- 
ly, adv. cleverly, deft'-ness, n. [A.S. 
yedcefte, mild, gentle.] 

de-funct', adj. dead ; deceased : n. a dead 
person. [L.<de-+fun(jor, I perform.] 

de-fy' (-fied', -fy'-ing), v. to challenge ; 
to brave ; to dare ; to treat with con- 
tempt, de-fi'-ance, n. a challenge; a 
state of opposition ; a setting at nought 
of rule and authority, de-fi'-ant, adj. 
de-fi'-er, n. [F. d£jier<h. dis-+fido, 
I trust.] 

deg., degree. 

de-gen' -er-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
fall off in quality (esp. of race, kind) ; to- 
be or grow worse : adj. low ; mean ; un- 
worthy ; base : n. a person or thing that 
has degenerated, de-gen' -er-a-cy (-a- 
sl), n. state of being — . de-gen-er-a'- 
tion, n. [L. de-+yenus, race.] 

de-glu-ti'-tion (-tis)i'-wi), n. the act or 
power of swallowing. [F.<L. de- + 
gliitio, I swallow.] 

de-grade' (-gra'-ded, -gra'-ding), v. to 
lower in grade, rank, character, or posi- 
tion ; to dishonour ; to disgrace, de- 
gra'-ded, adj. deg-ra-da'-tion, n. 
[F.<L. de- + gradus, rank.] 

de-gree', n. a step ; rank ; grade ; pro- 
portion ; a title of proficiency gained by 
examination at a university ; the 3G0th 
part of a circle ; 00 geographical miles ; 
the intervals on the scale of a thermom- 
eter (indicating units of temperature), 
and on a barometer (indicating units of 
atmospheric pressure). [F. degre<h. 
de-+gradus, a step.] 

de-hu'-man-ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. to 




deprive of feelings of pity, tenderness, 
or love, for humanity in general. [L. 
de-+ human.] 

de-hy'-drate (-dra-ted, -dra-ting), v. 
(in chem.) to remove the water from a 
compound, de-hy-dra'-tion, n. [L. 
de- + Gr. hudor, water.] 

de'-i-fy (-fled, -fy-ing), v. to make a god 
of. de-if-i-ca'-tion, n. [F. <L. deus, 
Godi+Jacio, I make.] 

deign (dan), (deigned, deign' -ing), v. to 
condescend ; to esteem worthy ; to grant. 
[F.<L. dignor<dignus, worthy.] 

De'-i gra'-ti-a, or D.G., [L.] = bythe 
grace of God. 

de'-ist, n. one who believes in the exist- 
ence of God, but rejects religion as 
revealed in the Bible, de'-ism (-izm), 
n. the belief of a deist, de-is'-tic, or 
-tic-al, adj. [L. deus, God.] 

de'-i-ty (-l-tl), n. (pi. -ties), a god. the 
Deity, God, the Supreme Being. [F. < 
L. deus, Ged.] 

de-ject' (-ed, -ing), v. to cast down (esp. 
the spirits of some one) ; to discourage ; 
to dishearten, de-ject '-ed, adj. in low 
spirits ; sorrowful, de-jec -tion, n. 
state of being dejected. [L. de-+jdcio, 
I throw.] 

de- j ec ' - ta, n . pi. things cast off (as feathers 
in moulting). [L. de--\-jdcio, I throw.] 

de-jeu-ner' (dd-zhuh-nd'), [F.] break- 
fast ; sometimes an early luncheon. 

de ju-re, [L.] by right. 

Del., Delaware, U.S.A. 

de-laine', n. a fine kind of muslin formerly 
made of wool, now of wool and cotton, 
used for ladies' dresses. [F. < L. de lana, 
from wool.] 

fle-lay' (-layed', -lay'-ing), v. to put off 
(for a time) ; to prolong ; to defer ; to 
stop ; to hinder : n. procrastination ; 
lingering ; inactivity, de-lay'-er, n. 
[F. <L. dildtus<differo, I put off, 

le-lec -ta-ble (-td-bl), adj. delightful ; 
very enjoyable, de-lec-ta'-tion, n. 
[F.<L. delecto, I delight.] 

lel'-e-gate (-ga-ted, -ga-ting), v. to send 
as a representative ; to entrust : n. a 
person so delegated ; an agent ; a repre- 
sentative, del'-e-ga-cy (st), n. a com- 
mittee ; (in Oxford University) a per- 
manent committee appointed to manage 
some special branch of University busi- 
ness, del-e-ga'-tion, n. [L. de- + lego, 
I send as representative.] 


de-lete' (-le'-ted, i»le'-ting), v. to blot 
out; to erase, de-le'-tion, w. [L.deleo, 
I efface, destroy.] 

del-e-te'-ri-ous (-rl-us), adj. injurious; 
harmful ; poisonous. [Gr. < dele 6 mai, 
I injure.] 

delf, or delft, n. a kind of earthenware. 
[Originally made at Delft, formerly 
Del/, a town in Holland.] 

de-lib'-er-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
weigh well in the mind ; to consider 
carefully ; to hesitate in deciding : adj. 
carefully considered ; slow in deciding ; 
well-advised ; not sudden or rash, de- 
lib' -er-ate-ly, adv. de-lib-er-a'-tion, 
». de-lib'-er-a-tiye, adj. for delibera- 
ting. [L.delibero<de--\-libro, I weigh.] 

del'-i-cate, adj. pleasing ; fine ; slender ; 
tender ; scrupulous ; frail (in health). 
del'-i-ca-cy, n. (pZ.-cies), something 
refined or pleasing ; a luxury (esp. food). 
[L. delicdtus, delightful.] 

de-li'-cious (-lish'-us), adj. very pleasing 
to the taste or feelings, de-li'-cious- 
ness, n. [F.<L. delicice, pleasure.] 

de-light' (-lit'), n. great joy ; extreme 
satisfaction ; that which gives pleasure 
or satisfaction : v. (-ed, -ing), v. to 
cause or give great pleasure to. de- 
light'-ed, adj. de-light'-ful, de- 
light' -some, adjs. causing delight. 
[O.F.<L. delecto, I delight.] 

de-lim'-it (-ed, -ing), v. to set bounds or 
limits to. de-lim-i-ta'-tion, n. [L. 
de--\-llmes, a boundary.] 

de-lin'-e-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
describe by lines ; to draw, paint, or 
sketch ; to explain in words, de-lin- 
e-a'-tion, n. de-lin'-e-a-tor, n. one 
who — . [L. delineo < de- ■+ llnea, a line.] 

de-lin'-quent, n. a wrong-doer ; a culprit : 
adj. failing in duty, de-lin'-quen-cy, 
n. wrong-doing. [L. delinquo<de- + 
linquo, I leave.] 

-cing), v. to absorb moisture from the 
air and become liquid, del-i-ques'- 
cence, w. del-i-ques'-cent, adj. [L. 
deliquesco, I melt away.] 

de-lir'-i-um, n. a fever of the brain, 
causing wandering of the mind ; mental 
disorder; great mental excitement ; wild 
enthusiasm, de-lir'-i-ous (-i-us), adj. 
wandering in mind, de-lir'-i-um tre'- 
mens, a brain disorder brought on by 
the long and excessive use of strong 
drinks. [L. deliro, I am crazy, mad.] 




de-liy'-er (-ered, -er-ing), v. to set free ; 
to rescue ; to release ; to hand over ; to 
speak (an address), de-liy'-er-ance, 
n. — ; the manner of speaking ; a judge- 
ment delivered ; a verdict. de-liY'-er- 
er, n. one who — . de-liy'-er-y, n. 
(pi. -ies), the act of releasing, liberating, 
or rescuing ; surrendering ; distribution 
(as of letters) ; manner of speaking ; 
utterance ; the act or manner of deliver- 
ing a ball at cricket. [F.<L. delibero, 
I set free.] 

dell, n. a dale ; a short, narrow valley. 
[From the root of dale.] 

Del'-phi-an (-ft-), Del'-phic, adjs. of or 
belonging to the famous ancient Greek 
oracle at Delphi, in Greece ; oracular. 

del'-ta, n. the 4th letter of the ancient 
Greek alphabet (A) ; the space enclosed 
by the mouths of a river, and in shape 
like that letter, del'-toid, adj. of tri- 
angular shape, like a delta, deltoid 
muscle, the large triangular muscle of 
the shoulder. 

de-lude' (-lu'-ded, -lu'-ding), v. to 
deceive ; to mislead ; to trick ; to flatter. 
de-lu'-der, n. de-lu'-sion (-zkun), n. 
deception ; an error (of the mind), de- 
lu'-siYe, adj. [L. deludo, I mock at.] 

del'-uge, n. a great flood of waters (esp. 
that described in Genesis vii., viii.) ; a 
very heavy downpour of rain ; an exceed- 
ingly large quantity (as if a flood) : v. 
(-uged, -u-ging), to overwhelm with 
water ; to inundate. [F . < L . diluvium , 
a flood.] 

de luxe (de liiks), luxurious ; exceed- 
ingly comfortable ; of high quality. [F.] 

delye (delyed, del'-Ying), v. to dig ; to 
labour (as a drudge) . del'-Yer, n. [A.S. 
delfan, to dig.] 

de-mag'-ne-tize (-tized, -ti-zing), v. to 
deprive of, or free from, magnetic power 
or influence, de-mag-ne-ti-za'-tion, 
n. [L. de- + magnetize.] 

dem'-a-gogue (-gog), n. a leader of the 
people ; a political agitator who sways 
or influences people by plausible words 
in order to obtain power for himself or 
his party. £F.<Gr. demagogos <demos, 
the people + a#o, I lead.] 

de-mand' (-ed, -ing), v. to ask earnestly ; 
to claim ; to require ; to call for : n. 
de-mand'-er, n. [F.<L. demando< 
de--\-mando, I entrust.] 

de-mar-ca'-tion, or -ka'-, n. a boundary 
or fixed limit ; separation. [Sp.<L.] 

de-mean' (-meaned', -mean'-ing), v. to 

behave or conduct oneself ; to lower 
(oneself), de-mean'-our (-ur),n. behav- 
iour ; conduct ; bearing. [F.<L. de- + 
minor, I threaten.] 

de-ment'-ed, adj. afflicted with loss of 
memory, reason, or will (partial or com- 
plete), or with mental derangement. 
de-men ' -ti (-tl), or de-men'-tie (-te), 
n. a denial, de-men'-ti-a (-shi-a), n. 
state of being — . [L. de- + mens, mind.] 

de-mer r -it, n. ill-desert ; fault. [L. de- 
+ merit.] 

de-mesne' (-men'), n. an estate in land 
(esp. that attached to a manor-house) ; 
any estate. [See domain.] [q.v. 

demi-, pref. [L.] half, as in dem'-i-god, 

dem'-i-god, n. a half-god, or an inferior 
deity; a fabulous hero. [L.demi- + god.] 

dem'-i-john, n. a glass bottle with large 
body and small neck enclosed in wicker- 
work. [F. dame- jeanne."] 

de-mise' (-row 1 ), n. death ; transfer (of an 
estate, esp. by will) : v. (-mised', -mi'- 
sing), to bequeath. [O.F. demise <L. 
dis- + mitto, I send.] 

de-mo '-bil-ize (-«), (-ized, -i-zing), v. 
to break up and disarm a body of troops. 
[L. de--}- mobilize.] 

de-moc'-ra-cy (-ra-si), n. a government 
by the people ; a form of government in 
which the supreme power is retained by 
the people, but exercised through their 
representatives ; the common people. 
dem'-o-crat, n. a supporter of democ- 
racy, dem-o-crat'-ic, adj. [Gr. demo- 
cratia < demos, the people + kratos, 
strength, rule.] 

de-mo-de (da-), adj. [F.] out of fashion. 

de-moi-selle' (de-nnvah-zeV), n. a young 
lady ; a kind of dragon-fly. [F.] 

de-mol'-ish (-ished, -ish-ing), v. to pull 
down ; to destroy ; to lay in ruins. 
dem-o-li'-tion (-lish'-un), n. [F. 
demolir<\- moles, amass, aheap.] 

de'-mon, n. an evil spirit, de-mo'-ni-ac, 
n. one possessed by an evil spirit : adj. 
de-mo-ni'-ac-al, adj. de-mon-ol'-a- 
try, n. the worship of evil spirits, de- 
mon-ol'-o-gy, n. a book or knowledge 
concerning evil spirits. [L. dcemon< 
Gr. daimon, a spirit.] 

de-mon'-strate (or dem'-on-), (-stra- 
ted, -stra-ting), v. to show, prove, or 
point out clearly, dem-on-stra '-tion, 
n. a proof; an exhibition, de-mon'- 
stra-tive (-tlv), adj. making evident; 




proving with certainty; showing one's 
feelings strongly, dem'-on-stra-tor, 
n. one who — . [L. demonstro<de- + 
monstro, I shew.] 

de-mor'-a-lize (-lized, -li-zing), v. to 
corrupt (morals) ; to deprive of confidence 
(as troops) ; to throw into confusion. 
de-mor-a-li-za'-tion,n. [P. < + 
mores, manners, morals.] 

de'-mos, n. the people (regarded as a 
whole) ; the democracy, de-mot'-ic, 
adj. pertaining to the people. [Gr. 
demos, the people.] 

demp'-ster. See deemster. 

de-mul'-cent (-se7it), adj. soothing; 
softening : n. a soothing medicine. [L. 
de-+mulceo, I caress, soothe.] 

de-mur' (-murred', -mur'-ring), v. to 
hesitate ; to object ; to take exception : 
n. stop ; objection, de-mur'-rage, n. 
damages paid for undue delay (esp. of a 
ship in port, railway- waggons in a siding, 
etc.). de-mur'-rer, n. one who — ; a 
motion for delay on a point of law. [F. 
<L. de- + moror, I delay.] 

de-mure', adj. reserved ; modest; staid; 
grave, de-mure'-ly, adv. [O.F.<L. 
de- + mores, manners.] 

de-my', n. (pi. -mies') (-miz'), a size of 
paper (about 22£ by 17£ inches) ; a 
foundation scholar (pro. de-mi') at 
Magdalen (pro. mo'-dlin) College, Ox- 
ford. \h. demi-<dimidium, half.] 

de-nat'-u-ral-ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. to 
make unnatural ; to deprive of the 
acquired rights of citizenship in a 
country. [L. de- + natural.] 

de-na-tu'-rent, n. something used to 
adulterate a substance so as to render it 
unfit for use as food (as wood-naphtha 
added to alcohol to form ' methylated 
spirits '). [L. de- ( = dis-) + nature.] 

den'-gue (-gd),n. an infectious, epidemic 
fever in warm countries. [Sp. <an E. 
African word.] 

de-ni'-a-ble, de-ni'-al. See deny. 

den'-i-zen, n. a dweller ; an inhabitant 
(human or animal). [O.F.<L. de intus, 
from within.] 

de-nom'-i-nate (-na-ted, -na-ting), v. 
to give a name to ; to call ; to designate. 
de-nom-i-na'-tion, n. a name ; a title ; 
a class or society of individuals called 
by the same name, de-nom-i-na'- 
tion-al, adj. de-nom'-i-na-tiye, adj. 
de-nom'-i-na-tor, n. the lower 
number in a vulgar fraction, which tells 

into how many parts the unit is divided. 
[L. de-+nomen, a name.] 

de-note' (-no'-ted, -no'-ting), v. to 
mark ; to point out ; to signify ; to stand 
for. de-no-ta -tion, it. [F.<L. denote 
<de-+nota, a mark.] 

denouetnen t(da-noo' -man) , n. the wind- 
ing-up of a plot (esp. in a drama or tale) ; 
conclusion. [F. denouer, to untie a 
knot, <L. de- + nodus, a knot.] 

de-nounce' (-nounced', -noun'-cing), v. 
to speak against (esp. publicly) ; to 
accuse strongly, de-nounce'-ment, //. 
de-noun' -cer, n. de-nun-ci-a'-tion, 
n. act of — . de-nun'-ci-a-to-ry, adj. 
[F.<L. de-+mtncio, I announce.] 

de nou-veau (de noo-vo'), [F.] anew; 

de no'-vo, [L.] anew ; again. 

dense, adj. thick ; close ; compact ; firm ; 
solid; dull (of intellect), dense'-ness, 
n. den'-si-ty (-si-ti), n. — ; the pro- 
portion which the quantity of matter in 
a body bears to its bulk or volume, when 
compared with some standard unit. 
[L. densus, thick.] 

dent, n. a mark or notch (usu. made by a 
blow) : v. (-ed, -ing). [See dint.] 

dent'-al, adj. belonging to the teeth. 
den'-tate, or den'-ta-ted, adj. toothed 
or notched (said of leaves), den'-ti-cle, 
n. a small tooth, den-tic-u-la-ted, 
adj. toothed or notched (small), den'- 
ti-frice (-ti-fris), n. a powder or other 
substance used for cleansing the teeth. 
den'-tine (or -tin), n. the substance, 
under the enamel, of which the teeth 
are formed, den'-tist, n. one who 
attends to the teeth ; a tooth-doctor. 
den'-tist-ry, n. the art of the dentist. 
den-ti'-tion (-tish'-un), n. the cutting 
or growing of teeth (esp. in infancy). 
[F.<L. dens, a tooth.] [[F.] 

den-telle' (den-teV or dah-tel'), n. lace. 

de-nude' (-nu'-ded, -nu'-ding), v. to 
strip ; to lay bare, de-nu-da'-tion, n. 
laying bare (esp. the wearing away of 
rocks by water and atmospheric action). 
[L. de- + 7iiidus, naked.] 

de-nun-ci-a'-tion. See denounce. 

de-ny' (-nied', -ny '-ing), v. to say " no " ; 
to refuse to grant ; to disown ; to con- 
tradict; towithbold. de-ni'-a-ble, ad;. 
able to be denied, de-ni'-al, n. the act 
of denying, de-ni'-er, n. one who — . 
[F.<L. de-+ne~go, I deny.] 

de'-o-dand, n. an animal (as a horse) or 




an object which had accidentally caused 
the death of a human being, and was 
thenceforth forfeited to the king to be 
devoted to God, i.e., put to some pious 
use, e.g., sold, and the money given to 
the poor. [L. Deo clandus, to be given 
to God.] 

de'-o-dar, n. a kind of Indian cedar. 
[Sa. deva-ddru, divine tree.] 

de-o'-dor-ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. to take 
the odour or smell from, de-o'-dor- 
i-zer, n. [L. de- + odour.] 

Z)e'-o#ra'-f/-as, [L.] thanks (be) to God. 

De'-o vo-len-te, [L.] God willing. 

de-part' (-ed, -ing), v. to go away ; to 
quit or leave ; to die. de-part'-ed, adj. 
gone away ; dead, de-par'-ture, n. the 
act of going away ; deviation ; death. 
a new departure, a change of purpose, 
method, orcourse of action. [F departir 
<L. dis--\-partior, I divide, distribute.] 

de-part'-ment, n. a part or portion ; a 
division ; a branch ; a separate part of 
a business ; one of the principal divisions 
of executive government (as the War — ). 
de-part-men'-tal, adj. of, from, or 
pertaining to a — . de-part-men'-tal- 
ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. to divide into 
departments. [See depart.] 

de-pend' (-ed, -ing), v. to hang down or 
from ; to be connected with ; to rely 
upon or trust in. de-pend -a-ble, adj. 
able to be relied on. de-pen'-dant, n. 
one who relies on another ; a follower 
or servant, de-pen'-dence, n. reliance ; 
trust, de-pen' -den-cy, n. a country or 
district subject to another, de-pen'- 
dent, adj. relying upon. [F.<L. de--\- 
pendeo, I hang.] 

de-pict' (-ed, -ing), v. to picture out ; to 
describe carefully. [L. de-+pingo, I 

de-pil'-a-to-ry, adj. removing hair : n. 
an application for removing hairs that 
grow in undesirable places, without 
injuring the skin, de-pil-a'-tion, n. 
[F.<L. de-+pilus, a hair.] 

de-plete' (-ple'-ted, -ple'-ting), v. to 
empty; to exhaust; to reduce, de-ple'- 
tion, n. the act of depleting (esp. talcing 
hlood from the body [blood-letting] , or 
money from the treasury), de-ple'-to- 
ry, adj. [L. de-+pleo, I fill.] 

de-plore' (-plored', -plo'-ring), v. to 
weep over ; to grieve for ; to lament. 
de-plo'-ra-ble, adj. lamentable, de- 
plo'-ra-bly, adv. [F.<L. de-+pldro, 

I weep.] 

de-ploy' (-ployed', -ploy'-ing), v. to un- 
fold ; to open out or extend (as lines of 
soldiers), de-ploy '-ment, n. [F.<L. 
dis-~\-plico, I fold.] 

de-pone' (-poned', -po'-ning;, v. to give 
testimony on oath (esp. in a Scotch 
court) ; to bear witness, de-po'-nent, 
n. one who gives such testimony. [L. 
depono, I place down.] 

de-pop'-u-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to 
deprive of inhabitants, de-pop-u-la'- 
tion, n. [L. de-+populus, people.] 

de-port' (-ed, -ing), v. to carry down or 
away ; to exile ; to behave, de-por- 
ta'-tion, n. carrying away ; banishment ; 
exile, de-port'-ment, n. bearing; be- 
haviour. [F. < L. deporto, I carry down, 
I remove.] 

de-pose' {-pdz'), (-posed', -po'-sing), v. 
to put down ; to deprive (of throne) ; to 
testify ; to witness, de-po-si'-tion 
(-zish'-un), n. — ; in pi. statements 
made by a person under oath. [L. de- -+- 
F. poser, to place.] 

de-pos'-it {-poz'-), (-ed, -ing), v. to lay 
down ; to place (as money in a bank) ; 
to entrust : n. something deposited ; 
money left with a banker ; something 
left as a pledge or security, de-pos'-i- 
ta-ry, n. a person with whom anything 
is deposited ; a guardian, de-pos'-i- 
to-ry, n. a place where something is 
deposited. [L. depono, I place down.] 

dep'-ot (dep'-o), n. a store-house; the 
head-quarters of a regiment ; a goods- 
station. [F. depot <L. depono, I place 

de-praye' (-prayed', -pra'-ying), v. to 
make bad ; to corrupt, dep-ra-ya'- 
tion, n. the act of depraving, de- 
prayed', adj. made bad ; corrupt, de- 
pray'-i-ty \-l-ti), n. the state of being 
— . [L. de--\-prdvus, crooked, bad.] 

dep'-re-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to 
pray against, or to pray that something 
may not happen ; to express strong dis- 
approval of. dep-re-ca'-tion, n. strong 
expression of feeling against, dep-re- 
ca'-to-ry, adj. apologetic ; expressing 
disapproval. [L. deprecor, I pray 
earnestly ; I pray against.] 

de-pre'-ci-ate (-ski-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), 
v. to lower the value of ; to fall in value ; 
to undervalue, de-pre-ci-a'-tion, n. 
de-pre'-ci-a-tiye, adj. de-pre'-ci-a- 
to-ry, adj. [L. de-+pretium, price.] 




dep'-re-date (-da-ted, -da-ting), v. to 

plunder ; to lay waste ; to despoil. 
dep-re-da'-tion, n. dep'-re-da-tor, 
n. one who — . [L. de-+prceda, prey, 

de-press' (-pressed', -press'-ing), v. to 
press down ; to deject ; to cast a gloom 
upon ; to dispirit ; to make dull (as 
trade) ; to lessen the price of. de-pres'- 
sant, n. a medicine which lowers the 
action of the heart : adj. soothing, de- 
pressed', adj. pressed down ; low (in 
spirits). de-pres'-sion,n. state of being 
— . de-pres'-sor, n. [L. de- + press.] 

de-priye' (-priyed', -pri'-Ying), v. to 
take away from ; to rob ; to strip (of). 
de-pri-ya'-tion, n. the act of depriving 
or being deprived (esp. a clergyman of 
his living) ; loss ; want. [L. de+privo, 
I deprive.] 

depth, n. how deep (q.v.) anything is ; an 
abyss ; mystery ; profoundness, beyond 
(or out of) one's depth, in too deep 
water ; beyond one's capacity, ability, 
or understanding. [See deep.] 

de pro-fun' -dis, [L.] out of the depths 
[of sorrow or trouble] (have I cried) ; a 
cry from the heart expressing deep 
sorrow or misery; the name given to 
Psalm cxxx., from the first words (de 
profundis) of the Latin version. 

de-pute' (-pu'-ted, -pu'-ting), v. to 
appoint or send as a substitute, an agent, 
or a representative ; to delegate, dep- 
u-ta'-tion, n. a person (or persons) sent 
to speak, act, or report on behalf of 
others, dep'-u-ty, n. one appointed to 
act for another (or others) ; a represen- 
tative ; a manager in a coal mine. [L. 
deputo, I cut off (and so select).] 

de-rail' (-railed', -rail'-ing), v. to cause 
to run off the rails (as a train, car, etc.). 
de-rail' -ment, n. [L. de + rail] 

de-range' (-ranged', -ran'-ging), v. to 
put out of place, order, or rank ; to throw 
into confusion, de-ranged', n. dis- 
ordered ; insane, de-range' -ment, n. 
[F. < L. de- ( = dis-) + range.] 

der'-e-lict,ad;*. left ; forsaken ; abandoned 
^esp. of a ship wrecked at sea) : n. the 
thing abandoned, der-e-lic'-tion, n. 
abandonment (as of ship, or of any duty) . 
[L. de- + relinquo, I leave.] 

de-ride' (-ri'-ded, -ri'-ding), v. to laugh 
to scorn ; to mock ; to make fun of. 
de-ri'-sion (-rizh'-un), n. de-ri'-siye, 
adj. [L. de--\-ndeo, I laugh.] 

de ri-gueur' (duh re-gher'), [F.] indis- 
pensable ; absolutely necessary ; accord- 
ing to etiquette. 

de-rive' (-riYed', -ri'-ving), v. to draw 
or get (from) ; to deduce ; to trace the 
origin, descent, or derivation of. der- 
i-Ya'-tion, n. origin ; cause. de-riY'- 
a-tive, adj. derived from ; secondary : 
7i. what is derived ; a word derived from 
another. [L. de- + rivus, a stream.] 

der'-mis, n. the skin, der'-mal, adj. of 
the skin. [Gr. derma, the skin.] 

der'-o-gate (-ga-ted, -ga-ting), v. to 
lessen by detracting or taking away ; to 
annul in part; to disparage, der-o-ga'- 
tion, n. de-rog'-a-to-ry, adj. detract- 
ing ; injurious ; disrespectful. [L. de- 
+ rogo, I ask.] 

der'-rick, n. a kind of crane ; a form of 
scaffolding. [< Derrick, a London 
hangman who lived about 1600 ; the 
word was first applied to the gallows.'] 

der'-ring— do, n. daring actions ; desperate 
courage, {daring to do."} 

der'-Yish, or der'-Yis, n. a poor, solitary, 
Mohammedan monk. [P. daricish, poor] 

des'-cant, n. a song in parts ; a discourse : 
v. (-ed, -ing). [L.dis- f cantns,& song.] 

de-scend' (-send'), (-ed, -ing), v. to climb 
down ; to come lower ; to be derived 
(from one generation to another) ; to 
alight ; to fall upon or invade, de- 
scend'-ant, n. an heir ; offspring, de- 
scent', n. act of descending ; slope ; 
birth; lineage; derivation. [F.<L. 
de- + scando, I climb.] 

de-scribe' (-scribed', -scri'-bing), v. to 
write about ; to give an account of ; to 
sketch, de-scrip '-tion, n. — ; sort, 
class, or kind, de-scrip'-tiye (-tir), 
adj. [L. de- + scrlbo, I write.] 

de-scry' (-scried', -scry'-ing), v. to dis- 
cover by the eye ; to see [esp. from a 
distance). [< describe.] 

des'-e-crate (-cra-ted, -era-ting), v. to 
divert from a sacred purpose or use ; to 
profane ; to put to an unworthy use. 
des-e-cra'-tion, n. des'-e-cra-tor, //. 
[L. de--\-sdcer, sacred.] 

de-serf (-zert'), (-ed, -ing), v. to leave ; 
to forsake ; to run away (esp. from the 
army or navy), des'-ert (dez'-), n. a 
desolate, lonely, or barren place ; a 
wilderness, de-sert'-ed (-zert'-), adj. 
forsaken ; empty, de-serf -er (-zert'-), 
n. one who deserts or quits a service 
without permission (as a soldier or 




sailor), de-ser'-tion (-zer'-shun), n. act 
of deserting; wilful abandonment of 
any moral or legal duty or obligation. 
[F.<L. desero, I forsake <de- + sero, I 
bind together.] 

de-serye' (-zero'), (-served', -ser'-ying), 
v. to be worthy of ; to merit ; to earn 
by service, de-serts' (-zerts'), n. pi. 
what one deserves. [F.<L. de- + servio, 
I serve.] 

des-ha-bille' (ddz-d-beV), (commonly 
dis ' -h a-bille, q . v . ) , n. condition of being 
in undress, or of not being fully or prop- 
erly dressed ; careless or untidy state 
of dress ; a loose morning dress. [F.] 

des'-ic-cate (or de-sic'-), (-ca-ted, -ea- 
ting), v. to dry ; to dry up ; to exhaust 
of moisture, de-sic'-cant, or de-sic- 
ca-tiye, adj. : n. an application that 
tends to dry up sores, des-ic-ca'-tion, 
n. [L. desicco<de- + siccus, dry.] 

de-sid -er-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting),v. to be 
in want ; to desire earnestly, de-sid '- 
er-a-tiye, adj. de-sid-er-a'-tum, n. 
(pi. -ta), something very much desired, 
or wanted, or required. [L. desldero, 
I desire earnestly.] 

de-sign' (-zln'), (-signed', -sign'-ing), v. 
to plan out ; to draw ; to intend : n. a 
drawing or sketch ; a plan in outline ; 
a scheme formed in the mind ; a plot ; 
an intention, de-sign'-ed-ly, adv. on 
purpose, de-sign'-er, n. one who — . 
de-sign' -ing, adj. artful ; scheming 
(often in a bad sense). [F.<L. designo 
<de- + signum, a mark.] 

des'-ig-nate (dez'-), (-na-ted, -na-ting), 
v. to point out ; to name : adj. named. 
des-ig-na'-tion, n. [See design.] 

de-sire' (-zlr'), (-sired', -si'-ring), v. to 
long for ; to wish for ; to request ; to 
ask : n. de-si'-ra-ble, adj. able or fit 
to be desired, de-si-ra-bil'-i-ty (-i-ti), 
n. the quality of being desirable, de- 
si'-rous (-rus), adj. desiring (of) ; wish- 
ful (for). [F.<L. desldero, I long for, 
regret, or miss.] 

de-sist ' (-ed, -ing), v. to leave off ; to stop. 
de-sis'-tance (or -tence), n. [L. de- 
-\-sisto, I stand still.] 

des'-o-late, adj. lonely ; dreary ; deserted ; 
laid waste ; gloomy ; comfortless : v. 
(-la-ted, -la-ting), to lay waste, des- 
o-la'-tion, n. des'-o-la-tor, n. [L. 
de- + solus, alone.] 

des-pair' (-paired', -pair'-ing), v. to be 
without, or to give up, hope : n. state of 

being without hope, des'-per-ate, adj. 
without hope ; reckless, des-per-a'- 
tion, n. [L. de- + spero, I hope.] 

des-patch' (-pacli 1 ), more correctly dis- 
patch' (-patched', -patch'-ing), v. to 
send away ; to perform speedily ; to 
finish ; to put to death : n. a message ; 
speed ; a sending away in haste ; the 
sending off of the mails, despatches, official messages, des-patch'-er, 
n. despatch-boat, n. a swift govern- 
ment vessel for carrying despatches. 
despatch—box, n. a box or case for con- 
taining official messages and letters 
(often sent by a special messenger). 
pneumatic despatch-tube, a tube 
through which letters, telegrams, and 
parcels are sent by means of a current 
of compressed air. happy despatch, a 
jesting name for the Japanese hara-kiri, 
q.v. [O.F.<L. dis- +pedica, a fetter.] 

des-per-a'-do (-a'- not -d'-).n. (pi. -dos 
or -does), a desperate fellow ; one fear- 
less of the consequences of mad or foolish 
actions. [Sp.< root of desperate.] 

des-pise' (-plz'), (-pised', -pi'-sing), v. 
to have contempt for or low opinion of ; 
to scorn, des'-pi-ca-ble (not de-spik'-) 
adj. deserving to be despised ; worthless ; 
mean. [F.<.L. despicio <de- + specio, 
I see.] 

de-spite', n. great contempt, malice, or 
spite: v. (-spi'-ted,-spi'-ting),to show 
despite to ; to treat with despite, de- 
spite'-ful, adj. de-spite'-ful-ly, adv. 
in despite of, in spite or defiance of. 
[See despise.] 

de-spoil' (-spoiled', -spoil'-ing), v. to 
take from by force ; to spoil completely ; 
to rob. de-spoil'-er,n.onewho — . de- 
spo-li-a' -tion, n. [F. < L. de- -f spolium, 

de-spond' (-ed, -ing), v. to lose hope or 
courage ; to be cast down by failure ; to 
despair, de-spond' -ence, or -en-cy, 
n. de-spond' -ent, adj. hopeless. [L. 
despondeo <de- + spondeo, I promise.] 

des'-pot, n. an absolute ruler ; a tyrant. 
des-pot'-ic, or -ic-al, adj. possessing 
(and often abusing) unlimited power; 
tyrannical ; arbitrary ; overbearing. 
des'-pot-ism,w. the rule of a despot. [F. 
<L.L. despotus < Gr. despotes, a master] 

des-sert' (de-zerV), n. fruit, pastry, or 
sweetmeats served at the end of a meal. 
dessert— knife, —spoon, —plate, ns. 
medium-sized articles for table use. 




des-sert'-spoon-ful,n. (pL-fuls). [F. 
<desservir, to clear the table <L. dis- + 
servio, I serve.] 

des -tine (-tin, not -tin), (-tined, -tin- 
ing), v. to fix (by fate) ; to doom ; to 
intend ; to purpose, des-ti-na'-tion, 
n. a place or object to be reached, or for 
which any one is bound, des'-ti-ny, 
n. unavoidable fate ; lot ; doom ; neces- 
sity ; what is fated to happen. [F.< 
L. destino<de- + sto, I stand.] 

des'-ti-tute,ad/\ left quite alone ; outcast ; 
in utter want, des-ti-tu'-tion, n. [L. 
de--\-stdtuo, I place.] 

de-stroy' (-stroyed', -stroy'-ing), v. to 
make an end of ; to ruin ; to lay waste. 
de-stroy' -er, n. one who destroys ; 
short for torpedo— boat destroyer, a 
vessel of high speed, specially designed 
and armed for the pursuit and destruc- 
tion of torpedo-boats, de-struc'-ti-ble, 
adj. able to be destroyed, de-struc'- 
tion, n. the act of destroying, de-struc'- 
tive (-tiv), adj. causing destruction ; 
mischievous ; ruinous ; deadly. de- 
struc'-tor, n. an apparatus for destroy- 
ing refuse by burning. £F.<L. de- + 
struo, I build.] 

des'-ue-tude (-we-), n. being no longer 
used; disuse. [L. desuetudo<de- + 
suesco, I am accustomed.] 

des'-ul-to-ry, adj. by fits and starts ; 
without method ; careless ; aimless. 
des'-ul-to-ri-ly, adv. [L. de- + salio, 
I leap.] 

de-tach' (-tached', -tach'-ing), v. to 
undo ; to separate ; to send off on special 
service, de-tach'- a- ble, adj. capable 
of being detached ; easily taken off (or 
put on again), de-tach '-ment, n. a 
separation ; a separated part (esp. of 
troops or of a fleet). [F. detacher.] 

de-tail' (-tailed', -tail'-ing), v. to 
describe, minutely ; to appoint for a par- 
ticular service (esp. in the army or navy). 
de'-tail, n. a small part ; one point of a 
description; an item, de- tailed', adj. 
giving full particulars ; minute, in 
detail, item by item; minutely. [F. 
detailler < tattler , to cut.] 

de-tain' (-tained', -tain'-ing), v. to hold 
or keep back ; to stop ; to keep in 
custody, de-tain'-er, n. one who — . 
de-ten'-tion, n. the act of detaining ; 
confinement; delay. [F.<L. de- + 
teneo, I hold.] 

de-tect' (-ed, -ing), v. to discover ; to find 

out ; to bring to light, de-tec' -tion, n. 
de-tec'-tiye (-tiv), adj. discovering : n. 
one whose special occupation is the 
detection of criminals, de-tec'-tor, n. 
one who — ; (in wireless telegraphy) the 
same as "coherer," q.v. [L. de- + 
tego, I cover.] 

de-tent', n. a catch for locking or unlock- 
ing ; something to check motion. [See 

de-ten'-tion. See detain. 

de-ter' (-terred', -ter'-ring), v. to hinder; 
to prevent ; to discourage (esp. by fear 
of consequences, risk, etc.). de-ter'- 
rent, adj. and n. [L. deterreo<de--\- 
terreo, I frighten.] 

de-ter' -gent (-jent), adj. cleansing ; puri- 
fying : n. a substance (as soap) or a 
medicine having a strong, cleansing 
property. [L. de- + tergo, I wipe.] 

de-te'-ri-o-rate (-ra-ted,-ra-ting),t. to 
become worse in quality (said of char- 
acter, goods, etc.). de-te-ri-o-ra'-tion, 
n. [h. deterior, worse.] 

de-ter' -mine (-min), (-mined, -min-ing), 
v . to resolve ; to fix ; to settle (in the 
mind) ; to bring to a close ; to ascertain 
definitely ; to influence, de-ter-min- 
a'-tion, n. end ; resolution ; fixedness 
of purpose, de-ter'-mined (-mind), 
adj. resolved; resolute. [L. dc--\- ter- 
minus, a boundary.]* 

de-test' (-ed, -ing), v. to hate very much ; 
to abhor. de-tes'-ta-ble,ad;'. extremely 
hateful ; abominable, de-tes-ta'-tion, 
7i. [F.<L. de- + testor, I bear witness.] 

de-throne' (-throned', -thro'-ning), v. 
to remove from a throne ; to depose, de- 
throne'-ment, n. [L. de- + throne.] 

det'-o-nate (-na-ted, -na-ting), v. to 
explode (with loud noise), det'-o-na- 
ting, adj. (said esp. of certain powders). 
det-o-na'-tion, n. det -o-na-tor, n. 
that which detonates. [L. de- + tono, I 

de-tour' (de-toor'), n. a going round; a 
roundabout or circuitous way or course. 
[F. detour."} 

de-tract' (-ed, -ing), v. to draw or take 
away (esp. merit, credit, or value) ; to 
defame, de-trac'-tion, n. de-trac- 
tor, n. (/. -tress), one who — . [F.<L. 
de--\-traho, I draw.] 

de-train' (-trained', -train'-ing), v. to 
alight (or cause to alight) from a railway- 
train (said esp. of troops) [L. de- -f train] 

det'-ri-ment, n. loss ; damage ; injury. 




det-ri-men'-tal, adj. causing detri- 
ment ; mischievous; hurtful. [F.<L. 
de- + tero, I rub.] 

de-tri'-tus, n. matter washed or worn off 
from solid substances (esp. rocks). [L. 
de- + tero, I rub.] 

de trop (duh tro'), [F.] superfluous; not 
wanted ; better away than present. 

deuce (dus), n. a playing card, or a die, 
with two spots. [F.<L. duo, two.] 

Deu-ter-on'-o-my, n. the fifth book of 
the Old Testament, containing an 
account of the second delivery of the 
Law. [Gr. deuteros, second -fnomos, 

dey'-as-tate (-ta-ted, -ta-ting), v. to 
lay waste ; to plunder, dev-as-ta'- 
tion, 11. [L. de--\-vasto, I lay waste.] 

de-vel'-op (-oped, -op-ing), v. to unfold 
gradually ; to open up ; to promote the 
growth or progress of ; (in photography) 
to cause the picture to become visible ; 
to produce or give forth . de- v el ' -op-er, 
n. one who — ; any chemical used to 
bring out the image on a photographic 
plate. de-Yer-op-ment, n. [?] 

de'-Yi-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to wander 
from the right course ; to err ; to vary. 
de-vi-a'-tion, n. de'-yi-ous (-vi-us), 
adj. out of the right course. [L. de- + 
via, a way, road^] 

de-vice'. See devise. 

deY'-il,n. the enemy of mankind ; a very 
wild or mischievous per-on ; a machine 
for tearing up rags ; one who does work 
for another (esp. for an artist or a lawyer) 
for little pay, which work the employer 
passes off as solely his own. devil- 
may-care, adj. reckless ; heedless. 
deY'-il-ry, n. very wicked or reckless 
course of action, devil's advocate, 
one who brings forth accusations against 
personal character ; one who pleads a 
cause that he knows is wrong. [L. < 
Gr. diabolos, the slanderer.] 

de-Yise' {-viz'), (-Yised', -vi'-sing), v. to 
plan ; to contrive ; to invent ; to leave 
by will (to). de-Yice', n. something 
devised; an emblem ; a motto. [F.< 
L. divido, I divide.] 

de-Yoid', adj. empty (of) ; destitute ; free 
from. [F.<L. dis--f Yoid.] 

de-Yoir' (duh-vwar'),n. duty ; obligation ; 
an act of civility or respect. [F. devoir 
<L. debeo, I owe.] 

de-Yolve' (-Yohred', -Yol'-Ying), v. to 
hand down ; to deliver over ; to pass 

over to any one (as a duty). deY-o-lu'- 
tion, n. the act of rolling or passing 
down ; the delivering or passing over to 
another ; the handing over of executive 
powers by a central authority to a local 
one. [L. de- + volvo, I roll.] 

de-Yote' (-Yo'-ted, -vo'-ting), v. to set 
apart or dedicate ; to give up wholly. 
de-Yo'-ted, adj. given up, as by a vow ; 
strongly attached ; zealous. de-Yo'- 
tion, n. consecration ; giving up the 
mind to the worship and service of God ; 
piety ; strong affection or attachment ; 
zealousness. deY-o-tee', n. a very 
devout person ; an earnest follower. 
de-Yo'-tion-al, adj. relating to devotion 
[L. de- + voveo, I vow.] 

de-YOur' (-Youred', -Your'-ing), v. to 
eat greedily ; to enjoy intensely ; to 
consume or waste ; to destroy, de- 
Your'-er, n. [F.<L. de--\-voro, I 
gulp down.] 

de-YOut', adj. devoted to religion ; pious ; 
earnest. de-YOut'-ly, adv. de-YOut'- 
ness, n. [See deYOte.] 

dew, n. moisture deposited from the air 
on cool surfaces, esp. at night : v. dew'- 
lap, ii. the loose fold of skin falling over 
the throat (esp. of oxen), dew'-point, 
n. the degree of temperature at which 
dew begins to form, dew'-y, adj. 
[A..S. deaic] 

dex'-ter, adj. of the right hand, dex- 
ter' -i-ty, n. skill and ease in using the 
hands ; expertness ; readiness and skill ; 
adroitness, either mental or manual. 
dex'-ter-ous, adj. skilful ; expert ; 
clever. [L. dexter, the right hand.] 

dex'-trin (less correctly -trine), (-trin, 
not -trin), n. a soluble, gummy sub- 
stance into which starch is converted 
by the action of heat, acids, or diastase ; 
British gum. [F.<L. dexter.] 

dey (da), n. the title given to the former 
governors of Algiers. [F. <T. dai."\ 

D.F. SeeF.D. 

D.G., De-i' gra'-ti-a, [L.] by the Grace of 
God. De-o' gra'-ti-as, thanks (be) to God. 

dho'-bi (do' -be), n. an Indian washer- 
woman. [Hind, dhobi."} 

dhoo'-ley, or -lie, or -ly (doo'-li), n. a 
covered litter. [Hind, doli."] [[Ar.] 

dhow (doiv), n. an Arab sailing-vessel. 

dhur'-ra. See dur'-ra. 

di-, dis-, pref. [Gr.] two ; double. 

dia-, di-, pref. [Gr.] through. 

di-a-be'-tes (-tez), n. a serious internal 




disease, di-a-bet'-ic (or -be' -tic), adj. 
[Gr. dia- + baino, I go.] 

di-a-bol'-ic, or -ic-al, adj. of the devil ; 
very wicked. [See devil.] 

diab'-o-lo (dydb'-), n. a very ancient Jap- 
anese game of skill, in which a small 
spool, formed of two cones joined at their 
apexes like an hour-glass, is made to 
rotate on (or is jerked from) a string 
held between two short sticks, one in 
each hand, diab'-o-list, n. [F.<I. 
< (?) Gr. diaballo, 1 throw over.] 

di-ach'-y-lon (-ak'-i-), or -lum, n. a 
plaster, commonly called sticking- 
plaster, used in medicine. [Gr. dia- + 
chulos, juice.] 

di-ac'-on-al, adj. of a deacon, q.v. di- 
ac'-o-nate, n. the office of a deacon. 
[See deacon.] 

di'-a-dem, n. an ornamental fillet worn as 
a symbol of royalty ; a crown. [F.<L. 
<Gr. diadema, a fillet.] 

di-aer'-e-sis (di-er'-e- ovdl-e'-re-), n. the 
division of one syllable into two ; a 
mark (••) placed over the latter of two 
vowels, to show that each is to be pro- 
nounced separately (as, aeriform). [F. 
<L.<Gr. di-+haireo, I take.] 

di-ag-no'-sis, n. (pi. -ses), distinguishing 
a disease by its symptoms, di-ag-nose 
(-nosed', -no-sing), v. di-ag-nos- j 
tic, adj. [Gr. dia-+ gnosis, enquiry.] 

di-ag'-o-nal, n. a straight line joining 
opposite angles (as of a square, or of a 
parallelogram) : adj. crossingat an angle. 
[F. < L. < Gr. dia--\-gonia, an angle.] 

di'-a-gram, n. a figure ; a plan ; a draw- 
ing in outline, di-a-gram-mat'-ic, 
adj. in the nature of a diagram ; showing 
by a diagram. [Gr. dia- + grapho, I write] 

di'-al, n. an instrument for telling the 
hour of the day ; the face of a clock, 
watch, etc. (also called the dial— plate). 
[L. dies, a day.] 

di'-a-lect, n. a variety or form of a lan- 
guage ; a form of speech of a district 
having local peculiarities of words or 
pronunciation, di-a-lec'-tics, the 
art of reasoning, discussing, or arguing. 
[F.<L.<Gr. dia- + lego, I speak.] 

di'-a-logue {-log), n. a conversation 
between two or more persons. [F. <L. 
<Gr. dia--\-l5gos, a word, speech.] 

diam., diameter. 

di-am'-e-ter, n. the measure through or 
across (esp. of a circle). di-a-met'- 
ri-cal, adj. as remote as possible (as 

if at the opposite end of a diameter) ; 
as different as possible ; directly adverse 
or opposed to. di-a-met'-ri-cal-ly 
(with " opposed "), adv. [F. <L. <Gr. 
dia- + metron, a measure.] 

di'-a-mond, n. the most valuable of all 
precious stones ; a figure with four equal 
sides, but with two acute and two obtuse 
angles ; a suit of playing cards ; a pure 
form of carbon, crystalline and trans- 
parent, black diamond, n. a name 
sometimes given to coal, rough dia- 
mond, n. a diamond in its natural state 
before it is cut and polished ; a person 
of good qualities and character, but of 
unpolished manners, diamond cut — , 
an equal match in sharpness, wit, cun- 
ning, etc. glazier's — , n. a small 
splinter of diamond (not cut and polished) 
fixed in a handle, for cutting glass. [F. 
<L. <Gr. addmas, adamant {q.v.)."] 

di-a-pa'-son (-zun), n. a whole octave (of 
musical notes) ; harmony of notes ; the 
two foundation-stops of an organ. [L. 
<Gr. diapason, through all.] 

di'-a-per, n. a linen fabric with a woven 
pattern repeated ; any similar pattern. 
[F. diapre.] 

di-aph'-an-ous (-af-an-us), adj. allowing 
light to pass through ; transparent ; 
clear. [Gr. dia-+p]taino, I shew.] 

di'-a-phragm (-/ram), (not di-af-), n. the 
muscle which divides the chest from the 
abdomen ; the midriff ; the vibrating 
disc in a telephone receiver which trans- 
mits the sound to the ear ; a thin metal 
plate, with a hole in the centre, used in 
cameras, microscopes, telescopes, etc., 
to cut off side-rays of light in order to 
get a clear focus. [F.<L.<Gr. dia- + 
phragnia, a fence.] 

di-ar-rhce'-a (-re 1 -), n. looseness of the 
bowels. [L. < Gr. dia- + rheo, I flow.] 

di'-ar-y (-1), n. (pi. -ies), a daily record 
of events ; a journal, di'-ar-ist, n. one 
who keeps a — ; one who keeps records. 
[L. diet, a day.] 

di'-as-tase (-tds), n. a peculiar ferment 
found in germinating grain and saliva, 
having the power of turning starch into 
dextrin and sugar. [Gr. diastasis, 

di-as'-to-le (not dl'-a-stbl), n. the dila- 
tion of the heart (opposed to systole). 
[Gr. dia--\-stello, I send.] 

di'-a-tom, n. one of the lowest order of 
plant-life (algae) living in fresh and salt 




water. [Gr. diatomos, cut in two.] 

di-a-ton'-ic, adj. applied to the natural 
scale of music, containing tones and 
semi-tones. [Gr. dia- + tonos, a tone.] 

di'-a-tribe, n. a long speech as part of a 
disputation ; a bitter and violent attack 
or criticism upon some person or work. 
[F.<L.<Gr. dia- + trlbo, I rub, wear.] 

dice, n. pi. of die, q.v. 

dick'-y, n. a leather apron for a gig, etc. : 
the driver's seat in a carriage ; a seat 
for a servant at the back of a carriage ; 
a false shirt-front. [? D. dek, a cover.] 

di-cot-y-le'-don (-i-le'-), n. a plant whose 
seeds divide into two seed-lobes or cot- 
y-le'-dons, in sprouting. [Gr. di-+ 
kotule, a cup.] 

diet., dictionary. 

dic'-ta. See dictum. 

dic-tate' (-ta'-ted, -ta'-ting), v. to tell 
another what to say or write ; to speak 
as a superior ; to order, dic'-tate, n. 
an order, rule, or direction ; a principle 
or maxim ; an impulse (as of the mind). 
dic-ta'-tion,n. dic-ta'-tor,n. — ; one 
invested for a time with absolute author- 
ity, dic-ta-to'-ri-al, adj. like a dic- 
tator ; overbearing. [L. dlco, I speak.] 

dic'-tion, ». manner of speaking ; choice 
of words and expressions. [F. <L. dlco, 
I speak.] 

dic'-tion-a-ry, n. a book containing the 
words of a language arranged alphabeti- 
cally, with meanings. [F.<L. dlco, I 

die -to-graph, n. a kind of loud-speaking 
telephone, so arranged that the listener's 
hands are free to write down what is 
spoken. [L. dlco, I speak -f Gr. g raph o, 
I write.] 

dic'-tum, 11. (pi. -ta), a saying (implying 
authority) ; a command ; an opinion ; 
in pi. things said ; common sayings. 
obiter dicta, casual sayings; things said 
by the way. [L. dictum<dlco, I say.] 

di-dac'-tic, adj. relating to teaching (esp. 
of moral lessons) ; instructive. [Gr. 
didasko, I teach.] 

didn't, short for did not. 

didst, not did'st. 

die (died, dy'-ing), v. to cease to live ; to 
perish ; to become lost or extinct ; to 
vanish, to — away, or down, to dis- 
appear gradually, to — hard, to 
struggle hard against death or difficul- 
ties, to — out, to become extinct, to 
— game, to maintain a bold, resolute 

spirit to the last, to — in the last 
ditch, to die rather than surrender. 
 [Ic. deyja.] 

die, n. (pi. dice), a small cube used 
(thrown) in games of chance, the — 
is cast, the last chance is taken ; there 
is no opportunity for drawing back, die, 
n. (pi. dies), a stamp for impressing 
coins, etc. [F. de<L. datum, given.] 

di'-es i'-rss (dl'-ez I' -re, or de'-dz e'-rd), 
[L.] day of wrath ; the Judgement-day ; 
the two first words of a Latin hymn. 

di'-es non, [L.] (in law) a day on which 
no business is done (as Sunday). 

di'-et, n. food ; course of feeding : v. 
(-ed, -ing), to feed (or cause to feed) by 
rule, di'-e-ta-ry, n. a fixed allowance 
of food ; a system of feeding, di-e-tet'- 
ics, that department of medicine - 
which relates to feeding. [F.<L.<Gr. 
diaita, mode of living.] 

di'-et, n. an imperial (German) assembly. 
[(?) L. dies, a day.] 

Dieu et won droit (dyuh a moii drwa), 
[F.] God and my right. 

dif -fer (-fered, -fer-ing), v. to be un- 
like ; to disagree, dif -fer-ence, n. 
not being the same ; disagreement ; 
variation, dif'-fer-ent, adj. not the 
same (used with from, not to). [F.<L. 
dis-+fero, I bear.] 

dif-fer-en'-tial (slial), adj. making, or 
marking, a difference ; special, dif- 
ferential duties, duties, unequal in 
amount, levied upon the same product 
imported from different countries, dif- 
v. to mark the difference between ; to dis- 
tinguish by a difference. \_See differ.] 

dif '-fi-cult, adj. not easy ; hard to per- 
form, manage, or please, dif '-fi-cul-ty, 
n. — ; disagreement. [F.<L. difficllis, 

dif'-fi-dent, adj. wanting confidence in 
oneself (and sometimes in others) ; bash- 
ful ; shy. dif'-fi-dence, n. lack of con- 
fidence. [L diffldo, I distrust.] 

dif-fuse' (-juz'), (-fused', -fu'-sing), v. 
to pour out ; to spread out in all direc- 
tions ; to spread abroad, dif-fuse' 
(-fits'), adj. spread out; scattered; 
copious ; wordy, dif-fu'-sion (-zhuri), 
n. [L. diffundo, I pour out or forth.] 

di-gest' (-ed, -ingj, v. to dissolve in the 
stomach ; to think over ; to arrange 
methodically ; to soften by heat and 
moisture (cliem.). di'-gest(d*'-),n.acol- 




lection (esp. of laws) ; an arranged sum- 
mary, di-gest'-i-ble (-1-U), adj. easily 
digested, di-gest'-ion (-yun), n. di- 
gest'-iye {-iv), adj. relating to or assist- 
ing digestion. [L. dlgero, I carry 
asunder, separate.] 

dight (dit), adj. arranged ; adorned. [A.S. 
dili tan, to compose, arrange.] 

dig'-it (dij'-), n. one of the fingers or toes ; 
one of the figures to 9 by means of 
which all numbers are expressed, dig'- 
i-tal, adj. [L. digitus, a finger.] 

dig'-ni-fy (-fied, -fy-ing), v. to make 
noble ; to honour ; to exalt, dig'-ni-ty, 
n. honour ; rank, dig'-ni-ta-ry, n. one 
holding high rank (esp. in the Church or 
a municipality). [L. dignus, worthy + 
facio. I make.] 

di-gress' (dl- not di-), (-gressed', -gress'- 
ing), v . to wander from a subject ; to 
step or turn aside, di-gres'-sion 
(-gresh'-un), n. di-gres'-siye, adj. [L. 
digredior, I go aside.] 

dike, frequently, but less correctly, dyke, 
n. a trench; a bank of earth. [A.S. 
dj,c, an embankment, a ditch.] 

di-lap'-i-date (-da-ted, -da-ting), v. to 
throw down (esp. stones) ; to go to ruin ; 
to get out of repair ; to fall into partial 
ruin, di-lap'-i-da-ted, adj. broken 
down, di-lap-i-da'-tion, n. state of 
ruin. [L. di- + lapis, a stone.] 

di-late' (dl- or dl-), (-la'-ted, -la'-ting), 
v. to spread out ; to widen ; to speak at 
length, di-la'-tion, n. dil-a-ta'-tion, 
n. an enlarging. [F.<L. di--\-latus, 

dil'-a-to-ry, adj. slow; loitering; idling. 
dil'-a-to-ri-ness, n. [See dilate.] 

di-lem'-ma (dl- not di-), n. a difficult 
position between two courses ; a difficult 
position generally, on the horns of a 
— , or landed in a — , faced with two 
equally difficult alternatives. [Gr. 

dil-et-tan'-te (-td), n. (pi. -ti), one who 
has a showy and superficial knowledge 
of the fine arts ; an amateur. [I. taking 
delight (in).] 

dil'-i-gent, adj. active and industrious; 
careful and painstaking, dil'-i-gence, 
n. steady application ; a stage-coach (in 
France) [pro. de-ll-zhahs']. [F.<L. 
dlligens, careful.] 

di-lute' (dl- or dl-), (-lu'-ted, -lu'-ting), 
v. to thin or weaken by mixing (as with 
water); to reduce in strength, di-lu'- 

tion, n. dil'-u-ent, n. anything used 
for diluting. [L. dlluo, I wash away.] 

dim., diminuendo, q.v. 

dime (dim) , n. an American silver coin of 
10 cents (one-tenth dollar) and worth 
about 5d. of our money. [F.<L. 
decern, ten.] 

di-men'-sion (-shun),n. size ; extent ; (in 
pi.) measurements. [F. < L. di- + 
metior, I measure.] 

di-min'-ish (-ished, -ish-ing), v. to make 
less ; to lessen ; to subside, dim-i-nu'- 
tion, n. a growing less, di-min'-u-tiye, 
adj. undersized ; very small : n. a word 
(usu. formed from another) denoting 
smallness. £F.<L. dlmlnuo, to make 

dim-in-u-en r -do, n. (in mus.) a direction 
to let the sound gradually diminish in 
loudness. [I. <L. dlminuo, I lessen.] 

di-mis'-so-ry, adj. usu. in phrase letters 
dimissory, letters given by a bishop, 
one to a clergyman who is being trans- 
ferred to another diocese, and the other 
to the bishop of that diocese. An 
authorization to another bishop to 
ordain a candidate for Holy Orders. 
[L. dimitto, I send away.] 

dim'-i-ty, n. a stout, cotton cloth with 
ribs or figures formed in the loom. [I. 
<L.<Gr. di-+mltos, a thread.] 

dim'-mer, n. (in elec. lighting), a chok- 
ing—coil, that is, an arrangement for 
lowering lamps without putting them 
out. [A.S. dim, dark.] 

dim'-ple, n. a small hollow (esp. in the 
cheek) : v. (-pled, -pling), to mark 
with dimples. [<dip.] 

dine (dined, di'-ning), v. to have dinner ; 
to take the chief meal of the day. din'- 
ner, n. di'-ner-out, n. one who often 
dines away from home. [F. diner.'] 

din'-ghy (-gl, "g" hard), or -gy, or -gey, 
n. a small boat used in the E. Indies ; 
a ship's smallest boat. [Hind, dengi.] 

din'-gle, n. a small, narrow valley. [< 
dip.] [[Native word.] 

din' -go, n. the wild dog of Australia. 

din'-gy (-;'i), adj. soiled ; dark or dull in 
appearance. din'-gi-ness,n. [(?)dung] 

dint, n. (sometimes spelt dent), a mark 
made by a blow : v. (-ed, -ing). by 
dint of, by force of. [A.S. dynt, a blow.] 

di'-o-cese (-ses, or -sis), n. the see of a 
bishop, i.e., the district he rules over. 
di-oc'-e-san (-os'-se- or -os'-l-), adj. 
belonging to a diocese. [F.<L.<Gr. 




dioikesis, a keeping house <oikos, a 

di-op'-tric or -tric-al, adj. assisting 
vision by the refraction of light, di- 
op -tries, n. that part of optics which 
treats of the transmission of light, di- 
op'-tric system, a system, adopted in 
lighthouses, of concentrating (and thus 
intensifying) the light by transmitting it 
through a series of lenses or prisms. 
[Gr. di- + optikos, of sight.] 

di-phase', adj. having two phases, as an 
elec. current compounded of two alter- 
nating currents ; also the circuit carry- 
ing such a current or the generator 
producing it. di-pha'-ser, n. a gener- 
ator producing such a current, di-pha'- 
sic, adj. [Gr. di--\-phasis, appearance.] 

di-o-ra'-ma (-rd'-), n. an illuminated 
scene (a picture) viewed through an 
opening, di-o-ram'-ic, adj. [Gr. di- 
orao, I see through.] 

dip (dipped, dip -ping), v. to dive or 
plunge down ; to look into (as a book, 
etc.) ; to baptize by immersion : n. a 
slope downwards (of land) ; a candle 
made by dipping a wick into melted 
tallow, dip' -per, n. one who dips ; the 
name of several water-birds, as the 
water-ouzel. dipping the colours, 
lowering the ensign (flag) and hoisting it 
again as a salute, or in reply to a salute. 
[A.S. dyppan."] 

diph-the'-ri-a (dif- not dip-), n. a very 
dangerous and infectious disease, in 
which the air-passages and throat be- 
come coated with a tough skin which 
makes breathing difficuit. [Gr. diph- 
thera, leather.] 

diph' -thong (dif- not dip'-), n. two vowel 
sounds blended, in pronouncing, into one 
syllable, as "oi" in "noise." [Gr. 
diphthong os < pi ithong os, sound.] 

di-plo'-ma, n. a writing conferring some 
honour* privilege, or power, di-plo'- j 
ma-cy, n. the art of negotiation (esp. j 
among nations) ; tact, dip-lo-mat'-ic, j 
adj. skilful in negotiation ; tactful ; skil- | 
ful in managing affairs, di-plo'-mat- j 
ist (short form dip'-lo-mat), n. one I 
employed in negotiation. [L. and Gr. | 
diploma, a folded letter.] 

dip-so-ma'-ni-a, n. an excessive desire 
for strong drink. dip-so-ma'-ni-ac,n. 
a confirmed drunkard. [Gr. dipsa, 
thirst + mania, madness.] 

dip'-ter-a, n, a large class of insects 

having two wings (as flies), dip'-ter-al, 
or dip'-ter-ous, adj. having two wings. 
[Gr. di-+pteron, a wing.] 

dire, or dire '-ful, adj. dreadful. [L. 
dlrus, fearful.] 

di-rect' (dl-, not di-), adj. quite straight ; 
right ; straight forward ; sincere : v. (-ed, 
-ing), to point or aim ; to manage or 
govern ; to order ; to guide ; to put the 
address on (a letter, etc.). di-rec'-tion, 
n. course ; address, di-rect' -ly, adv. 
in a straight line ; immediately, di- 
rect'-ness, n. state of being direct, di- 
rec'-tor, n. (/. -rec' -tress), one who 
directs, i.e., manages, (esp. a trading 
company), di-rec' -tor-ate, n. a body 
of directors, di-rec '-tor-ship, n. state 
or office of a director ; time during 
which one is a director, di-rec' -to-ry, 
n. a list of names and addresses arranged 
in order, direct taxation, that which 
is levied on the persons who have to pay 
(as the income-tax), as distinguished 
from indirect taxation (as the tax on 
tobacco), which is paid directly by the 
merchant, and then indirectly by the 
purchaser. [L. dirigo, I direct, rule.] 

di-rec-toire' (di-rek-twahr'), adj. refer- 
ring to the style of dress of fashionable 
people (esp. of ladies) during the time of 
the Directory in Paris, 1795-1799. [F.] 

dirge (dirj), n. a funeral song, or one ex- 
pressing sorrow. [L. dirige, (God) 
direct (us).] 

dir'-i-gi-ble (dlr'-l-ji-bl), adj. able to be 
directed or guided (said esp. of a balloon) . 
[See direct.] 

dir'-i-gle, n. a general name for an air-ship 
of whatever kind. [See direct.] 

dirk, n. a kind of dagger (used in High- 
lands of Scotland) ; a side-arm worn by 
midshipmen and cadets of the Boyal 
Navy. [(?) Ga. duirc."} 

dirt, n. any filthy substance, dir'-ty, 
adj. not claan ; mean, dir'-ty (-tied, 
-ty-ing), v. to make dirty, dir'-ti- 
ness, n. to eat — , to submit tamely to 
humiliation or insult, to throw — at, 
to abuse. [Ic. drit."] [apart. 

dis-, di-, pref. [L.] in two ; asunder ; 

dis-a'-ble (-bled, -bling), v. to take power 
from ; to injure ; to weaken, dis-a- 
bil'-i-ty, n. want or absence of power, or 
qualification; unfitness. [L. dis- -fable] 

dis-a-buse' (-buz'), (-bused', -bu'-sing), 
v. to undeceive ; to set right. [L. dis- 
+ abuse.] 




dis-ad-van'-tage, n. an unfavourable 
position or circumstance ; loss; injury. 
dis-ad-yan-ta'-geous {-jus), adj. [L. 
dis- + advantage.] 

dis-af-fect' (-ed, -ing), v. to make dis- 
contented or unfriendly, dis- af -feet' - 
ed, adj. unfriendly ; hostile (esp. to the 
government), dis-af-fec'-tion, n. [L. 
dis- + affect.] 

dis-af-for -est (-ed, -ing), v. to exempt 
from forest laws and privileges ; to 
reduce from a forest to common ground. 
[L. dis- + ad- -f forest.] 

dis-a-gree' (-greed', -gree'-ing), v. to be 
of a different opinion ; to quarrel (with) ; 
to be unsuited (to) ; to contradict, dis- 
a-gree' -a-ble, adj. unpleasant, dis-a- 
gree '-ment, n. state of disagreeing ; a 
dispute. [L. dis- -f agree.] 

dis-al-low' \-lou'), (-lowed', -low'-ing), 
v. to refuse permission for ; to deny the 
authority of ; to reject, dis-al-low- 
ance, n. [L dis- -f allow.] 

dis-an-nuT (-nulled', -nul'-ling), v. to 
annul completely ; to render void or of 
no effect. [L. dis- (intensive) -f annul.] 

dis-ap-pear' {-per'), (-peared', -pear- 
ing), v. to withdraw from sight ; to 
vanish, dis-ap-pear' -ance, n. [L. 
dis- -f appear.] 

dis-ap-point' (-ed, -ing), v. to defeat the 
hope, the wish, the desire, or the inten- 
tion of ; to hinder of result ; to frustrate ; 
to foil, dis-ap-point' -ment, n. — ; the 
vexation following failure. [L. dis--\- 

dis-ap-prove' (-proved', -prov'-ing), v. 
not to approve or sanction ; to blame ; 
to regard as unsuitable, dis-ap-pro- 
ba'-tion, n. dis-ap-pro'-Yal, n. the 
act of — . [L. dis- + approve.] 

dis-arm' (-armed', -arm'-ing), v. to 
deprive of arms or weapons, dis-ar'- 
ma-ment, n. [L. dis -farm.] 

dis-ar-range' (-ranged', -rang '-ing), v. 
to undo an arrangement (of) ; to disorder. 
dis-ar-range' -ment, n. [L. dis- + 

dis-ar-ray' (-rayed' -ray'-ing), v. to 
fhrow into disorder ; to undress : n. dis- 
order ; confusion. [L. dis- + array.] 

dis-as'-ter (diz-), n. a great, or sudden 
misfortune ; a calamity dis-as'-trous 
(-trus), adj. [F.<L. dis- (with a bad 
sense] \ + astrum, a star<Gr. astron."] 

dis-a-vow' (-vowed', -Yow'-ing), v. to 
deny the truth of ; to refuse to acknow- 

ledge. dis-a-YOw'-al, n. [L. dis- + 

dis-band' (-ed, -ing), v. to break up (esp. 
an army) ; to disperse. [L. dis- -f band.] 

dis-be-lieve' (-leev'), (-lieYed', -lieY- 
ing), v. not to believe ; to doubt the 
truth of. dis-be-lief ' , n. doubt of the 
truth; unbelief, dis-be-liev'-er, n. 
[L. dis- + believe.] 

dis-burse' (-bursed', -bur-sing), v. to 
pay out (money) . dis-burse ' -ment, n . 
[L. dis- + bursa, a purse.] 

disc, or more correctly disk, n. the flat 
face of a round body ; the face of a coin, 
the moon, etc. [L. discus <Gr. diskos, 
a quoit.] 

dis-card' (-ed, -ing), v. to cast off ; to 
reject; to discharge. [L. dts- -f card.] 

dis-cern' (diz-ern'), (-cerned', -cern- 
ing), v. to perceive ; to judge, dis- 
cern'-er, n. one who — . dis-cern'- 
i-ble, adj. dis-cern' -ment, n. power 
of judging clearly. [L. dis- + cerno, 
I separate.] 

dis-charge' (-charged', -char'-ging), v. 
to unload ; to acquit ; to fire (as a gun) ; 
to dismiss ; to perform (as duties) ; to 
settle (an account) ; to set free : n. — ; a 
flowing out (as of matter from a sore, 
water from a tap, etc.). [L. dis- + 

dis-ci'-ple (-si'-pl), n. a learner; a fol- 
lower; a pupil. [F.<L. disclpulus< 
disco, I learn.] 

dis'-ci-pline (dis'-si-plin, not dl-slp'-), n. 
a training of the mind or manners ; 
subjection to rule, order, or control ; 
correction ; trial ; punishment : v. 
(-plined, -plin-ing). dis-ci-plin-a'- 
ri-an, n. one who enforces strict — . 
dis'-cip-lin-a-ry, adj. Books of Dis- 
cipline, two documents (1560 and 1578) 
embodying the principles of government 
for the Reformed Church of Scotland. 
[O.F <L. disciplma, learning.] 

dis-claim' (-claimed', -claim'-ing), v. 
to give up a claim to ; to refuse to own ; 
to reject, dis-claim'-er, n. one who 
— ; the act of — . [L. dts-+ claim.] 

dis-close' {-kloz'), (-closed', -clo'-sing), 
v. to bring to light ; to reveal or make 
known, dis-clo'-sure (-zhur), n. [F. 
<L. dis- -f close.] 

dis-col'-our (-oured, -our-ing), v. to 
take away or change the colour of. dis- 
col-our-a'-tion, or -or-), n. [L. dis- 
+ colour.] 




dis-com'-fit {-hum'-), (-ed, -ing), v. to 
defeat ; to rout or scatter ; to break up 
and frustrate the plans of. dis-com - 
fi-ture, n. [L. dis- + comfit.] 

dis-com' -fort, n. want of comfort or ease ; 
pain ; annoyance : v. (-ed, -ing). [L. 
dis- + comfort.] 

dis-com-pose' (-posed', -po'-sing), v. to 
disorder ; to disturb ; to agitate, dis- 
com-po'-sure (-zhur), n. [L. dis- + 

dis-con-cert' (-ed, -ing), v. to disturb ; 
to throw into disorder ; to defeat. [L. 
dis --f concert.] 

dis-con-nect' (-ed, -ing), v. to untie ; to 
separate; to detach, dis-con-nec'-tion 
(or -nex'-ion), n. [L. dis- -f connect.] 

dis-con'-so-late, adj. mournful ; sad ; 
hopeless ; filled with grief. [L. dis--\- 

dis-con-tent', n. want of content, dis- 
con-tent'-ed, adj. not contented or 
satisfied, dis-con-tent'-ment, n. [L. 
dis- + content.] 

dis-con-tin'-ue (-ued, -u-ing),t>. to leave 
off ; to cease ; to stop, dis-con-tin'- 
u-ance, n. dis-con-ti-nu'-i-ty (-i-ti), 
n. state of not being continuous or con- 
nected. [L. dis- + continue.] 

dis' -cord, n. want of harmony ; disagree- 
ment ; variance ; uproarious noise, dis- 
cor'-dance, n. dis-cor'-dant, adj. 
harsh ; jarring ; disagreeable. [F. <L. 
dis- -\- cor (cordis), the heart.] 

dis' -count, n. an allowance, or the rate of 
allowance, made for early payment of a 
debt : v. (-ed, -ing), to deduct such 
allowance ; to make an abatement of 
price ; to give less than full credit (to) ; 
to have no faith in. at a discount, 
below the standard price ; in disfavour. 
[F.<L. dis -f count.] 

dis-coun'-te-nance (-nanced, -nan- 
cing), v. to refuse support to, or approval 
of ; to discourage ; to restrain by cold 
treatment : n. unfriendly regard ; disap- 
probation. [O.F. < dis- + countenance] 

dis-cour'-age (-aged, -a-ging), v . to take 
away courage from ; to dishearten ; to 
deprive of confidence, dis-cour'-age- 
ment, n. [F <L. dis- + courage.] 

dis-course', n. a speech ; a lecture ; a con- 
versation : v. (-coursed', -cour'-sing), 
to talk or converse ; to treat of in writing 
in a formal manner ; to tell. [F.<L. 
dis - + course.] 

dis-cour-te-ous (-Jcur'-), adj. ill-man- 

nered ; rude ; uncivil, dis-cour'-te-sy 
(-kur'-) , n. [F. < L. dis- -f courteous.] 

dis-coy'-er (-ered, -er-ing), v. to uncover 
or expose ; to find out ; to make known. 
dis-coy'-er-er, n. dis-cov'-er-y, n. 
[F.<L. dis- -j- coy er.] 

dis-cred'-it, n. want of credit ; distrust ; 
disgrace : v. (-ed, -ing), not to believe ; 
to disgrace, dis-cred'-it-a-ble, adj. 
not creditable ; disgraceful. [L. dis--{- 

dis-creet', adj . prudent ; not rash nor heed- 
less; wary; cautious, dis-creet'-ness, 
n. [See discern.] 

dis-crep'-ance, or dis-crep'-an-cy {-si), 
n. want of agreement ; variance, dis- 
crep'-ant, adj. [F.<L. discrepo, I 

dis-cre'-tion {-cresh'-un), n. sound judge- 
ment ; caution. dis-cre'-tion-a-ry 
(-cresh'-un-), adj. left to a person's dis- 
cretion or judgement, age (or years) 
of discretion, the age when one is cap- 
able of thinking and judging for oneself. 
at — , according as one thinks best, to 
surrender at — , to surrender (or give 
in) without making terms beforehand. 
[See discern.] 

dis-crim'-i-nate (-na -ted, -na -ting), 
v. to distinguish between, dis-crim'- 
i-nate-ly, adv. with proper distinction. 
dis-crim-i-na'-tion, n. [See discern.] 

dis-cur'-sive (-siv), adj. passing from one 
subject or thing to another ; rambling. 
[L. discurro, I run about.] 

dis-cuss' (-cussed', -cuss'-ing), v. to talk 
about ; to argue or reason about ; to 
partake of (as food and drink), dis- 
cus'-sion (-kush'-un), n. [L. discutio, 
I scatter, disperse.] 

dis-dain' (-dan'), (-dained', -dain'-ing), 
v. to think unworthy ; to look down on ; 
to scorn : n. dis-dain'-ful, adj. dis- 
dain ' -f ul-ly , adv . [0 . F . < L . dedignor , 
I deem unworthy <dignus, worthy.] 

dis-ease' (diz-), n. a disorder or want of 
health in body or mind ; ailment ; cause 
of pain. [O.F. desaise, want of ease< 
L. dis- + ease.] 

dis-em-bark' (-barked', -bark'-ing), v. 
to leave a ship ; to land, dis-em-bar- 
ka'-tion, dis-em-bark'-ment, ns. [L. 
dis- -f embark.] 

dis-em-bar'-rass (-bar'-ras), (-rassed, 
-rass-ing), v. to free from embarrass- 
ment or perplexity. [L. dis- -(-em- 




dis-em-bod'-y (-ied, -y-ing), v. to free 
from the body ; to discharge (troops) 
from military service, a disembodied 
spirit, a ghost. [L. dis- + embody.] 

dis-en-chant' (-ed, -ing), v. to free from 
enchantment or illusion. [L. dis--\- 

dis-en-dow' (-dowed', -dow'-ing), v. to 
take endowments away from (esp. from an 
Established Church) . [h . dis- + endow.] 

dis-en-gage' (-gaged', -ga'-ging), v. to 
set free ; to separate- dis-en-gaged', 
adj. at leisure. [F. <L. dis- + engage.] 

dis-en-tail' (-tailed', -tail'-ing), v. to 
free from entail, q.v. [L. dis- + entail.] 

dis-en-tan'-gle (-gled, -gling), v. to un- 
twist ; to unravel ; to set free. [L. dis- 
-f entangle.] 

dis-es-tab'-lish (-lished, -lish-ing), v. to 
take away that which has been estab- 
lished or settled ; to free from connection 
with the State (said esp. of an Estab- 
lished Church, as of England) . dis-es- 
tab'-lish-ment, n. [P. <L. dis- + es- 

dis-fa'-YOur (-vur), n. dislike; displea- 
sure. [L. dis- -f-faYOur.] 

dis-fig'-ure (-ur), (-ured, -ur-ing), v. to 
spoil the appearance or beauty of ; to 
deform, dis-fig'-ure-ment, n. [L. 
dis- + figure.] 

dis-fran'-chise (-chiz), (-chised, -chi- 
sing), v. to take away the franchise 
(right of voting) from, dis-fran'-chi se- 
ntient (-chiz-),n. [L. dis- + franchise.] 

dis-gorge' (-gorged', -gor'-ging), v. to 
vomit; to give up (as prey). f_F.<L. 
dis - + gorge.] 

dis-grace' (-graced', -gra'-cing), v. to 
bring shame or reproach upon ; to lower 
in estimation ; to dishonour : n. dis- 
favour ; dishonour ; shame ; scandal. 
dis-grace'-ful, adj shameful ; dishon- 
ourable. [F.<I. <L. dis- + grace.] 

dis-guise' (-£«'), (-guised', -gui'-sing), 
v. to give a false appearance to ; to 
change the appearance of ; to mask : n. 
dress or exterior put on to conceal or 
deceive. [L. dis- + guise.] 

dis-gust', n. a strong feeling of dislike ; 
loathing : v. (-ed, -ing). dis-gust'- 
ing, adj. causing disgust ; offensive ; 
loathsome. [L. dis--\-gusto, I taste.] 

dis-ha-bille' (not dish-a-), n. common, 
but less correct than des-ha-bille', q.v. 
in dishabilles, in working dress ; un- 
tidy. [F.] 

dis-heart'-en (-ened, -en-ing), v. to dis- 
courage ; to dispirit ; to deject. [L. 
dis- + heart.] 

di-shev'-el (-elled, -el-ling), v. to dis- 
order (the hair), or cause (it) to hang 
loosely and untidily. [O.F.<L. dis- + 
capillus, hair.] 

dis-hon'-est (dis-on'-, "h" silent), adj. 
not honest ; inclined to pilfer or cheat ; 
insincere, dis-hon'-es-ty, n. [L. dis- 
-f honest.] 

dis-hon'-our (dis-on'-, "h" silent), ?i. 
disgrace ; shame : v. (-oured, -our- 
ing). dis-hon'-our-a-ble, adj. [L. 
dis - + honour.] 

dis-il-lu'-sion (-zhun), (-sioned, -sion- 
ing), v. to free from illusion or enchant- 
ment. [L. dis- + illusion.] 

dis-in-clined', adj. not inclined ; un- 
willing, dis-in-cli-na'-tion, n. [L. 
dis- + incline.] 

dis-in-fect' (-ed, -ing), v. to free from 
infection ; to purify, dis-in-fect'-ant, 
n. that which frees from contagious or 
infectious matters ; that which destroys 
the cause of infection, dis-in-fec'- 
tion, n. [L. dis- + infect.] 

dis-in-gen'-u-ous (-us), adj. not frank or 
open ; unworthily or meanly crafty and 
artful. [L. dis- + ingenuous.] 

dis-in-her'-it (-ed, -ing), v. to cut off 
from being heir, dis-in-her'-it-ance, 
n. [L. dis- + inherit.] 

dis-in'-te-grate (-gra-ted, -gra-ting),u. 
to break up into parts ; to reduce to 
fragments or powder, dis-in-te-gra'- 
tion, n. dis-in'-te-gra-tor, n. a 
machine for crushing oil-cake, ores, etc. 
[L. dis -(-integer.] 

dis-in-ter' (-terred', -ter'-ring), v. to 
take (a dead body) out of the ground. 
dis-in-ter' -ment, n. [L. dis- + inter.] 

dis-in'-ter-est-ed, adj. having no interest 
or prospect of gain (in) ; unselfish ; not 
biased or prejudiced. [L. </i's- + inter- 

dis-join' (-joined', -join'-ing), v. to sep- 
arate, dis- joint' -ed, adj. disconnected ; 
out of order ; incoherent (as speech). 
[L. dis -+join.] 

dis-junc'-tive (-tiv), adj. disjoining; sep- 
arating. [L. dis-+jungo, I join.] 

disk, less correctly , but commonly , disc, q.v. 

dis-like' (-liked', -li'-king), v. not to 
like ; to be displeased with : n. aversion ; 
distaste; disapproval. [L. dis- + like.] 

dis'-lo-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to put 




out of the proper place ; to put out of 
joint ; to disorder (traffic), dis-lo-ca - 
tion, n. [L. dis--t locate.] 

dis-lodge' (-loj') t (-lodged', -lodg'-ing), 
v. to drive or force from a place, dis- 
lodge'-ment (or -lodg'-), n. [L. dis- 
+ lodge.] 

dis-loy'-al, adj. not loyal ; faithless ; 
false, dis-loy'-al-ty, n. [L. dis- + 

dis'-mal (diz'-), adj. gloomy; dreary; 
sorrowful, dis'-mal-ly, adv. [L. dies 
mdli, evil days.] 

dis-man -tie (-tied, -tling), v. to strip 
(esp. a fortress, a ship, etc.) ; to break 
down and render useless. [F.<L. dis- 
-f mantle.] 

dis-may' (not diz-), n. great fear ; terror : 
v. (-mayed', -may'-ing), to make to 
fear; to daunt. [O.F. desmayer<lj. 
dis-+A.S. magan, to be able.] 

dis-mem'-ber j-bered, -ber-ing), v. to 
separate limb from limb ; to tear in 
pieces, dis-mem'-ber-ment, n. [L. 
dis- + member.] 

dis-miss' (-missed', -miss'-ing), v. to 
send away ; to discard or reject ; to 
remove from office or employment, dis- 
miss'-al, n. dis-mis'-sion (-mish'-un), 
n. [F.<L. dis- + mitto, I send.] 

dis-mount' (-ed, -ing), v. to come or 
throw down (as from a horse) ; to put 
down (as heavy guns from their car- 
riages). [L. dis- + mount.] 

dis-o-be'-di-ence, n. neglect or refusal to 
obey ; violation of orders, dis-o-be- 
di-ent, adj. neglecting or refusing to 
obey ; not observant of duty or rules. 
dis-o-bey' (-&«'), (-beyed', -bey '-ing), I 
v. not to obey. [F. < L. dis- + obey.] 

dis-o-blige' (-My'),(-bliged',-bli'-ging), \ 
v. not to oblige ; to decline or neglect to 
meet the wishes of another ; to offend 
by unkindness or incivility, dis-o-bli- 
ging, adj. [F. <L. dis- + oblige.] 

dis-or'-der, n. want or absence of order ; 
confusion ; tumult ; a disease : v. 
(-dered, -der-ing), to put out of order ; 
to throw into confusion ; to produce 
disease, dis-or'-der-ly, adj. [L. dis- 
+ order.] 

dis-or -gan-ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. to 
throw into disorder ; to upset, dis-or- 
gan-i-za'-tion, n . [L. dis- -f organize.] 

dls-own' (dis-on'), (-owned', -own'-ing), 
v. to refuse to own or acknowledge ; to 
deny. [L. dis- + own.] 

dis-par'-age (-aged, -a-ging), v. to 

undervalue purposely ; to talk slight- 
ingly of. dis-par'-age-ment, n. [F. 
<L. dis-+par, equal.] 

dis-par'-i-ty (-par'-i-ti), n. inequality of 
rank, condition, age, or excellence ; un- 
likeness. [F.<L. dis- -f parity.] 

dis-pas'-sion-ate (-pash'-iin-), adj. free 
from passion or feeling ; calm ; cool ; 
impartial, dis-pas -sion-ate-ly, adv. 
[L. dis- + passion.] 

dis-patch', the correct form of what is 
usually spelt des-patch', q.v. 

dis-pel' (-pelled', -pel'-ling), v. to drive 
away; to make disappear. [L. dis- + 
pello, I drive.] 

dis-pense' (-pensed', -pen'-sing), v. to 
weigh out ; to give or deal out (esp. 
medicines) ; to apply (as laws to partic- 
ular cases), dis-pen'-sa-ry, n. a place 
where medicines are dealt out (often 
free), dis-pen-sa'-tion, n. a giving 
out ; the dealings of God with mankind ; 
in the R. C. Church, a license or per- 
mission (generally from the Pope) to do 
what is forbidden or to omit doing what is 
commanded ; exemption, to dispense 
with, to do without. [F.<L. dis- + 
pendo, I weigh.] 

dis-perse' (-persed', -per'-sing), v. to 
scatter ; to spread about in all direc- 
tions ; to cause to vanish, dis-per'-sal, 
n. dis-per'-ser, n. dis-per -sion, />. 
— ; the breaking up of a ray of white 
light into its component coloured rays. 
[F.<L. dis- + spargo, I scatter.] 

dis-pir'-it (-ed, -ing), v. to deprive of 
cheerful spirits ; to discourage or dis- 
hearten ; to depress, dis-pir'-it-ed, adj. 
out of spirits; depressed. [L dis- -f spirit] 

dis-place' (-placed', -pla'-cing), v. to 
put out of place, dis-place' -a-ble, adj. 
dis-place'-ment, n. the quantity of 
water displaced by a floating vessel (in 
weight equal to that of the vessel itself). 
[L. dis- -f place.] 

dis-play' (-played', -play'-ing), v. to 
spread out to view ; to show forth ; to 
make a great show of: n. [O.F.<L. 
dis-+plico, I fold.] 

dis-please' (-pleased', -pleas'-ing), v. to 
annoy ; to offend ; to make angry, dis- 
pleas'-ure (-plezh'-ur), jj. [L. dis--{- 

dis-port' (-ed, -ing), v. to amuse oneself ; 
to sport : n. [L. dis- -f sport.] 

dis-pose' (-poz'), (-posed', -po'-sing), v. 




to arrange ; to put into a certain order ; 
to make over by sale, gift, etc. ; to incline 
(the mind towards). dis-po -sa-ble, 
adj. dis-po -sal {-zal), n. arrangement ; 
parting with, dis-po-si'-tion {-zish'- 
un), n. arrangement ; temper (of mind). 
to dispose of, to get rid of ; to sell. 
[F.<L. dis--\-pono, I place.] 

ing), v. to deprive (of). [L. dis- + 

di3-pro-por'-tion, n. want or absence of 
proportion, dis-pro-por'-tion-ate,^/). 
out of proportion. [L. dis- -f proportion] 

dis-proye' (-proved', -pro'-ving), v. to 
show to be wrong, dis -proof ', n. [L. 
dis -+ prove.] 

dis-pute' (-pu'-ted, -pu'-ting), v. to 
argue ; to contend in words ; to doubt ; 
to call in question : n. an argument, 
dis'-pu-tant, n. one who — . dis-pu- 
ta'-tion, n. the act of disputing ; the 
matter in dispute, dis-pu-ta'-tious 
{-shus),adj. fond of disputing. [F.< 
L. dis-+puto, I think.] 

dis-qual'-i-fy (-fled, -fy-ing), v. to take 
qualities from ; to make unfit, dis-qual- 
i-fi-ca' -tion, n. [L. dis- + qualify.] 

dis-qui'-et (-ed, -ing), v. to make uneasy 
in body or mind : n. unrest ; anxiety. 
dis-qui'-e-tude, n. a feeling of unrest. 
[L. dis- -t- quiet.] 

dis-qui-si'-tion {-zish'-un), n. a careful 
enquiry ; a formal essay or treatise. 
[L. dis- + qucero, I seek.] 

dis-re-gard' (-ed, -ing), v. to pay no heed 
or attention to : n. want of attention ; 
intentional neglect. [L. dis- -f regard.] 

dis-re-pair', n. want of repair. [L. dis- 
+ repair.] 

dis-re-pute', n. loss of good name ; bad 
character, dis-rep'-u-ta-ble, adj. of 
bad character. [L. dis- + repute.] 

dis-re-spect',n. want of respect or esteem ; 
discourtesy ; incivility, dis-re-spect - 
ful, adj. [L. dis- + respect.] 

dis-robe' (-robed', -ro'-bing), v. to de- 
prive of a robe, or of that which dresses 
or decorates ; to undress ; to uncover of 
one's robes. [L. dis- + robe.] 

dis-rupt' (-ed, -ing), v. to burst asunder. 
dis-rup'-tion, n. a bursting asunder ; a 
violent breach, dis-rup -tiye (-tiv), 
adj. [h. dis- + rumpo, I burst.] 

iis-sat'-is-fy (-fled, -fy-ing), v. to make 
discontented ; to displease, dis-sat-is- 
fac -tion, «. [L. dis- + satisfy.] 

dis-sect' (-ed, -ing), v. to cut in pieces ; 
to cut up in order to examine carefully ; 
to criticize in detail, dis-sec'-tion, n. 
the act of dissecting ; the cutting up of 
an animal or plant to examine its parts ; 
anything dissected. dis-sect'-or,n. one 
who — . [L. dis- + seco, I cut.] 

dis-sem'-ble (-bled, -bling), v. to mis- 
represent ; to conceal the truth ; to dis- 
guise, dis-sem -bier, n. one who — . 
[O.F.<L. di8- + similis, like.] 

dis-sem -i-nate (-na-ted, -na-ting),v. to 
spread or scatter abroad, dis-sem-i- 
na'-tion, n. [L. dis- + semen, seed.] 

dis-sent' (-ed, -ing), v. to differ in opinion 
(from) ; not to agree : n. dis-sen- 
sion, n. variance ; strife ; discord, dis- 
sen'-tient (-shent),n. one who dissents : 
adj. dis-sent'-er, n. one who does not 
accept the doctrines and practices of the 
Established Church ; a nonconformist. 
[L. dis--f sentio, I feel or think.] 

dis-ser-ta'-tion, n. a formal discourse ; 
a treatise. [L. dis--\- sero, I join.] 

dis-sey'-er l-ered, -er-ing), v. to separ- 
ate ; to disunite. dis-seY-er-ance, n. 
[h. dis- + sever.] 

dis'-si-dent {-si-), adj. dissenting (esp. 
from the Established Church) : n. a 
dissenter, dis'-si-dence {-si-), n. [L. 
dis- + sedeo, I sit.] 

dis-sim'-i-lar, adj. not similar ; unlike. 
dis-sim-i-lar'-i-ty {-i-tl), n. [L. dis- 
+ similar.] 

dis-sim-u-la'-tion, n. the act of dissem- 
bling ; hypocrisy ; pretence, dis-sim'- 
u-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. dis-sim'- 
u-la-tor, n. one who — . [L. dis- + 
similis, like.] 

dis' -si-pate (-pa- ted, -pa-ting), v. to 
scatter abroad ; to waste ; to spend 
wastefully. dis-si-pa'-tion, n. disper- 
sion ; dissolute life. [L. dissipo, I 

dis-so'-ci-ate (-*/«-), (-a-ted,-a-ting), r. 
to disunite, dis-so-ci-a -tion {-shi- 
or -si-), n. a separating from. [L. dis- 
+ socius, a companion.] 

dis'-so-lute, adj. loose ; unruly ; licen- 
tious, dis-so-lu'-tion, n. melting; 
breaking up (as of an assembly) ; death ; 
decomposition. [See dissolve.] 

dis-solve' {diz-zolv'), (-solved', -sol- 
ving), v. to become mixed with and part 
of a liquid ; to loosen ; to waste away ; 
to break up; to solve. [L. dis-+solvo, 
I loosen.] 




dis -so -nance, n. discord (of sounds) ; 
disagreement, dis'-so-nant, adj. [F. 
<L. dis- + sono, I sound.] 

dis-suade' (-sua'-ded, -sua'-ding), v. to 
persuade from doing something, dis- 
sua'-sion {-zhun), n. dis-sua'-siye, 
adj. [F. <L. dis--\-suadeo, I persuade.] 

dis-syl'-la-ble,n. a word of two syllables. 
dis-syl-lab'-ic, adj. [Gr. dis-, twicer- 

dis'-taff, n. a stick for holding the tow, 
flax, or wool from which a thread is 
drawn in spinning by hand. [k.S.distcef] 

dis'-tance, n. space between two points 
or places ; a certain period or interval 
of time, dis'-tant, adj. far off ; shy ; 
cold in manner, a distance signal, 
(on a railway) a signal placed some dis- 
tance in advance of a " home signal," as 
a warning to the driver of what the 
latter indicates, distant likeness, a 
slight resemblance, to keep one's — , to 
abstain from familiarity, to keep at 
a — , to treat coolly. [F. <L. di- + sto, 
I stand.] 

dis-taste', n, dislike, dis-taste'-ful, adj. 
disagreeable. [L. dis--}- taste.] 

dis-tem'-per, n. a disease ; a disorder of 
body or mind: v. (-pered, -per-ing). 
[F.<L. dis- + temper.] 

dis-tem'-per, n. a kind of painting in 
which the pigments are mixed with a 
binding material (as glue, paste, etc.) 
soluble in water ; a pigment so prepared : 
v. (-pered, -per-ing), to cover with — . 
[L. distemper are, to mix a solid with a 

dis-tend' (-ed, -ing), v. to stretch out in 
all directions; to swell, dis-ten'-si-ble, 
adj. dis-ten'-sion (or -tion), n. [L. 
dis- + tendo, I stretch.] 

dis'-tich (-tik), n. two lines of poetry 
making complete sense ; a couplet. [Gr. 
distichon<di-, twice -\-stxchos, a row or 
line of verse.] 

dis-til' (-tilled', -til'-ling), v. to fall, or 
make to fall, in drops ; to extract by 
evaporation and condensation ; to rec- 
tify. dis-til-la'-tion,w. dis-til '-ler-y, 
n. a building in which distillation is 
carried on. dis-til'-late, w. the product 
of distillation, destructive distilla- 
tion, the decomposition of a substance 
by heat in a closed vessel (as coal in 
making coal-gas), fractional distilla- 
tion, a process of distilling in which 
various distillates present in a liquid (and 

which vaporize at different tempera- 
tures), are separated after every small 
rise in temperature (as benzine, petrol, 
and paraffin from crude petroleum). 
[F.<L. de-, down + stilla, a drop.] 

dis-tinct', adj. clear ; well-defined ; sep- 
arate, dis-tinc'-tion, n. clearness ; 
difference ; honour, dis-tinc'-tiye (-tiv), 
adj. marking distinction or difference. 
[See distinguish.] 

dis-tin'-guish (-guished, -guish-ing), v. 
to mark a difference; to recognize; to 
perceive ; to hononr. dis-tin'-guished, 
adj. eminent ; highly honoured ; cele- 
brated. [F. <L. distinguo, I distinguish] 

dis-tort' (-ed, -ing), v. to twist out of 
shape ; to misrepresent, dis-tor'-tion, 
n. [L. dis- -{-tortus, twisted.] 

dis-tract' (-ed, -ing), v. to turn the atten- 
tion aside ; to confuse ; to madden (as 
by pain) . dis-tract ' -ed, adj. perplexed ; 
disordered in mind, dis-trac'-tion, n. 
perplexity ; confusion or disorder of 
mind; a diversion. [L. dis- + tr alio, 
I draw, tractus, drawn.] 

dis-train' (-trained', -train'-ing), v. to 
seize (esp. goods for debt or non-pay- 
ment of rates and taxes), dis-traint', 
n. [F.<L. dis--\-stringo, I draw tight.] 

dis-traught' (-trauf), adj. distracted (in 
mind) ; perplexed. [< distract.] 

dis-tress', n. extreme pain or suffering, 
either of body or mind ; poverty : v. 
(-tressed', -tres'-sing), to give pain to ; 
to seize goods for debt, etc. dis-tress'- 
ful, adj. [See distrain.] 

dis-trib'-ute (-u-ted, -u-ting), v. to deal 
out ; to divide among a number ; to 
classify. dis-tri-bu'-tion,n. dis-trib'- 
u-tiye (-tiv), adj. giving to each his 
own. [L. dis--\-trlbuo, I give, grant.] 

dis'-trict, n. a region ; a tract of country ; 
a portion of a country marked out for 
political (as a polling — ), judicial (as a 
registration — ), educational (as inspec- 
toral — ), or other special purposes. 
District Railway, a local railway, esp. 
the one serving part of London. [F.< 
L.L. districtus, territory wherein a lord 
has power to enforce justice.] 

dis-trust' (-ed, -ing), v. not to trust ; to 
doubt : n. want of confidence, dis- 
trust '-ful, adj. wanting trust ; sus- 
picious. [F.<L. dis- + trust.] 

dis-turb' (-turbed', -turb'-ing), v. to 
throw into confusion ; to trouble ; to 
interrupt, dis-turb -ance, n. [F.< 




L. dis- + turbo, I trouble.] 

dis-u-nite' (-ni'-ted, -ni'-ting), v. to 
separate ; to set at variance, dis-u'- 
ni-on, h. disagreement ; separation. 
[L. dis- + unite.] 

dis-use' Ha'), (-used', -u'-sing), v. to 
leave off using ; to cease to use : n. (-us'), 
the ceasing to use. dis-u'-sage (-zaj), 
n. the cessation of usage or use. [L. 
dis- + use.] 

di-syl'-la-ble (di-), (less correctly dis- 
syl'-) (dis-sW-), n. a word of two 
syllables. [L.<Gr. di- + syllable.] 

ditch (dich), n. a trench : v. (ditched, 
ditch'-ing), to dig a trench, ditch'-er, 
n. one who digs ditches, ditch'-ing, Ti- 
the work of a ditcher. [<dike.] 

dith'-y-ramb (-%-), »■ an ancient Greek 
hymn of a wild, frantic character, usu. 
in honour of Bacchus, the god of wine. 
dith-y-ram'-bic, adj. after the style of 
a dithyramb. [L.<Gr. dithyrambos.] 

dit'-to, n. the same thing (as before) : adv. 
as before. [I. <L. dictum, spoken, said.] 

dit'-ty (-tl), n. (pi. -ties), a song ; a 
short poem to be sung ; a saying. [O.F. 
<L. dicto, I dictate.] 

di-ur f -nal, adj. of a day ; daily. [L. 
diurnus<dies, a day.] 

di'-Ya (dee'-vd), n. (properly) a goddess ; a 
female public singer of great fame. [I. 
<L. diva, a goddess.] 

di-Ya-ga'-tion, n. a wandering from the 
right path ; going astray ; digression. 
[L. di- = dis- + vagor, I wander.] 

di-Yan' (di-),n. a Turkish council of state 
or court of justice ; a smoking-room ; a 
kind of sofa or cushioned seat. [Ar. 
diwdn, a tribunal.] 

dive (dived, di'-ving), v. to plunge (esp. 
into water) ; to penetrate (as a forest) ; 
to enter deeply into a subject, business, 
etc. : n. di'-Yer, n. one who — . di'- 
Ying— bell, n. an apparatus (formerly 
bell-shaped) for permitting persons to 
descend into the water and remain there 
for some time, by receiving a supply of 
fresh air which is pumped to them from 
above. [A.S. dxifan, to dive.] 

di-verge' (-verged', -ver'-ging), v. to 
incline or turn aside ; to spread out 
(from a point) ; to differ from a standard. 
di-Yer'-gence, n. di-Yer'-gent, adj. 
[L.di- = dis- + vergo, I incline.] 

di'-vers (-verz), adj. several ; sundry ; 
various ; more than one or two. [See 

di-Yerse', adj. different ; unlike ; various. 
di-Yer'-si-fy (-fled, -fy-ing), v. to give 
difference or variety to. di-Yer'-si-ty 
(-si-ti), 11. difference; variety. [F. < 
L. diver sus, different, various.] 

di-Yert' (-ed, -ing), v. to turn aside ; to 
amuse. di-Yer'-sion, n. a turning 
aside ; amusement ; something done to 
draw the attention of an enemy from the 
real point of attack. [F. <L. di- = dis- 
-\-verto, I turn.] 

Di'-Yes (-vez), n. [L.] a rich (man) ; the 
name in the Latin(Vulgate) version of the 
Bible for the rich man in the parable, 
Luke, xvi., 19-31, and commonly used 
for any rich, worldly-minded man. 

di-Yest' (-ed, -ing), v. to unclothe ; to 
strip. [L. di- = dis- f vestio, I clothe.] 

di-vide' (-Yi'-ded, -Yi'-ding), v. to sep- 
arate into parts ; to put asunder ; to 
share out ; to set at variance ; to record 
votes in a meeting : n. a water-parting. 
di-Yi'-ders, n. pi. a pair of compasses 
having both points alike, for measuring 
and dividing lines. di-Yis'-i-ble (-viz'- 
i-), adj. able to be divided, di-vis-i- 
bil'-i-ty, n. power or quality of being 
divisible. di-Yi'-sion (-vizh'-un), n. 
separation into parts. di-Yi'-sion-al, 
adj. pertaining to a division ; marking 
separation. di-Yi'-sor (-zur), n. the 
number showing into how many equal 
parts anything is to be divided. [L. 
divldo. I divide ] 

diY'-i-dend, n. that which has to be 
divided ; a share of profit ; interest. 
to declare a — , to announce officially 
the sum per cent a trading concern is 
prepared to pay its shareholders, divi- 
dend warrant, a document which 
enables a shareholder to draw his divi- 
dend from the bank. {See divide.] 

di-Yine', adj. relating to God ; sacred : 
n. a minister of the gospel ; a preacher : 
v. (-vined', -Yi'-ning), to predict future 
events ; to forebode ; to conjecture. 
diY-i-na'-tion,u. predicting di-Yin'-i- 
ty (-l-tt),v. the Godhead; the science of 
divine subjects, divining-rod, n. a rod, 
usu of hazel, by the dipping of which, 
when held loosely in the hand, it is 
said that water, metals, etc., can he 
located under ground. [F. <L. dirinus, 
of God (deus), divine.] 

di-Yorce', n. disunion ; separation, esp. a 
separation of husband and wife by law : 
v. (-Yorced',-Yor'-cing). di-Yor'-cer, 




n. one who divorces, di-Yor-ce' (-s<z'), 
n. m. (/. -cee' [-««']), a divorced person. 
[F. <L. divortium, separation, divorce.] 

di-vulge' (-vulj'), (-Yulged',-Yul'-ging), 
v. to reveal (a secret). [F.<L. di- for 
dis- + valgus, the common people.] 

diz'-zy, adj. having a sensation of whirl- 
ing (in the head) ; giddy ; thoughtless. 
diz'-zi-ness, n. [A.S. dysig, foolish.] 

djinn, incorrect for jinn. 

D.L., Deputy Lieutenant. 

D.Lit., or Litt., Doctor of Literature. 

D.L.O., Dead-letter Office. 

D.M., Doctor of Medicine. 

do., ditto. 

do'-cile (sil or dos'-il), adj. teachable ; 
easily managed, do-cil'-i-ty (sil'-i-ti), 
n. [F. <L. doceo, I teach.] 

dock, n. a basin (in a port) for ships ; the 
place where a prisoner stands in court : 
v. (docked, dock'-ingi, to put (a ship) 
into dock, dock'-er, n. one who works 
at a dockyard, dock'-yard, n. a large 
yard or inclosure, with docks, slip-ways, 
and stores for ships, dry— dock, n. a — 
from which the water may be shut or 
pumped out, also called graving— dock, 
because the bottom and sides of a ship can 
there be got at for cleaning or " graving." 
floating— dock, n. a floating structure to 
be used as a dock, which can be raised 
or lowered in the water. [O.D. dokke, 
a dock.] [docce."] 

dock, n. a common garden-weed. [A.S. 

dock (docked, dock'-ing), v. to cut short ; 
to shorten : n. the stump of a tail cut 
short. [Ic. dockr, a short tail.] 

dock'-et, n. a summary (of a longer 
writing) ; a list or register ; a ticket or 
label attached to a package : v. (-ed, 
-ing), to make a docket, or to attach one 
to a package. [?] 

doc'-tor, n. a teacher ; a learned man ; a 
physician, doc'-tor-ate, n. the rank 
or title of doctor, doctor of divinity 
(D.D.), one who holds a university 
degree as a recognized teacher of religion . 
[F <L. doceo, I teach.] 

doc'-trine, n. something taught ; a prin- 
ciple, doc-tri-naire' (-tri-ndr'),n. one 
who professes to know ; a theorist ; a 
visionary, doc'-trin-al (not dok-trl'-), 
adj. relating to doctrine. Munroe — , 
the teaching that European powers must 
not interfere in the politics of any of 
the American republics. [L. doctrina, 
teaching, learning.] 

doc'-u-ment, n. a written statement or 
proof, doc-u-men -tal, adj. doc-u- 
men'-ta-ry, adj. [F.<L. documentum 
<ddceo, I teach.] 

dod'-der, n. a species of slender, leafless, 
parasitical plants which twine round 
others, dod'-der-ing, adj. shaking ; 
trembling. [?] 

dodge (doj), n. a trick ; a quibble : v. 
(dodged, dod'-ging), to start aside ; to 
use tricks ; to evade by trickery, dod- 
ger {doj'-er), n. one who — . [?] 

do'-do {do' -do), n. a large, clumsy bird of 
the pigeon family of Mauritius and Mada- 
gascar, now extinct. [Po. doudo, silly.] 

doe {do), n. {fern, of buck), the female of 
the fallow-deer, goat, rabbit, and some 
other animals. [A.S. da, doe.] 

doesn't, short for does not. 

dog, n. a well-known quadruped, dog'— 
berry, n. the fruit of the dog'— wood, a 
wild, flowering shrub often found grow- 
ing in hedges, dog'— cart, n. a light, 
two-wheeled carriage much used by 
sportsmen, in which the occupants sit 
back to back, dog'— daisy, n. the ox- 
eye daisy, dog'— days, the summer 
days from about the 3rd July to the 11th 
August, when Sirius, or the Dog' -star, 
rises and sets with the sun. dog- 
fancier, n. one who breeds or deals in 
dogs, dog' -fish, n. a kind of shark. 
dog'-ged, adj. sullen ; obstinate. dog- 
Latin, n. pretended or very incorrect 
Latin, dog' -rose, n. the wild rose, or 
wild brier, dog's-ear, n. the corner of 
a leaf (of a book) turned up carelessly. 
dog-sleep, n. a very light sleep, dog- 
tired, adj. thoroughly tired out, as a dog 
after hunting, dog— watch, n. (on a 
ship) a half -watch, i.e., one of two hours, 
the first 4 to 6 p.m., the second 6 to 8 
p.m. , so that the 24 hours of the day are J 
divided into 5 full watches of 4 hours 
each and 2 half watches, and the men's 
hours are thus changed every night. 
dog (dogged, dog'-ging), v. to follow 
closely (like a dog) ; to worry with im- 
portunity, to go to the dogs, to be 
ruined, to give, send, or throw to 
the dogs, to throw away or abandon as 
useless. [A.S. dogga ; D. dog.] 

Doge {doj), n. formerly the title of the 
chief magistrates of Venice and Genoa. 
[I. <L. dux, a leader.] 

dog'-ger-el, n. poetry {e»p. rhymed poetry) 
of very low quality. [?] 




dog'-ma, n. a point of faith, opinion, or 
belief, dog-mat'-ic, adj. pertaining to 
— ; positive, dog'-ma-tize (-tized, 
-ti-zing), v. to state one's opinion pos- 
itively and without proof ; to assert with 
confidence or arrogance. [Gr. dogma < 
doked, I think.] 

doi'-ly, n. a small napkin or mat put on 
the dining-table at dessert, or on a 
dressing-table. [Mr. Doily, or Doiley, 
the inventor, about 1700.] 

dol-ce far ni-eri-te (dol'-chd far 
tie-en' -td), [I.] delicious idleness. 

dol' -drums, n. those parts of the ocean 
(esp. the Atlantic) between the Equator 
and the Trade- winds, where calms and 
baffling winds prevail ; low spirits. [? < 
M.E. dol, dull, or dold, stupid.] 

dole (doled, do-ling), v. to deal out in 
small portions : n. a portion so dealt out ; 
something given in charity. [ < deal.] 

dole, n. pain ; grief ; sorrow, dole'-ful, 
adj. [F.<L. doleo, I grieve.] 

dol'-lar, n. the name of a silver coin in 
several countries — that of the United 
States is worth about 4s. 2d. [G. Thaler 

< Thai, a valley ; dollars were first 
coined from silver obtained from a mine 
in a valley of Bohemia.] 

dolly'— shop, n. a marine store, or a kind 
of low-class pawn-shop. [< tally.] 

Dolly— Yarden, n. a flowered print or 
muslin dress with pointed bodice and 
skirts gathered up in loops, worn about 
the middle of the 19th cent. ; also a 
kind of woman's hat. \_<Dolly Varden, 
in Dickens's Barnaby Budge. ] 

dol'-man, n. a long robe or outer garment 
open in front, with narrow sleeves, worn 
by Turks ; the uniform jacket of a 
hussar, worn like a cape, with one or 
both sleeves hanging loose ; a kind of 
mantle worn by women. [F.< Hunga- 
rian <T. doldmdn.'] 

dol'-men, n. an ancient, rude, stone struc- 
ture like a table, probably a tomb. [F. 

< Celtic taol, table + men, stcfne.] 
dol'-our, or do'-lor (-ler), n. pain ; grief. 

dol'-or-ous (-us), adj. painful; full of 
trouble and sorrow. [F.<L. doleo, I 

dol'-phin (-fin), n. a sea-animal of the 
whale kind. [F.<L. delphmtu."} 

dolt, n. a dull or stupid person ; a block- 
head. [<dull.] 

D.O.M. (Deo Optimo Maximo), [L.J. To 
God, the best, the greatest. An inscrip- 

tion often placed on tombstones, and on 
buildings devoted to religious purposes. 

Dom. =dominus [L.], a title of a cleric. 
In Portugal and Brazil, a title given to 
men of the highest classes in society. 

do-main', n. a territory ; an estate ; the 
scope or range of any sphere or subject 
of knowledge. [F.<L. dominium, lord- 
ship < dominus, a lord.] 

dome, n. the upper part of a building, in 
shape like an inverted cup ; a cupola ; 
anything resembling a cupola or dome. 
[F.<I.<L. domus, a house.] 

Domes' -day— Book, see doom. 

do-mes'-tic, adj. belonging to the house 
or home ; remaining much at home ; 
tame : n. a house-servant, do-mes - 
ti-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to make 
fond of home ; to become skilful in 
home duties, do-mes-tic'-i-ty (-tis'~ 
l-ti), n. [F.<L. domus, v. house.] 

dom'-i-cile, n. a house ; a dwelling ; a 
residence, dom-i-cil'-i-a-ry (-sil'-i-), 
adj. relating to a house, domiciliary 
yisit, a visit to a private house by 
official persons for the purpose of search- 
ing or inspecting. [F.<L. domus, a 
house.] [dominus, a lord.] 

dom'-i-nant, adj. ruling; prevailing. [L. 

dom'-i-nate (-na-ted, -na-ting), v. to be 
lord (over) ; to govern, dom-i-na'- 
tion,n. dom-i-neer' (-neered',-neer'- 
ing), v. to act haughtily ; to be over- 
bearing. [L. dominus, a lord.] 

do-min'-i-cal, adj. relating to Christ as 
the Lord, or to Sunday as the Lord's 
Day. do-min'-i-cal letter, or Sunday 
letter, one of the first seven letters of 
the alphabet, used in a calendar to point 
out the Lord's Day. [F.<L. dominus, 
a lord.] 

Do-min'-i-can, n. one of the order of 
mendicant monks or friars founded by 
St. Dominic (Dominic de Guzman) in 
1215. Also called Preaching Friars 
and Black Friars (from the black cloak 
they wore). [[L. dominus, master.] 

dom'-i-nie, n. a schoolmaster; a tutor. 

do-min'-ion (-yun),n. lordship; supreme 
rule; territory. [L. dominium < dominus , 
a lord.] 

dom'-i-no, n. (^i-nos), a cloak with a 
hood (formerly worn by priests) ; a mask 
(esp. one hiding the upper part of the 
face) ; pi. dom'-i-noes, a game played 
with 28 small slabs of wood, bone, or 
ivory, marked with various spots. [F. < 




L. dominus, a lord.] 

don, n. (f. don'-na), a title in Spain, now 
corresponding with our Mr. (and Mrs.) ; 
a title given at the universities to the 
" fellows " and to those holding high 
offices. [Sp.<L. dominus, a lord, 
master ; domina, a mistress.] 

do-na'-tion, n. a gift, do'-na-tiye (-na- 
tiv), n. a gift : adj. vesting, or vested hy 
donation, do'-nor (sometimes do-na'- 
tor), n. a giver. [F. < L. ddno, I give.] 

don'-ga("#" hard), n. (in S. Africa) a 
dried-up river-channel, or a ravine 
formed by the action of water. [S. 

don'-jon, ft. the chief and inner tower of 
an ancient castle. [F.<L.L. dominio, 

don'-key, ft. a well-known quadruped, the 
ass ; a stupid fellow, donkey— engine, 
ft. a small engine (esp. in steam- vessels) 
deriving its steam from the main boilers, 
and used for loading and unloading, 
pumping water, etc. [<dun, denoting 
the colour of the animal, with dim. 
term, -key.] 

don'-na, n. a lady. [See don.] 

don't, short for do not. 

doo'-lie (doo'-ll), n. a litter suspended 
from men's shoulders. [Sa. dola, a 
swinging cradle.] 

doom, n. fate or destiny; judgement; 
condemnation : v. (doomed, doom'- 
ing), to condemn ; to sentence ; to des- 
tine, dooms'-day, n. the day of doom, 
or the Judgement-day. Doomsday (or 
Domesday) Book, a book compiled by 
order of William the Conqueror (1086), 
giving the names of the chief land- 
owners, the extent and value of estates, 
the number of tenants, live-stock, etc., 
throughout the land of England. [A.S. 
dom, judgement.] 

dope (doped, do' -ping), v. to stupefy by a 
narcotic ; to give drugs to (esp. a horse, 
or an athlete, before a race, etc.) : n. a 
stupefying, or stimulating, drug, do'- 
pey, adj. drugged. [?] 

Dor'-ic, adj. of Doris, a division of 
ancient Greece ; an order of architec- 
ture ; an ancient Greek dialect. [Gr.] 

dor'-king, ft. a kind of domestic fowl, 
named from Dorking, in Surrey. 

dor'-mant, adj. sleeping ; inactive ; in 
abeyance dor'-man-oy* n. dor- 
mer—window, n. a vertical window in 
the sloping roof of a house (prop, the 

window of a sleeping -room) . dor'-mi- 
to-ry (-mi-to-rl), n. a large sleeping 
apartment, with several beds. dor'- 
mouse, ft. (pi. -mice), a small quad- 
ruped which sleeps through the winter. 
[F.<L. dormio, I sleep.] 

dor'-my (not -mie), adj. (at golf) as many 
holes ahead of an antagonist as there 
remain holes to be played. [F.<L. 
dormio, I sleep.] 

dor'-sal, adj. of or belonging to the back 
(of the body) : n. a hanging at the back 
of an altar in church, often called 
dos'-sal. [F.<L. dorsum, the back.] 

do'-ry, or do'-ree (-rd), n. a fish of a 
golden-yellow colour. Also called John 
Dory. [<F.jaune doree, yellow-golden] 

dose, ft. a portion of medicine given to be 
taken at one time ; anything disagree- 
able that must be taken or is forced 
upon one : v. (dosed, do '-sing). [F. 
<L.<Gr. dosis, a giving.] 

f doss, ft. a bed (esp. in a fdoss— house, or 
cheap lodging-house), fdos'-ser, ft. one 
who lodges in a doss-house. [L. dorsum, 
the back.] 

dos'-si-er ft. a bundle of documents; 
memoranda, etc. ; a lawyer's brief. [F.] 

dote (do '-ted, do '-ting), v. to be foolishly 
or extravagantly fond ; to love unwisely. 
do'-tage,n. second childishness; mental 
feebleness of old age. do'-tard, ft. one 
who dotes ; one who acts childishly ; 
one who shows the weakness of old 
age. [O.D. doten, to dote.] 

doub'-le (dub' -I), adj. twice as much (or 
many) : n. a double quantity or num- 
ber ; the exact likeness of another : v. 
(-led, -ling), to increase two-fold ; to; 
fold into two ; to sail round (as a cape) ; 
to turn back on the same track. 
double— barrelled, adj. applied to a 
gun having two barrels, double— deal- 
ing, ft. acting two parts deceitfully. 
double— decker, ft. a man-of-war having 
two gun-decks ; a public conveyance (as 
a street-car) having seats on the roof. 
double-dyed, adj. twice dyed ; firmly 
fixed in opinions, habits, or character. 
double— entry, n. a system of book- 
keeping in which each item is entered 
twice in the books, doub'-let, w. a 
pair ; a kind of jacket, doub-loon' 
(dub-), ft. a Spanish coin (value about 
21s., or double that of the pistole). 
doub'-ly, adv. double— meaning, adj. 
deceitful; ambiguous, double— quick) 

Double Entente 



adj. without delay : n. a pace almost a 
run. double— stout, n. extra strong 
stout or porter, double-tongued, adj. 
deceitful. [F.<L. diiplus, two-fold < 
duo, two.] 

double entente (doobl ah-taht), [F.] 
(not entendre, which is bad F.), a 
word or phrase admitting of two mean- 
ings, one of which is often bad. 

doubt (dout), (-ed, -ing), v. to hesitate to 
believe ; to suspect : n. uncertainty of 
mind ; suspicion ; hesitation, doubt- 
ful, adj. doubt' -less, adv. without 
— ; certainly. [F.<L. dubium, doubt.] 

dou-ceur' (doo-sur'), n. a gift for service 
done or to be done ; (sometimes) a 
bribe. [F.<L. dulcis, sweet.] 

douche (doosh), n. a bath in which a jet 
or current of water is thrown upon the 
body from a pipe. [F. douche <L. 
ductus, a duct ] 

dough (do) , n. flour moistened and kneaded 
for baking, dough— nut, n. a small cake 
(usu. sweetened) fried in boiling lard. 
dough'-y, adj. like dough ; soft and 
heavy. [A.S. dag."] 

dough'-ty (dou'-ti), adj. strong ; brave. 
dough'-ti-ness,n. [A.S. dyhtig, strong] 

dour (door), adj. hard; obstinate; sour in 
aspect; determined. [F.<L. durus, 

douse (doused, dous'-ing), v. to plunge 
into water ; to slacken (a sail) suddenly. 


do Ye (duv), n. a well-known bird, a kind 
of pigeon, doye -cot (less correctly 
-cote), n. a pigeon-house, doye'-tail, 
n. a wedge-shaped device, somewhat like 
a pigeon's tail [ p ] , for joining boards : 
v. (-tailed, -taii-ing). [A.S. dufe< 
dufan, to dive.] 

dow'-a-ger (dou'-a-jer), n. a widow living 
on a dower (q.v.) ; a title given to the 
widow of a prince or person of rank. 

dow'-dy (dou'-dl), n. a slovenly or ill- 
dressed person ; one dressed much out 
of fashion : adj. [?] 

dow'-el, n. a pin or peg of wood, iron, 
etc., used for joining two pieces of any 
substance at the edges, by penetrating 
some distance into both pieces. [F. 
douille, a socket.] 

dow'-er (dou 1 -) , n. that part of a husband's 
property which a widow enjoys during 
her life, dow'-ry (dou'-), n. a wife's 
marriage-portion (sometimes called a 
" dower "). [F. <L. dos, a dowry.] 

dow'-las (dou'-), n. a kind of coarse, linen 
cloth. [ < Daoulas, nr. Brest, in France.] 

down, n. elevated land used chiefly for 
pasturage ; a bank of sand thrown up 
by the wind. [A.S. dun, a hill.] 

down (doun), n. very soft feathers or hair 
(esp. of young birds). [Scand.] 

down (doun), prep, from above to below; 
from earlier to later times ; from thick 
to thin ; from high to lower (in price) ; 
below the horizon ; of sorrowful appear- 
ance, down'-fall, n. ruin ; loss of rank 
or place, down-hearted, adj. in low 
spirits, down— line, n. the line of rail- 
way from the chief terminus (the down- 
train is that travelling along it), down- 
right', adj. altogether; thorough. 
down— stream, adv. with the stream. 
down'-ward, adj. in direction down. 
down'-wards, adv. — in the mouth, 
in low spirits, to go down, to be accept- 
able ; to fail (as in business, etc.). 
down with the helm, an order to the 
steersman of a ship to put the helm to 
leeward, and so cause the ship to turn 
round, [Kadoivn, A.S. ofdune, off the 
hill, downwards.] 

dox-ol'-o-gy (-o-jl), n. a hymn of praise 
to God. [L.<Gr. doxa, praise, glory -f 
logos, a speech.] 

doy'-en (dica'-yah), n. the eldest or senior 
member (in a profession, or community) ; 
a leader. [F., see dean ] 

doy'-ley, or doy'-ly. See doi'-ly. 

doz., or doz'-en, n. twelve, baker's 
dozen, thirteen. [O.F. <L. duo, two-f 
decem, ten.] 
. doze (dozed, do'-zing), v. to sleep lightly : 
n. a short nap. do'-zy, adj. drowsy. 
[Dan. dose, to doze.] 

D.P.H., Diploma in Public Health. 

D.Ph., Doctor of Philosophy. 

Dr., doctor. dr., debtor ; dram. 

drab, adj. of pale-gray or dull-brown 
colour: n. drab-coloured. [F. drap< 
L.L. drappum, cloth.] 

drab'-ble (-bled, -bling), v. to smear 
with mud. [Ga. drab, a slut.]' -ma. (drak' -) (]d. -mas), or drachm 
(dram), n. a dram. [G. drachme, a 
handful ; a dram.] 

dra-con'-ic, or dra-co'-ni-an, adj. of 
Draco, an Athenian lawgiver ; very strict 
or severe (laws). 

draff, n. dregs; waste matter; the refuse of 
malt that has been brewed. [Sc. draf. - ] 

draft, n. that which is drawn ; an order 




for money ; a selection of soldiers ; a 
rough outline drawing ; an abstract in 
writing ; a summary : v. (-ed, -ing), to 
draw (a sketch, etc.) ; to detach, 
drafts-man, n., see draughtsman. 
ISee draught.] 

drag (dragged, drag'-ging], v. to draw 
slowly and forcibly ; to pull ; to trail on 
the ground ; to search a river ; to pass 
slowly and wearily (as time) : n. draw- 
ing ; a low carriage ; a skid or shoe for 
retarding the speed of vehicles ; a kind 
of sledge, drag— net, n. a fishing-net 
to be drawn along the bottom of the 
water. [A.S. dragan, to drag, draw.] 

dra-gee' (drd-zhd'),ii. a sweetmeat made 
of fruit and coated with sugar ; a sugar- 
coated pill. [F.] 

drag'-gle (-gled, -gling), v. to draw (or 
be drawn) along the wet, muddy ground. 
drag'-gle— tail, n. a dirty, untidy 
woman. [<drag.] 

drag'-o-man, n. (pi. -mans), an inter- 
preter (in Eastern countries). [Sp.< 
Ar. tarjumdn, an interpreter.] 

drag' -on, n. a fabulous winged animal of 
the serpent kind ; one of the constella- 
tions (Draco), drag'-o-net, n. dim. of 
dragon, a small dragon, dragon— fly, 
11. the popular name of several beautiful 
large- winged insects with long bodies." 
dragon's blood, n. the juice of certain 
plants (called dragon— trees) used for 
colouring and other purposes. [F. <L. 
<Gr. drakoii, dragon.] 

dra-goon', n. a kind of horse-soldier (in 
the heavy cavalry): v. (-gooned',-goon'- 
ing), to harass by soldiers ; to persecute ; 
to use violent measures towards. [< 
root of dragon.] 

drain (drained, drain'-ing), v. to draw 
slowly off (as water) ; to drink dry ; to 
exhaust : n. a water-course or ditch ; in 
pi. any waste matter or dregs, drain'- 
age, n. a system of drains (in a town). 
drainage— basin, n. the area of land 
which drains into a river or reservoir. 
drainage— tube, n. a small, flexible tube 
placed in a wound or sore to draw off 
pus, etc., from it whilst healing. 
drain'-er, n. one who, or that which, 
drains, drain— trap, n. a contrivance 
for preventing foul air escaping from a 
drain when the water flows in. [A.S. 

drehnian, to strain off:] 
drake, n. the male of the duck. 
ened-rake, lit. duck-king.] 


dram, n. the 16th part of an ounce (avoir- 
dupois weight) ; the eighth part of an 
ounce (apothecaries weight) ; a small 
quantity of liquor, dram-shop, n. a 
shop where spirits are sold in small 
quantities. [See drachma.] 

dra'-ma (drd'-via), n. a theatrical per- 
formance representing human life and 
action, dra-mat'-ic, or -ic-al, adj. of 
or pertaining to the drama ; theatrical ; 
animated ; unreal ; affected, dram'' 
a-tis per-so'-nas, [L.] the characters 
represented in a drama, dram'-a-tize 
(-tized, -ti-zing), v. to form into a 
drama, dram'-a-tist, n. a writer of 
dramas. [L. <Gr. drama <drao, I do.] 

drape (draped, dra'-ping), v. to hang, 
cover, or adorn with cloth or drapery ; 
to arrange drapery, dra'-per, n. a 
dealer in cloth and textile fabrics gener- 
ally, with their trimmings, dra'-per-y, 
n. cloth goods. [F. drap, cloth.] 

dras'-tic, adj. active ; strong and forcible ; 
thorough. [Gr. drao, I do.] 

draught (draft), n. the act of moving 
loads by drawing ; that which draws ; 
an outline of a picture, a scheme, a 
plan, etc. ; a current (as of air) ; the 
quantity of liquid drunk at one effort ; 
the depth of water that a ship requires ; 
the quantity of fish caught at one time : 
v. (-ed, -ing), to draw (as a plan). 
draughts, n. pi. a game played on a 
chequered board of 64 squares by two 
players, draughts '-man, n. one who 
draws (plans), draught'-y, adj. exposed 
to currents of air. on draught, drawn 
directly from the cask (as wine, beer, 
etc.) . black draught, a purging medi- 
cine made from senna, etc. forced 
draught, a strong draught under a steam 
boiler, etc., produced by a fan or other 
mechanical means. [<root of draw.] 

draw (drew, drawn, draw'-ing), v. to 
pull ; to take out, as money (from a 
bank), a tooth, etc. ; to attract ; to make 
a picture of. draw-back, n. disadvan- 
tage ; a receiving back of duty paid on 
goods on their exportation, draw'- 
bridge, n. a bridge that can be drawn 
up or let down at pleasure, draw'-er, 
n. one who draws ; one who writes out 
a cheque for a person (who is called the 
draw-ee'); a kind of box which may be 
drawn out from or pushed into its case 
at will, a chest of drawers, a case or 
frame containing several drawers. 




draw'-ers, a light garment for the 
legs, draw'-ing, ft. a picture (drawn 
with pencil, etc.). drawing— room, ft. 
a room into which persons withdraic 
after dinner, drawn-game, or a draw, 
w. a game in which neither side has won, 
or which remains undecided. [<drag, 
A.S. dragan.} 

drawl (drawled, drawl'-ing), v. to speak 
in a slow, sleepy manner. [<draw.] 

dray, ft. a low, strong cart for heavy 
goods. [< root of drag.] 

dread (dred), (-ed, -ing), n. to fear very 
much ; to regard with respectful fear : 
n. fear ; awe ; terror : adj. causing great 
fear or apprehension, dread'-ful, adj. 
dread' -ful-ly, adv. dread-less, adj. 
havingno fear. [A.S. on-drsedan, to fear] 

Dread'-nought, n. a thick overcoat ; a 
general name for a first-class man-of- 
war (ship). [< dread.] 

dream (drem), (dreamed, or dreamt 
(dremt), dream' -ing), v. to fancy things 
as real during sleep : n. an idle fancy ; 
something only imaginary ; a vision in 
sleep, dream '-er, n. dream '-y, adj. 
fanciful; unreal, dream— land, n. the 
land of dreams ; the region of fancy or 
imagination. [M.E. dreem."} 

drear (drer), or drear'-y, adj. dull; 
gloomy, drear'-i-ly (-1-11), adv. 
drear'-i-ness, n. [A.S. dreorig<dreor, 

dredge (drej), n. an instrument to collect 
by dragging ; a drag-net for oysters, etc. ; 
a machine for drawing up mud, etc., 
also called a dredg'-er. dredging— 
box or dredger, ft. a box with holes in 
the lid for sprinkling flour, sugar, etc., 
on food. v. (dredged, dredg' -ing). [< 
root of drag.] 

dregs (dregz), remains; grounds; 
sediment. [Ic. dregg, dregs.] 

drench (drenched, drench -ing), v. to 
soak : n. a dose of medicine (esp. for 
horses or cattle). [A.S. drencan, to 
cause to drink.] 

dress (dressed, dress' -ing, dressed or 
drest), v. to put on clothes ; to prepare 
(as for cooking) ; to cook ; to set in 
order ; to manure land : n. clothes ; a 
woman's gown. dress— circle, n. a 
portion of a theatre, etc., where the 
visitors sit in evening-dress, dress' - 
er, ft. one who dresses ; a medical 
student or nurse who dresses wounds ; a 
side-board, dress '-ing, ft. a stiffening; 

a sauce ; a bandage, etc., applied to a 
wound. dress-coat, n., evening- 
dress, n., or full-dress, n. dress fixed by 
custom for particular occasions, as even- 
ing parties, receptions, balls, reviews, 
etc. dressing— case, ft. a bag or box 
containing articles used in dressing (as 
comb, brush, etc.). dressing-gown, 
n., dressing— jacket, ft. a loose garment 
worn by men and women in dressing or 
in dishabille, dress— goods, fabrics 
for making women's and children's 
dresses, etc. dres'-sy, adj. fond of 
dress ; smartly and tastefully dressed ; 
showily dressed. [F. dresser, to make 
straight <L. directus, straight.] 

drib'-ble (-bled, -bling), v. to fall in 
small drops ; to keep moving by little 
and little (as the ball in football). 
drib'-blet (or drib'-let), n. a small drop 
or quantity. [< root of drip.] 

drift, ft. light matter piled up or driven 
along by the wind ; meaning ; a passage 
in a mine ; a ford in a river in S. Africa : 
v. (-ed, -ing), to be driven along. 
drift— ice, n. masses of floating ice that 
drift with the wind or currents, drift- 
wood, n. wood drifted by water. [< 
root of drive.] 

drill (drilled, dril'-ling), v. to pierce or 
bore (a hole) ; to exercise (esp. soldiers) : 
ft. an instrument for boring ; a row or 
trench in the ground to put seeds in ; an 
instrument for forming such a trench. 
drill— serjeant,w. a serjeant who drills 
and trains soldiers, diamond— drill, n. 
a drill used for boring in mining, tunnel- 
ling, etc., having the head set with 
rough diamonds, or " borts " as they are 
called. [D. drillen, to drill.] 

drill, ft. a kind of stout twilled linen or 
cotton cloth, often white, used for men's 
overalls, and for suits in hot countries. 
drills, clothes made of drill. [?] 

drink (drank, drunk or drunk' -en, 
drink'-ing), v. to swallow (liquid) ; to 
take too rimch intoxicating liquor: n. 
drink'-a-ble, adj. able to be drunk ; fit 
for drinking, drinking— fountain, w. a 
public erection for supplying water for 
drinking purposes, drunk, adj. intox- 
icated, to drink in, to absorb eagerly 
or readily, to — to or to — the health 
of, to — with good wishes for another's 
health. strong drink, intoxicating 
liquors. [A.S. drincan, to drink.] 

drip (dripped, drip'-ping), v. to fall in 




drops ; to let fall in drops : n. drip'- 
ping, n. the fat which drips from roast- 
ing meat, drip '-stone, n. a stone or 
cornice over a door or window to throw 
off the rain. [A.S. dreopan, to drop] 

drive (drove or drave, driY'-en, dri- 
ving), v. to make go ; to guide (as horses 
in a vehicle) ; to force along ; to compel ; 
to hit away with force (as a ball at 
cricket, golf, tennis, etc.) ; to chase 
(game) towards the sportsmen : n. a ride 
in a carriage ; a carriage-road ; a moving 
on (as in a whist driye). dri'-ver, 
n. one who — ; a club used in golf to 
propel the ball from the teeing ground. 
driving— wheel, n. a main wheel that 
communicates motion to other wheels ; 
one of the large wheels of a locomotive 
which receives its motion direct from 
the piston. [A.S. drifan, to drive.] 

driv'-el (-elled, -el-ling), v. to let spittle 
fall from the mouth ; to say foolish 
things: n. foolish talk, driv'-el-ler, 
n. a fool ; an idiot. {See dribble.] 

driz'-zle (-zled, -zling), v. to rain in small 
drops : n. driz'-zly (-zli), adj. [A.S. 
dreosan, to drip.] 

droll (drol), adj. laughable; comic; 
amusing, droll'-er-y, n. something 
droll. [F. drdle.J 

drom'-e-da-ry (-da-rl), n. a swift (Ara- 
bian) camel with one hump only. [F. < 
L.<Gr. dromas, running.] 

drone, n. the male of the bee ; a lazy 
person ; the largest tube in a bagpipe : 
v. (droned, dro'-ning), to make a low, 
humming sound. [A.S. drdn, drone, 
so called from its humming.'] 

droop (drooped, droop '-ing), v. to hang 
down (as ready to drop) ; to languish ; 
to grow weak and faint with disappoint- 
ment. [<root of drop.] 

drop, n. a small particle of liquid ; a sip ; 
a taste : v. (dropped, drop '-ping), to 
fall in drops ; to fall from a height ; to 
set down from a carriage, drop— kick, n . 
the kicking of a (foot) ball as it rebounds 
from the ground when dropped from the 
hands, to drop in, to call in casually. 
[Ic. drupa, to drop.] 

drop'-sy (si), n. a disease caused by 
accumulation of water in the body. 
drop'-si-cal, adj. [F. < L. < Gr. hudrops 
<hudor, water.] 

dros'-ky (-H), or drosh'-ki (drosh'-), n. 
alight, low, four-wheeled carriage (much 
used in Russia). [Russ. drozhki.'} 

dross, n. the scum thrown off from a metal 
in smelting ; waste matter ; refuse. 
[A.S. dros, dregs < dreosan, to fall.] 

drought (drout), or drouth, n. dryness; 
long absence of rain ; great thirst. 
[A.S. dryge. dry.] 

drove, n. a number of cattle or other 
animals driven, dro'-ver, n. a driver 
of cattle. [< drive.] 

drown (drowned, drown '-ing: do not 
say drownd'-ing), v. to kill by placing 
under water ; to die by being placed 
under water ; to overpower ; to extin- 
guish (as sound). [A.S. druncnian, to 
drown <drincan, to drink.] 

drowse (drouz), (drowsed, drow'-sing), 
v. to be heavy with sleep, drow'-sy 
(-zi), adj. very sleepy, drow'-si-ly, 
adv. [A.S. drusian, to be languid.] 

drub (drubbed, drub'-bing), v. to beat ; 
to thrash, drub'-bing, n. a beating. 
[? Ar] 

drudge (druj), (drudged, drudg'-mg), v. 
to work hard ; to toil : n. one who works 
hard ; a menial servant, drudg'-er-y, 
n. hard toil ; uninteresting or slavish 
toil. [?] 

drug, n. a medicine, or a substance used 
in medicine ; any stuff used in dyeing 
or in chemical operations ; an article 
that has only a small sale : v. (drugged) 
drug'-ging), to give a drug or poison to ; 
to give too much medicine to. drug'- 
gist, n. a dealer in drugs. [F.<D. 
droog, dry.] 

drug'-get, n. a coarse, woollen, felted 
cloth, dyed of one colour, or printed on 
one side, often used to cover carpets. 
[F. droguet."] 

Dru'-id, n. (/. -id-ess), a priest (or 
priestess) of the Ancient Britons and 
other Celtic races. Dru-id'-ic [-al],, 
adj. Dru'-id-ism, n. the doctrines 
taught by, or the ceremonies practised 
by, the Druids. [Ga. druidth."] 

drum, n. a musical instrument played by 
beating ; a part of the ear (on which the 
sound strikes) ; a revolving cylinder in j 
a machine ; the part of a windlass round 
which the rope or chain coils ; a cylin- 
drical metal can, canister, or barrel, 
with cover: v. (drummed, drum -ming), 
to beat a drum, drum- head— court- 
martial, n. one held in camp, with the 
drum-head, or top of the drum, for a 
table, to drum out, to expel (a soldier 
from a regiment) by beat of drum. 




druro'-mer, n. one who beats a drum. 
drum— major, n. the chief drummer of 
a regiment. [D. trom. Imit.] 
drunk, adj. in a state of intoxication. 
drunk'-ard, n. one who drinks intoxi- 
cating liquors to excess, drun'-ken- 
ness, n. state of being — . [< drink.] 
drupe, n. a pulpy fruit containing a nut 
or stone (as the plum, cherry, etc.). [F. 
<L.<Gr. druppa, an over-ripe olive.] 
dry, adj. free from, or deficient in, water or 
moisture ; thirsty ; (of wines, etc.) free 
from sweetness ; uninteresting; precise: 
v. (dried, dry'-ing), to make dry ; to 
exhaust, dri'-ly, or dry'-ly, adv. 
dry dock, one from which the water can 
be drawn off him. for repairing vessels). 
dry goods, clothes, silks, and drapers' 
goods generally, as distinguished from 
groceries, dry— measure, n. the measure 
by bushels, pecks, etc. dry'-rot, n. 
the rotting of wood owing to the presence 
of fungi ; state of decay or ruin, dry'- 
sal-ter, n. a dealer in dry-sal'-ter-y, 
i.e., dye-stuffs, drugs, colours, oils, 
gums, etc. dry '-shod, adv. without 
wetting the feet. [A..S. dryfje."} 

dry '-ad, n. a nymph or female deity of 
the woods. [L. < G. druas < drus, an oak] 

D.Sc, Doctor of Science. 

D.S.O., Distinguished Service Order, insti- 
tuted by Queen Victoria, in 1886, for 
officers in the British army and navy 
who perform distinguished service. 

Du., Dutch. 

du'-al, adj. consisting of two ; double ; 
for two. du-al'-i-ty, n. state of being 
two. dual— control, n. an arrangement 
of control or jurisdiction by two powers, 
als (formerly) England and France in 
Egypt. [L. duo, two.] 

iub (dubbed, dub'-bing), v. to strike with 
a sword and so create a knight : n. a 
blow. [O.F.] 

du'-bi-ous (-bi-us), adj. doubtful; un- 
certain, du-bi'-e-ty (-bV-), n. [L. 
dubium, doubt.] [duke {q.v.). 

iu'-cal {-kal), adj. of or belonging to a 

iuc'-at (duk'-), n. a name given to several 
European coins, in gold worth about 
9s. 4dL, in silver worth about 3s. id. 
[<root of duke.] 

luch'-ess, n. feminine of duke ; a woman 
of imposing appearance. 

Iu-chesse' (dli-shes', not as duch'-ess), n. 
a long cover for a dressing-table, or for 
the centre of a dining- table. [?] 

duch'-y, n. a country ruled by a duke. 

duck,w. a common water-bird : v. (ducked, 
duck'-ing), to dip ; to dive ; to lower 
the head suddenly, duck'-ling, n. a 
young duck, ducking-stool, n. a stool 
or chair in which scolds were formerly 
placed to be ducked in the water, a 
duck's egg, a score of none at all (0) at 
cricket and other games, to make 
ducks and drakes of, to waste; to 
squander recklessly. [D. duiken."} 

duck, n a strong, untwilled linen or cotton 
fabric, used for men's (esp. sailors') outer 
garments, ducks, garments made 
of duck.[Du. dock, linen cloth.] 

duct, n. a tube, pipe, or canal for liquids 
(esp. in animal bodies and plants). 
[L. duco, I lead.] 

duc'-tile (til) , adj. capable of being drawn 
out into threads (as metals into wire) ; 
yielding ; easily led. [L. duco, I lead.] 

dude, n. a f op ; a dandy. [?] 

dudg'-eon (duj'-un), n. resentment; 
anger ; ill-feeling. [? W. dygen.] 

due, adj. owing ; proper : n. what is owed ; 
what one has a right to ; tribute, du'-ly, 
adv. in due course ; at the proper time. 
[F. <L. debeo, I owe.] 

du'-el, n. a fight between two persons. 
du'-el-list, n. or du'-el-ler, n. one who 
fights in a duel, du-el'-lo, n. a duel ; 
the laws of duelling. [I. <L. duo, two.] 

du-en'-na,w. the chief lady-in-waiting on 
the Queen of Spain ; an elderly lady who 
has charge of younger ones ; a governess. 
[Sp. <L. domina, a mistress.] 

du-et', v. a piece of music to be performed 
by two singers or players. [I. <L. duo, 
two.] [l< Duffel, in Holland.] 

duf'-fel, n. a thick, coarse, woollen cloth. 

duf -fer, n. a pedlar ; a stupid or incom- 
petent person. [?] 

dug'— out, n. a canoe made by hollowing 
out the trunk of a tree ; a rough dwel- 
ling formed by excavating on a hill side 
or sloping bank, [dug + out.] 

duke, n. m. (f. duch'-ess), a noble of the 
highest rank, duke'-dom, n. rank or 
territory of a duke, du'-cal (-kal), adj. 
of or belonging to a duke. [F.<L. 
duco, I lead.] 

dul'-cet (set), adj. sweet (to the taste or 
to the ear); melodious. [O.F.<L. 
dulcis, sweet.] 

dul'-ci-mer (si-),n. a musical instrument 
with wires struck by small hammers held 
in the hand. [Sp. <L. dulcis, sweet.] 




dull, adj. not cheerful ; slow at learning ; 
stupid ; slow of hearing, understand- 
ing, etc. ; without life or spirit ; drowsy ; 
sad ; downcast ; not sharp (of tpols, etc.); 
not bright or clear ; cloudy : v. (dulled, 
dul'-ling), to make dull; to stupefy; to 
make blunt ; to tarnish, dul'-lard, n. 
a person of slow intelligence, dul'-ness, 
or dull'-ness, n. [M.E. dul, foolish.] 

du'-ly, adv. of due. 

Du'-ma (doo'-md), n. the elective parlia- 
ment of Eussia, which met first by a 
decree of the Emperor in 1906 ; a meet- 
ing of councillors in Eussia. [Eus.] 

dumb (dum), adj. without power of speech ; 
silent ; without sound, dumb— bells, weights swung in the hands for 
exercising certain muscles of the body. 
dumb'-ly, adv. dum-found' (-ed, 
-ing), (sometimes also dum-foun'-der), 
v. to strike dumb ; to confuse, dumb'- 
show, n. a performance consisting of 
actions without words, dumb— waiter, 
ii. a moveable table or stand for convey- 
ing food to table. [A.S. dumb.] 

dum'— dum, n. an expanding bullet, i.e., 
a lead bullet encased in steel, very thin 
at the end (the tip or nose), so that the 
lead flattens out when it strikes, and 
causes a fearful wound. [Imit.<dump, 
the sound made when striking.] 

dum'-my, n. a dumb person ; a stupid 
person ; something which fills a place 
for show, but is not real ; a hand at 
cards exposed to the other players : adj. 
fictitious; sham. [<dumb.] 

dump, n. (usu. pi. dumps), gloominess of 
mind ; sadness or low spirits. [<root 
of damp.] 

dump (dumped, dump '-ing), v. to throw 
down in a heap ; to import goods in large 
quantities, so as to lower the price of 
home goods, and make competition 
difficult or impossible. [? Scand.] 

dump'-ling, n. a small pudding of boiled 
paste (sometimes with fruit). [<root 
of dump.] 

dun, ad;', of dark-brownish colour. [A.S. j 

dun (dunned, dun'-ning), v. to press for 
payment of debt. [A.S. dyne, a loud 

dunce, n. one who learns slowly ; an 
ignorant or stupid person. [<Duns 
Scotus, a Scotch scholar, who died 1308 ; 
his followers are said to have opposed 
the revival of learning.] 

dun'-der-head, n. a stupid person. [Dan. 

dune, n. a low sand-hill. [A.S. dun, a 

Dunelm., Dun-el-men' -sis [L.] = of Dur- 
ham, the signature of the Bishop of 

dung, n. the excrement of animals ; 
manure : v. (dunged, dung'-ing), to 
manure with dung, dung' -hill, n. a 
heap of dung. [A.S. dung.'} 

dun'-ga-ree, n. a kind of coarse canvas or 
white drill used for the working clothes 
of sailors, etc. [Hind, dungari.] 

dun'-geon (-jun), n. the chief tower of a 
castle ; a close, dark prison (often 
underground) ; a prison. [See donjon.] 

du-o-dec'-i-mal (-des'-t-), adj. reckoned 
by twelves. [L. duodecim, twelve.] 

dupe, n. one easily cheated : v. (duped, 
du'-ping), to cheat; to trick. [F. dupe."] 

du'-ple, or du'-plex, adj. two-fold ; 
double. [L. duo, two +plico, I fold.] 

du'-plex, adj. double ; compound ; (in 
machinery), Avorking in two ways. 
duplex telegraphy, an arrangement by 
which two messages can be transmitted 
at the same time in opposite directions 
on the same wire. [L. duplex, two-fold, 

du'-pli-cate (-&'£), n. a copy : adj. double: 
v. (-ca-ted, -ca-ting [-led-] ,). du'-pli- 
ca-tor, n. an apparatus for making a 
copy of a piece of writing, drawing, 
music, etc. [See duple.] 

du-plic'-i-ty (-plis'-l-tl), n. double-deal- 
ing ; deceit ; cunning. [See duple.] 

du'-ra-ble, adj. lasting ; permanent ; able 
to resist decay, du-ra-bil'-i-ty, n. 
[F.<L. duro, I last, endure <durus, 
hard, enduring.] 

du'-rance, or du'-ress, n. imprisonment ; 
restraint ; hardship. Used in the phrase 
durance vile. [F. <L. duro, I endure.] 

du-ran'-te vi'-ta, [L.] during life. 

du-ra'-tion, n. length of time. [F.<L. 
duro, I last.] 

dur'-bar, n. an audience-chamber ; a 
reception (esp. of native princes by the 
Viceroy of India). [P. <dar, a door.] 

du'-ring, prep, for the space (of time) of. 
[F.<L. duro, I endure, last.] 

dur'-ra, n. a kind of millet. The plant is a 
kind of grass closely allied to sugar-cane, 
and the seeds are used as food. [Ar.] 

durst. See dare. 

dusk, n. evening twilight, dusk'-y, adj. 


darkish ; of darkish colour. [Swedish 

dust, re. fine particles of matter ; fine 
powder ; earth ; the grave, where the body 
becomes dust ; gold dust, hence money : 
v. (dust'-ed, dust'-ing), to free from 
dust, dust— coat, re. a light overcoat. 
dust'-er, re. one who dusts, or that with 
which one dusts, to dust one's jacket, 
to chastise, to throw — in one's eyes, 
to mislead ; to deceive. [A.S. dust.] 

Dutch (duch), adj. of Holland. Dutch 
auction, one in which the seller com- 
mences with a high price and comes 
down gradually till a purchaser is found. 
— courage, sham courage. [G. deutsch] 

du'-ty, re. what one ought to do ; obedi- 
r ence; a tax on goods, du'-te-ous {-us), 
adj. du'-ti-ful, adj. duty-free, adj. 
(goods) free from duty or tax. du'-ti- 
a-ble, adj. liable to duty. [ < root of due] 

iux, re. a leader ; the top pupil (of a class 
or school). [L. dux<duco, I lead.] 

D.Y., [L.] De'-o vo-len'-te, God willing ; 
if God will. 

Iwarf, re. (pi. dwarfs), a very small 
human being, animal, or plant: v. 
(dwarfed, dwarf '-ing), to make or keep 
small, dwarf '-ish, adj. [A.S.dweorg.] 

Iwell (dwelt, dwel'-ling), v. to live (in a 
place) ; to reside ; to stay ; to continue 
long, dwel'-ler, re. one who — . dwel'- 
ling, re. residence ; home ; abode. [A.S. 
dwellan, to go astray.] 

iwin'-dle (-died, -dling), v. to grow less 
or feeble by degrees ; to waste away. 
[A.S. dwinan, to become smaller.] 

iwt., pennyweight. [d.<L. denarius, 
penny ; wt. for weight.] 

Dy'-ak (di'~), re. the Malay name for the 
native race of Borneo. 

lye (di), (dyed, dye'-ing), v. to give a 
new colour to ; to stain : n. dy'-er, re. 
one who dyes (cloth, etc.). dye— stuffs, materials used in dyeing. [A.S. 
deagian, to dye.] 

ly' -ing, p res. p. of to die; adj. (Note, 
no »• e.") 

iyke. See dike. 

iy-nam'-ic (di- or din-), adj. relating to 
power or force, dy-nam'-ics, the 
science of power or force (esp. of forces 
producing motion) . dy-nam ' -i-cal, a dj . 
[Gr. dundmis, power.] 

Iy'-na-mite (or din'-), re. a very powerful 
explosive substance consisting chiefly of 
nitro-glycerine. dyn-a-mi'-tard, or 



dyn-a-mi'-ter, n. one who commits an 
outrage by means of dynamite. [See 

dy'-na-mo, re. (pi. -mos), a machine for 
producing currents of electricity by 
means of the relative movement of field- 
magnets and conductors, usually coils 
of copper wire. [See dynamic] 

dyn'-as-ty (dm'- or di'-), re. a line of 
sovereigns of the same family, dy- 
nas'-tic, adj. [F.<L.<Gr. dunastes, 
a lord.] 

dys'-en-ter-y (dis'-en-ter-i),n. inflamma- 
tion of the large bowel, a disease differ- 
ing from diarrhoea chiefly by being 
attended with fever and much pain. 
[L.<Gr. dies, evil-f eretera, bowels.] 

dys-pep'-si-a (dis-pep'-si-d), or dys- 
pep'-sy, n. a kind of indigestion, dys- 
pep'-tic, n. and adj. [L.<Gr. dus, 
ewil+pepto, I digest.] 

E., east ; earl ; an abbreviation for many 
Christian names. [[A.S. celc] 

each, adj. every one (taken separately). 

ea'-ger (e'-ger), adj. very earnest ; with 
keen desire, ea'-ger-ness, re. [F.< 
L. deer, sharp.] 

ea'-gle (e'-gl), re. a large bird of prey ; a 
gold coin (of the U.S.) worth ten dollars 
(about £2 Is. 8d.). ea'-glet, re. a young 
eagle, eagle-eyed, adj. very sharp- 
sighted ; discerning. [F.<L. aquila, 
an eagle.] 

ea'-gre (e'-gr) (less correctly ea'-ger), re. 
a large tidal wave ; a bore. [?] 

ear (er), re. the organ of hearing ; percep- 
tion or taste for music, ear'-ache, re. 
pains in the ear. ear '-mark (-marked, 
-mark-ing), v. to mark the ear of an 
animal (esp. a sheep or pig) with the 
name or sign of the owner ; to mark or 
set aside for a particular purpose : re. 
ear' -ring, re. an ornament (ring) for the 
ear. ear-shot, re. within sound ; hear- 
ing distance, ear— trumpet, re. a tube 
put in the ear by partly deaf persons to 
assist their hearing, ear'-wig, re. a 
long insect with forked tail, said (erro- 
neously) to creep into the head through 
the ear. to give — to, to listen to ; to 
pay attention to. [A.S. eare.] 

ear (er), re. a head of corn. [A.S. ear.] 

earl (erl), n. a noble next in rank below a 
marquis, earl'-dom, re. the rank or 




territory of an earl. Earl Marshal, 
one of the great English officers of State 
— he is president of the Heralds' College, 
and orders and regulates State cere- 
monies. [A.S. eorl."] 

ear'-ly (er'-), adv. and adj. in good time 
or season ; happening in the near 
future ; betimes, ear'-li-er, adj. ear'- 
li-est, adj. early bird, or early riser, 
one who gets up early in the morning. 
[A.S. cerlice<cer, before (in time).] 

earn (em), (earned, earn'-ing), v. to 
gain by labour ; to deserve, earn'-ings, what is earned. [A.S. earnian."] 

ear'-nest (er'-),adj. very desirous ; intent ; 
serious ; determined : n. zeal ; serious- 
ness. ear'-nest-ness,n. [A.S. eornost."] 

ear'-nest (er'-), n. part of a price paid in 
advance ; a foretaste of something to 
follow. [M.E. ernes. ~\ 

earth (erth), n. the world in which we 
live ; ground, mould, or dry land : v. 
(earthed, earth'-ing), to put earth to; 
to bury in the earth, earth— closet, n. 
one in which dry earth or ashes is 
used as a deodorizer, earth' -en, adj. 
made of some kind of earth (esp. clay). 
earth'-ly, adj. belonging to the earth ; 
worldly ; vile, earth '-en-ware, n. 
household articles made of baked clay. 
earth-nut, n. the ground— nut or pea- 
nut, a popular name given to several 
roots, tubers, or pods, most of which 
are edible, earth '-quake, n. a violent 
shaking or heaving up of the ground. 
earth'-work, n. a fortification made 
principally by throwing up banks of 
earth, earth '-worm, n. the common 
worm (living underground), to run to 
— , to hunt an animal to its burrow or 
to where it cannot escape. [A.S. eortlie."} 

ease (ez), n. freedom from labour, pain, 
trouble, or difficulty : v. (eased, eas'- 
ing), to give ease to. to ease off, to 
slacken a rope (esp. of a vessel) gradually. 
eas'-y, adj. at ease ; free from pain ; 
not difficult ; comfortably off (in money 
matters) ; free from formality, eas'- 
i'ly (-1-11), adv. eas'-i-ness, n. ease'- 
ment, n. that which gives ease ; in law, 
a liberty or privilege which one land- 
owner has in the land of another without 
payment (as a right of way, etc.). ease'- 
ful, adj. easy-going, adj. good 
natured ; indolent, ill at — , uncom- 
fortable (esp. in mind), to take it easy, 
to be quite unconcerned ; not to hurry. 

fortable. [? F. aise.] 

ea'-sel (e'-zel), n. a stand or frame for 
supporting a picture, blackboard, dia- 
gram, etc. [G. Esel, an ass.] 

east (est), n. the direction in which the I 
sun rises ; one of the four cardinal 
points, east'-er-ly, adj. and adv. I 
east'-ern, adj. towards or belonging to I 
the east, east'-ward, adj. towards the j 
east, east'-wards, adv. East— India- 
man, ft. a swift sailing-vessel formerly, 
used in trading with the East Indies. 
[A.S. east, east.] 

Eas'-ter (es'-), n. the festival commemor- 
ating Christ's resurrection (kept in the 
Spring) on the Sunday after Good Fri- 
day (called Easter Day). Easter egg, 
n. an egg, hard-boiled and decorated on 
the shell, or something shaped like an 
egg, given as a present at Easter. 
Easter— tide, ft. Easter time ; the week 
after Easter Day. [A.S. eastre."] 

eat (et), (ate, eat'-en, eat'-ing), v. to 
take food through the mouth into the 
stomach ; to consume, eat'-a-ble, 
adj. fit to be eaten, eat'-a-bles, 
food, eat'-er, n. one who — . eat'- 
ing, adj. : n. to — away, to destroy 
gradually, to — • in, to penetrate (as an 
acid into a metal) ; to take meals in a 
house of business as part wages, to — 
its head off, said of an animal (as a 
horse) which eats as much as the worth 
of the work it does, or is kept in the 
stable with nothing to do. to — one's 
words, to withdraw what one has said. 
[A.S. etan.'] 

eau (o), [F.] water. eau-de-Cologne 
(d-duh-ko-lon'),n. Cologne water, a per- 
fumed spirit, eau-de-vie' (5-duh-ve'), 
n. (water of life), brandy, eau forte' 
(5 fort'), n. nitric acid ; an etching (nitric 
acid being used in preparing the plate 
from which etchings are printed). 

eaves (evz), the part of a roof jutting 
over the wall, eaves-drop (-dropped, 
-drop-ping), v. to listen secretly. 
eaves'-drop-per,n. [A.S.e/es, eaves.] 

ebb (ebbed, ebb'-ing), v. to flow back (of 
the tide) : n. : adj. [A S. ebba, low tide.] 

eb'-o-ny, n. a hard, black wood, eb'-o- 
nite, n. vulcanite, a hard, black material 
made from india-rubber, eb'-on-ize 
(-ized, -iz-ing), v. to stain (wood, etc.) 
black . [F . <. L . < Gr . ebenos , the ebony 




E'-bor., E-bor-a-cen'-sis [L.] = of E-bor'- 
a-cum, or York ; the signature of the 
Archbishop of York. 

eb-ul-li'-tion (-ul-lish' -uri) , n. a boiling 
up or over ; an outburst (of feeling). 
e-bul'-li-ence (-bul'-li-), n. e-bul'-li- 
ent,adj. agitated. [L. ex- -\-bullio, I boil] 

ec-, el-, ex-, pref. [<Gr. ek-} out of ; 

E.C., East Central ; Established Church. 

Ec'-ce tio'-mo, [L.] behold the Man, 
i.e., Jesus Christ. John xix., 5. 

ec-cen'-tric (eft-sen'-), or -tri-cal, adj. out 
of the centre ; odd or peculiar in manner. 
ec-cen-tric'-i-ty (-tris'-i-ti), n. devia- 
tion from a centre, custom, etc. ; pecu- 
liarity of conduct. [F. <L. ex- -{-centrum, 

ec-cle-si-as'-tic (-zi-), n. a clergyman ; a 
priest : adj. relating to, or belonging to, 
the Church, ec-cle-si-as -ti-cal, adj. 
ec-cle-si-as'-ti-cism, n. strong attach- 
ment to the Church, and its doctrines 
and observances. [L.<Gr. ekklesia, 
assembly, church.] 

ech'-e-lon (esh'-), n. an arrangement of 
troops in the form of steps, each suc- 
cessive line being a little to the right or 
left of the preceding one. [F. echelle, 
a ladder.] 

ech'-o {ek'-), n. (pi. ech'-oes), the repe- 
tition of a sound by reflection : v. (ech'- 
oed, ech'-o-ing), to repeat (as words, 
opinions, etc.) ; to sound back ; to imi- 
tate, to cheer to the — , to applaud 
heartily. [L.<Gr. echo, echo.] 

6-cIair-cisse-ment' (d-kldr-ses-man') , 
n. a clearing up ; an explanation. [F.] 

e-clat' (ek'-la or d-kld'), n. striking 
effect ; applause ; notoriety. [F. eclat/} 

ec lec'-tic, adj. choosing or selecting the 
the best out of everything ; choosing or 
selecting opinions (esp. from different 
systems of philosophy, etc.) : n. one 
who selects, ec-lec'-ti-cism (sizm),n. 
[Gr. ek-, out + lego, I choose.] 

e-clipse' (-klips'), n. an obscuring of the 
light of the sun, moon, or other heavenly 
body (by shadow or intervention) ; tem- 
porary or partial loss of brilliancy or 
light : v. (-clipsed', -clip'-sing), to 
darken ; to throw into the shade ; to 
obscure; to outshine. [F.<L.<Gr. 
ek-, out + leipo, I leave.] 

e-clip'-tic, ri. the apparent path of the sun 
in the sky, or the real path of the earth as 
seen from the sun : adj. {See eclipse.] 

ec'-logue {-log), n. a simple, pastoral 
poem. [L.<Gr. ek-, out + lego, I select.] 

ec-ol'-o-gy (-jl), n. the science of living 
things (animals and plants) in their 
natural surroundings. [Gr. oikos, a 
house + logos, a discourse.] 

e-con'-o-my (-ml), n. prudent manage- 
ment (esp. of house or money) ; saving. 
ec-on-om -i-cal, adj. ec-o-nom'-ics, 
n. pi. the science of household manage- 
ment (domestic economy) ; the science 
of the production and distribution of 
wealth, and the utilization of natural 
resources (political economy), e-con'- 
O-mist, n. one who studies or practises 
economy, e-con'-o-mize (-mized, -mi- 
zing), v. to manage prudently or with 
economy ; to spend money carefully ; to 
save, e-con'-o-mi-zer, ». one who, or 
that which, economizes; any arrange- 
ment that saves waste (esp. of heat or 
fuel). [F.<L.<Gr. oikos, a house + 
nomos, a law.] 

e-cru' (d-kroo'), adj. the colour of un- 
bleached linen : n. a coarse kind of linen, 
or lace. [F. ecru, raw<L. crudus, raw.] 

ec'-sta-cy (si), n. state of being filled 
with very great joy, rapture, delight, or 
other deep feeling. ec-stat'-ic,ad;'. [F. 
<L.<Gr. ek-, out -f stasis, a standing.] 

E.G.U., English Church Union. 

ec-u-men'-ic, or -ic-al, adj. belonging to 
the whole inhabited earth ; general ; 
universal. [Gr. oikoumene, the inhabited 
(world) ; general.] 

ec'-ze-ma, n. an inflammation of the skin 
accompanied by redness, pimples, and 
itching. [Gr. ek-, out +zeo, I boil.] 

ed., editor ; edition. 

E'-dam, n. a round, mild, long-keeping 
Dutch cheese. [<Edam, in Holland, 
where made.] 

Ed'-da, n two old Scandinavian books of 
mythology and heroic songs, [lc. edda, 

ed'-dy, n. (pi. -dies), a whirling current 
of water or air : v. (-died, -dy-ing), to 
move round and round. [A.S. ed-, back, 

e'-del-Ytefos(d' -del-vis), n. a small Alpine 
plant with white flowers. [G. edel, 
noble + weiss, white.] 

E -den, n. the garden of Adam and Eve ; 
Paradise ; a beautiful spot. [H. eden, 
deliprht, pleasure.] 

e-den'-tate, or -ta'-ted, adj. without 
teeth, e-den-ta'-ta, n. pi. an order of 




animals having no front or canine teeth 
(as the sloth, armadillo, and ant-eater). 
[L. e-, out of -f dens, a tooth.] 

edge (ej), n. the sharp side or part of a 
cutting instrument ; a sharp border ; a 
side ; a margin, border, or rim ; keen- 
ness ; sharpness ; bitterness : v. (edged, 
edg'-ing), to sharpen ; to put an edge 
or border to ; to move sideways, edg'- 
ing (ej 1 -), n. a bordering ; a fringe. 
edge— tool (not edged), n. any cutting 
tool, etc. edge— ways (less correctly 
—wise), adv. sideways, to set the 
teeth on — , to cause a disagreeable 
sensation to the teeth ; to produce a 
feeling of dislike, to edge in, to get 
in by degrees; to slide in. [A.S. ecg, 

ed'-i-ble (-i-bl), adj. eatable, ed'-i-bles, 
? ed-i-bil'-i-ty,n. [L.edo,Ieat.] 

e'-dict, n. a proclamation, decree, or order 
issued by authority. [L. edictum<e-, 
out of + dico, I say.] 

ed'-i-fice {-i-Jis), n. a large building or 
house. [L. cediftcium.'] 

ed'-i-fy (-fied, -fy-ing), v. to build up, 
instruct, or improve (the mind) ; to 
teach, ed-i-fi-ca'-tion (-i-fi-), n. ed- 
i-fy-ing, adj. instructing. [L. cedes, a 
house +fdcio, I make.] [q.v. 

e'-dile (e'-dil), n. more correctly ae'-dile, 

Edin., Edinburgh. 

ed'-it (-ed, -ing), v. to arrange or super- 
intend the publication of (books, news- 
papers, etc.) ; to prepare for publication. 
e-di'-tion (-dish'-un), n. number of 
copies of a book, etc., printed at one 
time, ed'-i-tor, n. (/. -tress), one who 
— . ed-i-to'-ri-al, n. a leading article 
in a newspaper or magazine : adj. of or 
pertaining to an editor. e-dit'-i-o 
prin'-ceps, [L.] the first (and often 
the best) printed edition (of a book). 
[L. edo, I give out.] 

ed'-u-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to train 
or form (the mind and character) ; to 
teach, ed-u-ca'-tion, n. ed-u-ca'- 
tion-ist (less correctly ed-u-ca'-tion- 
al-ist),n. one who teaches, understands, 
oris an expert in, the principles of educa- 
tion, ed'-u-ca-tiye, adj. belonging to 
education, ed'-u-ca-tor, n. one who, or 
that which, — . [L. educo, I lead out.] 

e-duce' (-duced', -du'-cing), v. to lead or 
draw out. e-du'-ci-ble, adj. e-duc'- 
tion, n. [See educate.] 

E.E., Early English. 

eel (el), n. a long, snake-like fish with 
slimy skin. [A.S. sel.~\ 

e'en, a contraction of even. 

e'er (ar), a contraction of ever. 

ee'-rie (e'-rl), adj. causing a superstitious 
lonely feeling of fear, ee'-ri-ness, n. 
[A.S. earg, cowardly.] 

ef-face' (-faced', -fa'-cing), v. to take 
the surface off ; to blot out ; to render 
illegible ; to cause oneself to become 
unnoticed or inconspicuous, ef-face'- 
ment, n. ef-face ' -a-ble, adj. [F.< 
L. ef- — ex- -f fades, face.] 

ef-fect' (-ed, -ing), v. to bring or come to 
pass ; to produce : n. result ; impression 
produced, ef-fects', n. pi. property ; 
belongings, ef-fec'-tive, adj. produ- 
cing effect ; forcible ; serviceable, ef- 
fec'-tu-al, adj. producing the effect 
desired, ef-fec'-tu-al-ly, adv. com- 
pletely; thoroughly, in effect, in truth; 
really, to give — to, to accomplish ; 
to put into practice, to take — , to 
come into force ; to operate. [F.<L. 
ef- — ex--\-fdcio, I do.] 

ef-fem'-i-nate, adj. womanish ; un- 
manly ; weak ; cowardly, ef-fem'-i- 
na-cy (-nasi), n. ef-fem'-i-nate-ly, 
adv. [L. ef- — ex- +femina, a woman.] 

Ef-fen'-di,?i.atitleof distinction, honour, 
or respect, in Turkey. [Turk.] 

ef-fer-yesce' (-ves'), (-vesced', -Yes'- 
cing), v. to boil up with a hissing noise ; 
to give off gas ; to froth up. ef-fer- 
Yes'-cent (-sent), adj. ef-fer-Yes'- 
cence, n. [L. ef- =ex-+ferveo, I boil.] 

ef-fete', adj. worn out by age ; exhausted. 
[L. effetus.] 

ef'-fi-ca-cy (-fl-hd-sl), n. power to pro- 
duce results ; force, ef-fi-ca'-cious 
(-kd'-shus), adj. [L. efficio, I effect.] 

ef-fl'-cient (-fish'-ent), adj. capable of 
producing a desired result ; not inactive 
or incapable ; energetic and active, ef- 
fi'-cien-cy (si), n. [See efficacy.] 

ef'-fi-gy (-jl), n. (pi. -gies), a figure ; an 
image ; the head impressed on a coin or 
medal, to burn (or hang) in — , to 
burn (or hang) the image of a person as 
an expression of contempt or dislike. 
[F. < L. effigies < effingo, I form, fashion] 

ef-flo-resce' (-res'), (-resced',-res'-cing) 
v. to blossom out or forth ; to become 
covered with white dust or powder, ef- 
flo-res'-cence (sens), n. the blossom or 
flower of a plant ; the period of flower- 
ing, ef-flo-res'-cent (sent), adj. [F.< 




L. effioresco, I bloom out.] 

ef -flu-ence (-ens), n. a flowing out ; that 
which flows out. ef -flu-ent, n. that 
which flows out from a lake, a sewage 
tank, etc. : adj. [L. effiuo, I flow out.] 

ef-flu'-Yi-um, n. (pi. -yi-a), vapour (esp. 
disagreeable) given off from a body or 
decaying matter ; a bad smell. [L. 
effiuvium< effiuo, I flow out.] 

ef -flux, n. a flowing out ; that which 
flows out ; the passing (of time), ef- 
flux'-ion (-fluk'-shun), n. [L. effiuo, I 
flow out.] 

ef -fort,?i. a putting forth of strength : an 
attempt, ef -fort-less, adj. making no 
effort. [F. <L. ef- = ex- +fortis, strong.] 

ef-front'-er-y (-frunt'-), n. impudence ; 
boldness; shamelessness. [F.<L. 
effrons<frons, frontis, a forehead.] 

ef-ful'-gence, ft. brightness ; lustre, ef- 
ful'-gent, adj. [L. effulgeo, I shine 

ef-fuse' (-fuz'), (-fused', -fu'-sing),v. to 
pour out. ef-fu'-sion(-2/Mm),«. a pour- 
ing out; unrestrained utterance of words, 
etc. ef-fu'-siye (-siv), adj. pouring 
out profusely ; gushing. [L. effundo,! 
pour out.] [efete.~\ 

eft, n. a newt (a kind of lizard). [A.S. 

e.g., ex-em' -pli grd'-tl-d, [L.] = for the 
sake of example ; for example. 

egg, n. a rounded body covered with a 
shell or membrane (laid by birds, insects, 
and reptiles), containing the substance 
from which a young creature is pro- 
duced. [A.S. %.] 

*i& (egged, eg'-ging), v. to incite (in the 
phrase to egg on). [M.E. eggen, to 
goad on.] 

e'-gis, properly aegis, q.v. 

eg'-lan-tine (-tin, less correctly -tin), n. 
the sweet-briar or wild-rose. [F.<L. 
aculeus, a sting, prickle.] 

eg'-o (or I' -go), n. the " I " ; that which 
feels, thinks, and acts ; self, eg'-o- 
ism (or e'-go-), n. the doctrine of those 
who believe that we are certain of nothing 
except our own exi-tence ; self-interest ; 
selfishness. eg'-O-ist (or e'-go-), n. one 
who holds the doctrine of egoism ; one 
who thinks and speaks too much of him- 
self ; an egotist, q.v. [L. ego, I.] 

eg'-o-tism,?i. the practice of too frequently 
using the word "I" — hence, speaking or 
writing too much of oneself ; self-praise ; 
self-importance ; love of self, eg'-o- 
tist, n. one addicted to egotism ; a self- 


opinionated person, eg-o-tis'-tic, or 
-tis'-ti-cal, adj. given to egotism ; self- 
conceited ; vain, eg'-o-tize (-tized, 
-ti-zing), v. to exalt oneself ; to talk or 
write as an egotist. [See ego.] 

e-gre'-gi-ous (-ji-us), adj. remarkable; 
extraordinary (usu. in a bad sense) ; 
gross. [L. egregius, distinguished < e- -f 
grex, gregis, a flock.] 

e'-gress, n. a going out ; means of going 
out. [L. egredior, I go out.] 

e'-gret (properly ai'-gret, q.v.), n. a kind 
of heron ; a plume of heron's feathers. 
[F. aigrette, a plume of feathers.] 

E.I., East Indies, or East Indian. 

E.I.C., East India Company. 

ei'-der (I'-), n. the eider-duck, a kind of 
salt-water duck, eider— down, n. very 
fine soft feathers growing on the breast 
of the eider-duck, used for lining quilts, 
etc. ; a quilt so lined. [Ic. adr.~\ 

ei'-kon (I'-). See icon. 

ei-re'-ni-con (i-re'-nl-), n. an attempt 
(often in writing) to bring about peace 
between contending parties. [Gr. 
eirene, peace.] 

eis-tedd'-fod (is-teth'-vod), n. (pi. -fo'- 
dau) (-vo'-doiv), an assembly of Welsh 
bards and minstrels. [W.] 

ei'-ther (I'-ther or e'-), adj. one or the 
other (esp. of two). [A.S. cegther."} 

e-jac'-u-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to 
jerk out words ; to exclaim, e-jac-u- 
la'-tion, ft. an exclamation ; a short 
prayer, e-jac'-u-la-to-ry, adj. [L. 
e-+jaciilor, 1 throw, hurl.] 

e-ject' (-ed, -ing), v. to throw, thrust, or 
driveout; todismiss; to banish, e-jec'- 
tion, n. the act of ejecting, e-ject'- 
ment, n. a casting out ; the removal (by 
force of law) of a person or persons from 
house or land. e-ject'-or,». [L. ejicio, 
I cast out.] 

eke (eh), (eked, e'-king), v. to add to; to 
increase, to eke out, to make the best 
of (an income, etc.). [A.S. iecan, to 

eke (ek), adv. also. [A.S. eac, also.] 

e-lab'-o-rate (-ra-ted, -ra-ting), v. to 
work out with much labour ; to finish 
with much pains and skill : adj. made 
with much labour ; highly finished ; 
done with exactness or pains, e-lab- 
o-ra'-tion, n. [L. e--\-laltor, labour.] 

e-lan' (d-ldn'), n. dash; ardour; impulse. 

e'-land (e'-)» n. a South African species of 




antelope. [D. eland, an elk.] 

e-lapse' (-lapsed', -lap'-sing), v. to slip 
or pass away {esp. silently, of time). 
[L. e- + labor, lapsus, I glide, slip.] 

e-las'-tic, adj.having a tendency to recover 
the original form ; springing back (after 
pulling or pressure) ; springy ; flexible ; 
yielding ; resilient : n. a substance 
having elastic properties, e-las-tic'- 
i-ty {-tis' -l-ii) , n. power to recover 
from pressure, overwork, depression, 
etc. ; liberty to exercise discretion. [Gr. 
elauno, I drive.] 

e-late' (-la'-ted, -la'-ting), v. to lift up 
(as the spirits) ; to elevate (as with 
success) ; to make proud, c-la'-ted, 
adj. exalted ; in high spirits ; proud, 
e-la'-tion, n. pride resulting from suc- 
cess. [L. eldtus, lifted up.] 

el'-bow {-bo), n. the joint at the middle 
of the arm ; an angle or bend, elbow- 
grease, n. hard work, elbow— room, 
n. room to move the elbows in ; room 
for action, out at elbows, shabby ; in 
needy circumstances. [A..S. elboga."] 

eld'-er, adj. older: n. an old person; one 
placed in office {esp. in the Presbyterian 
Church), eld' -est, ad;', oldest. [A.S. 
eald, old.] 

el'-der, elder— tree, n. a genus of low 
trees or shrubs, with soft pith, bearing 
white blossoms and purple berries. 
[A S. ellcern.] 

El Do-ra'-do {-rd'-) , n. a fabulous country 
containing unlimited supplies of wealth 
(gold). [Sp. el dorado, the gilded.] 

e-lect' (-ed, -ing), v. to choose; to select 
{esp. by vote) : n. one chosen : adj. 
chosen, e-lec'-tion, n, a choosing {esp. 
of member for parliament, etc.). e-lec- 
tion-eer'-ing, adj. the work of managing 
and directing an election : n. e-lec' - 
tiYe {-tiv), adj. by election or choice. 
e-lec'-tor, n. one who chooses ; one 
who has a vote ; in the old German 
Empire, one of the princes entitled to 
choose the Emperor, e-lec'-tor-al, n. 
pertaining to or consisting of electors. 
e-lec' -tor-ate, n. the body of electors. 
[L. ellgo, I choose, elect.] 

e-lec'-tric, or -tric-al, adj. belonging to 
electricity e-lec' -tries, a general 
name for all that pertains to electricity. 
electric fluid, n. the supposed matter of 
electricity ; lightning, electric rail- 
way, n. a railway in which the motive 
power is electricity. [See electricity.] 

e-lec-tric'-i-ty {-tris'-l-ti), n. a form of 
energy in nature, and the phenomena 
{esp. attraction and repulsion) which 
this form of energy exhibits ; the science 
which investigates the nature of, and 
the laws relating to, this form of energy. 
e-lec-tri'-cian {-trish'-un), n. one 
skilled in the science of, or the practical 
application of, electricity, e-lec'-tri-fy 
(-fied, -fy-ing), v. to communicate elec- 
tricity to ; to charge or affect with elec- 
tricity ; to give a sudden shock or thrill 
(as of surprise, admiration, delight, etc.) 
to; toastonish. e-lec-tri-fi-ca'-tion,n. 
the act of charging or supplying with 
electricity, e-lec'-trum, n. an alloy of 
gold and silver ; German silver. [L. 
electrunK Gr. electron, amber.] 

electro— bus, n. an omnibus propelled by 
electric power. [See electricity.] 

e-lec' -tro-cute (or -tri-), (-cu-ted, -cu- 
ting), v. to inflict the penalty of death 
by means of electricity, e-lec-tro-cu'- 
tion, n. [< electricity + execution.] 

e-lec' -trode, n. either of the poles or ter- 
minals of a galvanic battery or dynamo 
(the anode +, and the cathode — ). 
electro-dynamics, n. the branch of 
science which treats of the properties of 
electric currents, e-lec '-tro-graph, n. 
a photograph or writing made by elec- 
tricity transmitted from a distance. 
electro— kinetics, n. the branch of the 
science which treats of the motion of 
an electric current, and the forces pro- 
ducing or regulating it. e-lec-tro-lier' 
{-leer'), n. a chandelier or cluster of 
electric lamps, e-lec-trol'-y-sis {-i-sis), 
n. the process of chemical decomposition 
by electricity, e-lec'-tro-lyte, n. a 
substance which can be decomposed by 
electricity, e-lec-tro-lyt'-ic {-lit'-), adj. 
electro— magnet, n. a bar of soft iron 
made temporarily magnetic by means of 
an electric current, electro— magnet- 
ism, n. the science which treats of the 
development of magnetism by electric 
currents ; the influence of a magnet on 
an electric current, e-lec-trom'-e-ter, 
n. an instrument for measuring the 
quantity or the strength of an electric 
current, electro— mobile {-mo'-beel), n. 
a vehicle moved by electricity, electro- 
motive, adj. of or pertaining to the 
motion of electricity or the laws that 
govern it. electro— motive force, n. 
the force that causes electricity to move 




along a conductor, electro— (or elec- 
tric— ) motor, n. an apparatus or machine 
for applying electricity as a motive power. 
e-lec'-tron, n. the electric charge of 
an atom ; the units which form an 
atom, e-lec-trop'-a-thy, n. the treat- 
ment of diseases by electricity, electro- 
plate, 11. metallic articles coated by 
electricity with another metal, esp. 
with silver : v. (-pla-ted, — pla-ting). 
e-lec'-tro-scope, n. an apparatus for 
detecting the presence of electricity. 
electro— statics, n. the branch of science 
which treats of electric force in a state 
of rest, e-lec'-tro-type (often called 
e-lec'-tro), n. a copy or model of any- 
thing formed by a deposit of copper on 
a mould by means of electricity : v. 
(-typed, -ty-ping), to produce an 
electro, e-lec'-tro-ty-per, ft. [See 

e-lec'-tu-a-ry, n. a medicine composed 
of powders mixed with sugar, honey, 
sweet syrup, etc. [F. <L. electudrium.'} 

el-ee-mos'-y-na-ry (-i-na-rl), adj. rela- 
ting to alms ; given from charity or pity. 
[L.<Gr. eleos, pity.] 

el'-e-gance, n. graceful neatness, el'-e- 
gant, adj. neatly beautiful ; graceful ; 
refined; tasteful; very choice. [F.< 
L. elegantia, elegance.] 

el'-e-gy (-ji), n. (pi. -gies), a mournful 
song ; a lament, el-e-gi'-ac (-ji'-), adj. 
relating to elegy, el'-e-gist, n. a writer 
of elegies. [F.<L.<Gr. elegos, a 

el'-e-ment, n. a first principle or rule ; 
one of the simplest parts of which a body 
is composed ; an ingredient ; the proper 
state or habitation of an animal ; the 
bread and wine used in the Lord's 
Supper ; in pi. the rudiments of learn- 
ing ; the forces of nature (as wind, 
thunder, lightning, etc.). The ancients 
recognized four elements, fire, earth, 
air, water ; modern chemistry has dis- 
covered abput eighty, el-e-ment'-al, 
adj. el-e-ment'-a-ry, adj. primary ; 
simple ; relating to first elements or 
principles. [F.<L. elementum.] 

el'-e-me, adj. hand-picked, hence, of 
superior quality (as eleme figs). [T.] 

el'-e-phant (-fant)> n. the largest living 
quadruped, el-e-phan-ti'-a-sis, n. a 
disease in which the skin becomes thick, 
rough, and hard. el-e-phan'-tine,adj. 
like an elephant (in size, motion, etc.) ; 

large and ungainly. [F.<L.<Gr. 
el'-e-yate (-va-ted, -ya-ting), v. to lift 
up ; to raise ; to improve ; to promote 
or raise in rank or position ; to cheer 
the spirits, el-e-va'-tion, n. the act 
of — ; height ; a drawing showing the 
front view of a building or other object. 
el'-e-va-tor, n. one who — ; a machine 
for raising grain or other goods to a 
higher floor in a warehouse ; a muscle 
that raises a limb ; that part of a flying- 
machine by means of which it is caused 
to rise or fall, el'-e-ya-to-ry, adj. 
[L. e- + levo, I raise.] 

elf, 7i. (pi. elves), a small spirit ; a fairy. 
elf '-ish, adj. like an elf ; mischievous. 
elf— locks, n. tangled hair. [A.S. <zlj."\ 

e-lic'-it (-Us'-), (-ed, -ing), v. to draw or 
coax out ; to deduce. [L. elicitus, 
drawn out.] 

e-lide' (-li'-ded, -li'-ding), v. to strike, 
or leave, out (esp. a syllable, word, etc ). 
e-li'-sion (-lizh'-un), n. [L. elido, I 
strike out.] 

el'-i-gi-ble (-ji-bl), adj. worthy of being 
chosen ; fit ; desirable ; legally or pro- 
perly qualified. el-i-gi-bil'-i-ty,n. [F. 
<L. ellgo, I choose out.] 

e-lim'-in-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to take, 
leave, or thrust out ; to discard or set 
aside as unimportant ; to obtain by sep- 
aration, e-lim-in-a'-tion, n. [L. e- 
+ limen, a threshold.] 

6lite (d-leef), n. the choice part ; the 
best of anything ; people of rank and 
fashion. [F. <L. electus, chosen.] 

e-lix'-ir,n. (more fully e-lix'-ir vi'-tas) 
[L.] the elixir of life. A liquor by which 
alchemists professed to be able to pro- 
long life indefinitely, or to change 
common metals into gold ; a cordial 
that invigorates ; the very best of any- 
thing. [Ar. el-ikslr, (?) the philosopher's 
stone or (?) a decoction.] 

E-liz-a-be'-than, adj. of the age or time 
of Q. Elizabeth (last half 16th cent.). 

elk, 7i. the largest species of deer. [Ic. elgr.] 

ell, 7i. a measure of length. The English 
ell is 5 quarters of a yard. [A.S. eln.] 

el-lipse', 7i. a figure of oval shape, el- 
lip' -sis, n. (pi. -ses), the leaving out of 
a word or words (understood), el-lip - 
tic-al, adj. pertaining or belonging to 
an ellipse ; having a part omitted or 
understood. [L.<Gr. elleipsis, a leav- 
ing out, omission.] 




el-o-cu'-tion, n. style and manner of 
speaking or reading (esp. in public) ; 
fluency of speech ; oratory, el-o-cu'- 
tion-ist, n. one skilled in, or a teacher 
of, the art of speaking fluently and effec- 
tively. _ [L. eloquor, I speak out.] 

e-loge' (a-lozh'), or e-lo'-gi-um (-ji-), n. 
a funeral oration (praising the deceased). 
[F. eloge <L. elogium, a saying, an 
inscription (esp. on a tomb).] 

E. long., east longitude. 

e'-lon-gate (-long-gate), (-ga-ted, -ga- I 
ting), v. to make longer ; to lengthen. \ 
e-lon-ga'-tion,rc. [L. e- + longus, long] 

e-lope' (-loped', -lo'-ping), v. to run j 
away secretly (esp. said of a woman who j 
runs away with a lover), e-lope'- • 
ment, n. [? A.S. hleopan, to escape.] i 

el'-o-quence, n. the power or art of speak- j 
ing well ; persuasive speech, el'-o- 
quent, adj. [F.<L. eloquor,! speak 'j 

else, adj. : adv. other ; besides, else- 
where', adv. in another place. [A.S. I 
elles, otherwise, else.] 

e-lu'-ci-date (-da-ted, -da-ting), v. to { 
make clear ; to explain ; to illustrate. 
e-lu-ci-da'-tion, n. e-lu'-ci-da-to- ; 
ry, adj. [L. e- + lucidus, clear, bright.] j 

e-lude' (-lu'-ded, -lu'-ding), v. to avoid 
slily by artifice or dexterity ; to baffle ; | 
to escape, e-lu'-sion (-lu'-zhun), n. j 
e-lu'-siye (siv), adj. e-lu'-so-ry, | 
adj. [L. eludo<ludus, play.] 

e-lys'-i-um (-lizh'-i- or -liz'-), n. the ; 
blissful abode of the souls of the happy 
dead (among the ancient Greeks) ; any 
place of great delight, e-lys'-ian, adj. 
delightful; glorious. Elysian fields, 
Paradise ; the abode of happiness in the 
future life. [L.<Gr. elusion pedion, 
the Elysian plain (or fields).] 

E.M., the Edward Medal, awarded for 
bravery in the mine. 

e-ma'-ci-ate (-md'-shl- not -mash'-), (-a- 
ted, -a-ting), v. to make lean or thin ; 
to become thin ; to waste away, e- 
ma'-ci-a-tion, n. e-ma'-ci-a-ted, adj. 
lean; wasted away. [L. e- + mdcies, 

em'-a-nate (-na-ted, -na-ting), v. to 
flow from ; to proceed from (as from a 
source) ; to arise, em-a-na'-tion, n. 
em'-a-na-tiye (-nd), adj. [L. e- + 
mano, I flow.] 

e-man'-ci-pate (-si-), (-pa-ted, -pa- 
ting), v. to set free (as from slavery, 

evil influences, or restraint), e-mail* 
ci-pa'-tion, n. e-man'-ci-pa-tor, n. 
[L. e- -f manus, the hand + cdpio, I take.] 

e-mas'-cu-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to 
deprive of masculine vigour or spirit ; to 
weaken; to make effeminate. [L. e- + 
masculus, male.] 

em-balm' (-bam'), (-balmed', -balm'- 
ing), v. to preserve (esp. a dead body) 
from decay by means of aromatic drugs. 
em-balm'-er, n. [L. e«t- + balm.] 

em-bank' (-banked', -bank'-ing), v. to 
throw up a bank beside or round ; to 
protect with a bank, em-bank '-ment, 
n. a mound ; a bank (esp. of earth). 
[L. em- + bank.] 

em-bar'-go, n. (pi. -goes), a forbidding 
of vessels to leave port ; a more or less 
complete stoppage of trade ; prohibition : 
v. (-goed, -go-ing). [Sp. embargar, to 
arrest <barra, a bar.] 

em-bark' (-barked', -bark'-ing), v. to go 
or put on board (ship) ; to begin or 
engage upon an enterprise, em-bar- 
ka'-tion (or -ca'-), n. em-bark' -ment, 
n. [F. embarquer < barque, a bark.] 

embarras de richesses (ah-ba-rci' 
duh re-shes'), [F.] embarrassment of 
riches ; having more wealth (or good 
things) than one knows what to do with, 
or how to make a choice from. 

em-bar'-rass (-rassed, -rass-ing), v. to 
involve in difficulty ; to trouble ; to con- 
fuse ; to perplex ; to impede, em-bar'- 
rass-ment, n. [F.<L. em- + Sp. barra, 
a bar.] 

em'-bas-sy, n. the charge, office, or resi- 
dence of an ambassador ; persons serving 
on an embassy. [See ambassador.] 

em-bat'-tle (-tied, -tling), v. to set in 
order of battle ; to furnish with battle- 
ments. [See battle.] 

em-bel'-lish (-lished, -lish-ing), v. to 
make beautiful ; to decorate ; to adorn. 
em-bel'-lish-ment, n. [F. embellir< 
beau, belle, beautiful.] 

Em'-ber— days, three. days in each 
of the four quarters of the year appointed 
by the Church for fasting and prayer. 
[A.S. ymbryne, a running round ; course 
of time, or<L. quattuor tempora, the 
four seasons.] 

em'-bers, n. the hot remains of a fire ; 
red-hot ashes. [A.S. cemyrgean, ashes.] 

em-bez'-zle (-zled, -zling), v. to take for 
one's own what has been entrusted to 
one's care (esp. money), em-bez'-zle- 




ment, n. em-bez'-zler, n. [?] 

em-bit'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to make 
bitter ; to cause or increase ill-feeling 
in. [L. em- + bitter.] 

em-bla'-zon (-zun), n. to adorn with 
figures (in heraldry) ; to adorn with 
bright colours, em-bla -zon-ment, n. 
em-bla'-zon-ry, n. [L. em - + blazon.] 

era'-blem, n. a type ; a figure ; a symbol. 
em-blem-at'-ic (or -ic-al), adj. sym- 
bolic; typical or representative. [F.<L. 
<Gr. emblema, an insertion <emballo, 
I throw in.] 

era-bod'-y (-ied, -y-ing), v. to form into 
a body ; to include ; to express an idea 
(in words) . em-bod ' -i-ment, n . a perfect 
representation of all that is included in 
a type, as the " embodiment of manli- 
ness." [L. em- + body.] 

em-bold '-en (-ened, -en-ing), v. to make 
bold or courageous ; to give courage to. 
[L. em - + bold.] 

em'-bo-lism (-Lizm), n. the periodical 
insertion of a day (or days) into the 
calendar to correct the error caused by 
the difference between the civil and the 
solar year (e.g., 29th Feb. each Leap 
Year) ; the presence of a clot of blood 
causing an obstruction in a blood-vessel ; 
an insertion. [Gr. en- + ballo, I throw.] 

em-bon-point (ah-boh-pworV), n. [F.] 
good condition ; stoutness ; plumpness : 
adj. plump ; well-nourished. 

em-bos '-om (-omed, -om-ing), v. to 
receive into the bosom ; to embrace 
affectionately ; to surround. [L. em- + 

em-boss' (-bossed', -boss'-ing), v. to 
ornament with bosses or raised work. 
[L. em -f boss.] 

em'-bou-chure (em'-boo-shoor, or more 
correctly ah-boo-shoor'), n. the mouth 
{esp. of a river, a cannon, or a wind- 
instrument of music). [F. bouche, a 

em-bow '-er (-ered, -er-ing), v. to place 
in or cover with a bovver ; to shelter 
with trees. [L. em--\- bower.] 

em-brace' (-bras'), (-bracedV -bra'- 
cing), v. to clasp in the arms ; to receive 
eagerly or willingly ; to include ; to 
welcome : n. [O.F. embracer <L. en- + 
brdcliium, the arm.] 

em-bra'-sure (-bra'-zhur or -zhur, not 
-brash' -),n. an opening (with slant sides) 
in a wall to allow a cannon to be fired ; 
a loop-hole. [F.] 

em'-bro-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to 

moisten or rub (a diseased part) with a 
liquid medicine, em-bro-ca'-tion, n. 
the act of embrocating ; the liquid or 
lotion used. [L. < Gr. en- -f brecho, 1 wet] 

em-brogl'-io, n. See imbroglio. 

em-broi'-der (-dered, -der-ing), v. to 
ornament with designs in needlework. 
em-broi'-der-y,w. designs worked upon 
a woven or other fabric with needle and 
linen, woollen, or silk threads. (Note 
the difference between embroidery and 
tapestry ; the latter being pictures or 
other designs woven partly by a needle 
and partly by a shuttle), em-broi'- 
der-er, n. [L. en-+F. broder, to em- 
broider < root of border.] 

em-broil' (-broiled', -broil'-ing), v. to 
involve in trouble, strife, or quarrel. 
em-broil' -ment, n. [F. em- + broil.] 

em'-bry-o (-bri-), n. (pi. -os), or em'- 
bry-on (pi. -ons), the young of an 
animal in its earliest stage of develop- 
ment ; the part of a seed which develops 
into the plant, in embryo, in an un- 
developed stage, em-bry-on'-ic, adj. 
[F.<Gr. embruon.2 

e-mend' (-ed, -ing), v. to amend ; to 
correct, e-men-da'-tion, n. a correc- 
tion, e-men'-da-to-ry (not -men-da'-), 
adj. [L. e--\-mendum, a fault.] 

em'-er-ald, ». a precious stone of green 
colour: adj. green. The Emerald Isle, 
Ireland. [F.<L.<Gr. smaraydos.'} 

e-merge' (-merged', -merg'-ing), v. to 
rise out of ; to come forth ; to issue ; to 
reappear after being hidden from view. 
e-mer'-gen-cy, n. an unforeseen occur- 
rence calling for prompt action ; a 
sudden necessity, e-mer'-gent, adj. 
coming forth or issuing, e-mer'-sion, 
n. the act of — . [L. e- + mergo, I dip.] 

e-mer'-i-tus (-*-), adj. discharged (after 
serving the appointed time) or retired 
from public service (usu. on account of 
old age or infirmity) : n. (pi. -i-ti). [L. 

e-mer'-sion. See emerge. 

em'-er-y, ». a very hard mineral used for 
grindingorpolishing. [F. <Gr. smiiris.] 

e-met'-ic, n. a medicine to cause vomit- 
ing : adj. [L.<Gr. emco, I vomit.] 

e-meute' (d-muht'), n. a riot; a disorderly 
outbreak. [F. emeute<L. motux, a 

E.M.F., electro-motive force, q.v. 

em -i-grate (-*-), (-gra-ted, -gra-ting), 




v, to leave one's country to settle in 
another (esp. in a colony), em'-i-grant, 
n. one who — . em-i-gra'-tion, n. the 
actof — . [L emlgro, I remove, emigrate] 

em -i-nence, n. raised ground ; an eleva- 
tion ; a title of honour (esp. as given to 
cardinals) ; distinction, em'-i-nent, 
adj. high ; distinguished ; standing out 
above others ; conspicuous. [L. emineo, 
I stand out.] 

em-ir' (em-eer' or e'-mlr), n. a Turkish or 
Arabic ruler of a tribe, or the governor of 
a province. [At. amir, a commander ] 

em'-is-sa-ry, n. (pi. -ries), one sent on a 
mission ; a spy ; a secret messenger. 
[L einitto, I send out or forth.] 

e-mit' (-ted, -ting), v. to send out; to 
throw out ; to discharge, e-mis'- 
sion (-mish'-un), n. [L. emitto, I send 
out or forth.] 

Em-man '-u-el, n. the Messiah ; the Lord 
Jesus Christ. [H. im, with + anw, us + 
El, God.] 

em'-met, n. an ant. [A.S. temette, ant. 
Ant is a contracted form of emmet.] 

e-mol'-lient (-lyent), adj. softening ; 
soothing ; making supple : n. a soften- 
ing or soothing medicine for outward 
use. [F.<L. emollio, I soften.] 

e-mol'-u-ment, n. pay ; reward ; gain ; 
profit. [F.<L. emolumentum.2 

e-mo'-tion, n. agitation of mind ; deep 
feeling (as of joy, sorrow, etc.). e-mo'- 
tion-al, adj. subject to emotion. [L. 
emutus, mowed <moveo, I move.] 

Emp., Emperor ; Empress. 

em-pale'. See impale. 

em-pan'-el. See impanel. 

em'-per-or, n. See empire. 

em'-phas-is (-fas-), n. stress of the voice 
(on particular words or syllables) ; j 
intensity ; force, em'-pha-size (-slz), 
(-sized, -si-zing), v. to lay stress on ; 
to give force to. em-phat'-ic (-fat'-), 
adj. with emphasis ; impressive ; for- 
cible. [Gr. emphasis. 2 

em'-pire, n. dominion ; rule ; sway ; a 
dominion consisting of more than one 
state, em'-per-or, n. m. (/. em '-press), 
the sovereign of an empire. Empire- 
Day, n. the 24th May (the birthday of 
Queen Victoria). Empire gown, one 
in fashion in France about the time 
when Napoleon I. was emperor (1804- 
1815). [F.<L. imperium, command, 

em-pir'-ic (or -ic-al), adj. based on ex- 

perience only (as contrasted with scien- 
tific study), em-pir'-ic, n. one who so 
practises (esp. in the medical profession); 
a quack, em-pir'-i-cism (-sizm), n. 
[Gr. empeirikos < peira, a trial.] 

em-ploy' (-ployed', -ploy'-ing), v. to 
engage in labour ; to give work to ; to 
use: n. em-ploy-e', n. m., or era- 
ploy-ee' (an-plaw-ya'), n.f. [F.] one 
who works for an em-ploy'-er. (Note. 
Often used in Eng. tvith -ee for both m. 
andf., and without accent.) em-ploy'- 
ment, n. [F.<L. impllco, I enfold.] 

em-po'-ri-um, n. (pi. -ri-ums, or -ri-a), 
a large store -house for goods for sale ; a 
centre of trade. [L.<Gr. emporion< 
poros, a way.] 

em-pow'-er (-ered, -er-ing), v. to give 
power or authority to. [L.em +power.] 

emp'-ty, adj. containing nothing ; un- 
tenanted; unfurnished; without effect ; 
unsatisfactory ; lacking ideas ; vain : v. 
(-tied, -ty-ing), to remove all the con- 
tents of. emp'-ti-ness, n. state of 
being — . [A.S. semtig.^ 

em-py-re'-an(-2>i- or -pir'-e-),adj. belong- 
ing to the region of pure fire, or the 
highest heaven : n. em-pyr'-e-al 
(-plr'-), adj. [Gr. empuros, in the fire.] 

e'-mu, n. an Australian bird resembling 
the ostrich. [? Po.] 

em'-u-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to try 
to equal or surpass ; to rival, em-u- 
la'-tion, n. em'-u-la-tiye (-la- or -la- 
tlv), adj. em'-u-lous (-lus), adj. em'- 
u-la-tor, n. one who — . [L. cemiilor 
«rmiilus, a rival.] 

e-mul ' -sion (-shun) , n. a liquid resembling 
milk formed by mixing oil and water. 
emul'-si-fy (-fled, -fy-ing), v. e- 
mul'-siYe (siv), adj. [F. <L. emulsus, 
milked out.] 

en-, em-, pre/. [Gr.] in ; on. 

en-, em-, pref. [L.] in ; into. 

en-a'-ble (-U), (-bled, -bling), v. to make 
able ; to give power, strength, or author- 
ity to . [L . en - + able.] 

en-act' (-ed, -ing), v. to establish by law; 
to perform (a part) on the stage, en- 
act' -ment, n. a law passed by parlia- 
ment or other authority. [L. en- + act.] 

en-am'-el, n. a smooth, glassy substance 
used in inlaying metals ; the hard, outer 
coating of the teeth, pottery, etc. : v. 
(-elled, -el-ling). [O.F. esmail.] 

en-am'-our (-oured, -our-ing), v. to 
charm ; to captivate ; to inspire with 

En avant 



deep love. [O.F.<L. en- -f amor, love.] 

en a-vant' (aha-vah'),int. [F.] forward ! 

en bloc (ah blok), [F.] in a block or 
mass ; all together. 

en-cae'-ni-a, or -ce'- (se'-), n. a consecra- 
tion or dedication festival ; an annual 
festival held at Oxford, in June, to com- 
memorate the founders and benefactors 
of the University. [L.<Gr. enkainia, 
a dedication festival.] 

en-camp' (-camped', -camp'-ing), v. to 
pitch a camp ; to form and occupy a 
camp ; to live in camp, en-camp'- 
ment, n. [L. eu-+camp.] 

en-caus'-tic, adj. (of painting and enamel- 
ling) burnt in by fire : ro. work so done. 
encaustic tiles, those in which the 
colours are so burnt in. [Gr. enkaio, 
I burn in.] 

en-ceinte' (ah-saht'), n. (in fortification) 
a wall which surrounds a pi ace ; an 
enclosure. [F. <L. incingo, I gird on.] 

en-chant' (-ed, -ing), v. to charm ; to 
delight ; to charm by sorcery ; to get 
control of by magic, en-chant'-er, ft. 
(/. -ress), one who — . en-chant' -ing, 
adj. en-chant' -ment, n. [L. en-+ 

en-chase' (-chased', -cha'-sing), v. to 
inclose in a border ; to set in gold or 
other ornamental work ; to chase, i.e., 
to engrave or adorn with embossed work. 
[F. enchdsser <L. en-+capsa, a box.] 

en-chei-rid'-i-on (-H-), n. a small hand- 
book, manual, or guide, for ready refer- 
ence. [Gr. en-+clieir, the hand.] 

en-cir'-cle (ser'-), (-cled, -cling), v. to 
enclose in a circle ; to surround. [L. 
67i-+ circle.] 

en-claye' (en-kldv' or ah-kldv'), n. some- 
thing closed in (esp. a place or country 
entirely surrounded by the territories of 
another). [F.<L. en- + clavus, a nail.] 

en-close', en-clo'-sure. See inclose. 

en-co'-mi-um (-to'-), ». (pi. -ums),high 
commendation or praise, en-co'-mi- 
ast, ft. one who praises. [L.<Gr. 
enkomion, a song of praise.] 

en-com'-pass (-hum'-), (-passed, -pass- 
ing), v . to encircle or enclose ; to sur- 
round ; to walk round, en-com'-pass- 
ment, n. [L. en- -f compass.] 

en-core' (ah-kor'),adv. again ; once more: 
n. [F. < (?) L. (in) hanc horam, (to) this 

en-count'-er (-ered, -er-ing), v. to meet 
(esp. in a hostile manner) ; to oppose ; 

to fight against : n. [O.F.<L. in-, in 
+ contra, against.] 

v. to put heart or courage into ; to inspire 
with spirit or hope ; to stimulate ; to help 
forward. en-cour'-a-ging,«d/. furnish- 
ing ground or hope for success ; favour- 
ing. [F.<L. en- + courage.] 

en-croach' (-krdch 1 ), (-croached , 
-croach'-ing), v. to trespass (on the 
rights of another) ; to intrude, en- 
croach' -ment, n. [F.<L. en-+ F. croc, 
a hook.] 

en-cum'-ber (-bered, -ber-ing), v. to be 
a burden on ; to impede, en-cum'- 
brance, n. a hindrance ; a legal claim 
on an estate ; one dependent on another. 
[F encombrer. See cumber.] 

en-cy'-cli-cal, adj. sent round to many 
persons or places : ft. a letter or message 
sent out by a council, a bishop, or the 
Pope. [Gr. en- + kiiklos, a circle.] 

en-cy-clo-pae'-di-a (-pe'-), (or -pe'-), n. 
a dictionary of general knowledge, en- 
cy-clo-pae'-dic, adj. en-cy-clo-pae - 
dist, ft. one who works in preparing an 
— . [Gr. en-+ cyclopaedia.] 

end, n. the farthest point ; the extremity ; 
the close ; death ; aim or object ; the 
result or consequence : v. (-ed, -ing), to 
put an end to : to finish ; to come to an 
end. end'-ing, n. end' -less, adj with- 
out end. endless chain, ». (in mechan- 
ics), a chain whose two ends are joined 
together ; a begging letter for charitable 
purposes sent to one person, who then 
forwards it to another, and so on, until 
it gets back to the originator, end'- 
ways (less correctly end'-wise), adv. 
with the end forward, end leaf, the 
blank leaf at the front and back of a 
book, sometimes called end papers, 
end on, at right angles ; with the end 
to the front, on end, upright, to begin 
at the wrong end, to start badly ; to 
manage badly, to come to the end of 
one's tether, to have done everything 
that one has ability, power, or liberty 
to do. to make both ends meet, to live 
within one's income. [A.S. ende.] 

en-dan'-ger (-dan'-), (-gered, -ger-ing), 
v. to put or bring into danger. [L. en- 
4- danger.] 

en-dear' (-der 1 ), (-deared', -dear'-ing), 
v. to make dear (or more dear) or 
beloved, en-dear' -ing, adj. en-dear' - 
ment, n. [L. <m- + dear.] 




en-deay'-our (-dev'-ur), (-oured, -our- 
ing), v. to try ; to attempt : n. [L. en- 
+ b\ devoir, to. owe<L. debeo, I owe. 
cf. devoir.] 

en-dem'-ic (or -ic-al), adj. peculiar to a 
people or locality, as a disease : n. an 
endemic disease is one which is con- 
stantly present in a locality. £Gr. en- 
+ demos, people.] 

en deshabille (ah dd-za-be-yd'), [F.] in 
undress ; not dressed up. [See dis- 
habille.] [endive."] 

en' -dive {-div), n. a garden-salad. [F. 

en'-do-gen (-jen), n. a plant that grows 
from within or by additions to the inside 
of the stem (as grasses), en-dog'-en- 
ous (-doj'-), adj. [Gr. endon, within + 
genos, birth.] 

en-dorse' (-dorsed', -dor'-sing), v. to 
write (one's name) on the back of (a 
document) ; to confirm or approve ; to 
give one's sanction to. en-dor-see', or 
en-dor' -ser, n. the person who endorses. 
en-dorse' -ment, n. [M.E. <L. in- + 
dorsum, the back.] 

en-dow' (-do wed', -dow'-ing), v. to give 
a dowry or marriage portion to ; to settle 
money upon ; to furnish with money or 
property for the support of ; to enrich 
with any gift, quality, or faculty, en- 
dow'-er, n. en-dow '-ment, n. the act 
of bestowing ; that which is bestowed ; 
natural capacity; talent. [O.F.<L. 
in-+ dower.] 

en-due' (or in-due'), (-dued', du'-ing), 
v. to invest; to clothe; to endow. [O.F. 
<L. induo, I put on.] 

en-dure' (-dured', -du'-ring), v. to 
remain firm ; to last ; to remain ; to bear 
with patience ; to tolerate, en-du'-ra- 
ble, adj. en-du'-rance, n. [O.F.< 
L. induro, I harden.] 

e-ne'-ma (-ne'- or en'-e-),n. (pi. e-nem'- 
a-ta (or en-e-md' -ta)) , a liquid medicine 
injected (forced) into the bowels ; the 
apparatus (in pi. enemas) by means of 
which this is done. [L.<Gr. en- + 
hienai, to send.] 

en'-e-my (-mi), n. (pi. -miesj, one who j 
hates another ; a foe ; an adversary ; 
one hostile to another. [L. inimicus, 

en'-er-gy (-ji), n. (pi. -gies), force; 
power ; activity ; vigour ; capacity for 
doing work, en-er-get'-ic, (or -ic-al), 
adj. [Gr. energeia< ergon, work.] 

en'-er-yate (-va-ted, -Ya-ting), v. to 

take nerve, force, power, strength, or 
courage from ; to weaken or enfeeble. 
en-er-va'-tion, n. en'-er-Ya-ting, 
adj. weakening ; causing a feeling of 
lassitude and weariness. [L. en- + 
nervus, nerve.] 

en famille (an fa-me'-yuh), [F.] with 
one's family (only) ; at home. 

enfant terrible (ah-fah' tar-rebV), [F.] 
a very troublesome and mischievous 
child (esp. one who makes awkward 
remarks at very inconvenient times). 

en-fee '-ble (-bled, -bling), v. to make 
feeble; to weaken. [L. en- + feeble.] 

en-feoff' (-/<?/'), (-feoffed', -feoff' -ing), 
v. to invest with the fief or fee (posses- 
sion) of an estate, en-feoff '-ment, n. 
[L. en- + feoff.] 

en fete (an fat), [F.] holding or keeping 
holiday ; in festivity. 

en-fi-lade' (-fi-lad'), n. a line or straight 
passage ; musketry or artillery fire along 
the line of an enemy : v. (-la'-ded, 
-la' -ding), to rake with shot along the 
line of the enemy. [F.<L. en-+filum t 
a thread.] 

en-fold' (-ed, -ing), v. to wrap up ; to 
clasp. [A.S. in- ( = m-)+ fold.] 

en-force' (-forced', -forc'-ing), v. to 
compel ; to support by force ; to give 
force to ; to put into practice, en- 
force'-ment, n. [L. en- + force.] 

en-fran'-chise (-chiz), (-chised, -chi- 
sing) (not -chize), v. to make or set 
free ; to give the franchise to, i.e., the 
right of voting in political and municipal 
elections, en-fran'-chise-ment (-chiz-) 
n. the act of enfranchising ; admission 
to the freedom of a corporation or state. 
[L. en- -f franchise.] 

en-gage' (-gdj'), (-gaged', -ga'-ging), v. 
to take into service or hire ; to en- 
counter ; to make liable ; to promise to 
do something; to gain over, en-gaged', 
adj. pledged ; promised, en-gage '- 
ment, n. an obligation ; a promise ; a 
contract (for marriage); an appointment ; 
a battle, en-ga'-ging, adj. attractive * 
pleasing. [F. engager < gage, a pledge.] 

en garcon (ahgar-soh'), [F.] (to live) as 
a bachelor. 

en-gen '-der (-dered, -der-ing), v. to 
beget ; to breed ; to produce. [L. en- 
+ gender.] 

en'-gine (-jin), n. a machine, esp. one 
producing power ; a device ; a contri- 
vance ; a locomotive ; any device or 



En rapport 

contrivance used to effect a purpose. 
engine— driver, v. the driver of a rail- 
way-engine (locomotive), en-gin-eer', 
n. one whose business is the construction 
and repair of engines, machinery, etc. ; 
one who drives an engine ; one who 
directs civil or military works, en-gin- 
eer' (-eered', -eer'-ing), v. to perform 
the work of an engineer ; to plan and 
carry out any scheme skilfully, engine— 
fitter, n. a skilled mechanic who builds 
up and fits together the parts of an 
engine or machine, engine-man, n. 
one who manages an engine of any kind. 
engine— shaft, n. a shaft of a mine used 
solely for the pumping machinery, en- 
gin-eer' -ing,n the work of an engineer. 
engine— turning, n. the ornamental net- 
work of fine lines radiating from a centre 
(often seen on watch-cases). £F.<L. 
ingenium, mind, skill.] 

En'-gland-er, n. an Englishman, little 
Englander, one who takes a small or 
narrow view of the greatness of the 
Empire and his responsibilities to it, or 
who belittles his nation ; an unpatriotic 

en-graft' (-ed, -ing), v. (or ingraft), to 
graft (as a shoot of one tree into another) ; 
to fix or impress deeply on the mind. 
[M.E. en- ( = in-) + graft.] 

en-graye' (-grayed', -gra'-ying), v. to 
cut a design into metal, wood, etc. ; to 
impress deeply on the mind, en-gra'- 
yer, n. one who — . en-gra'-ying, n. 
the art of an engraver ; a picture printed 
from an engraved plate . [L . en- + graye] 

en-gross' (-grossed', -gross'-ing), v. to 
occupy the mind or attention completely ; 
to monopolize ; to write in large, clear 
letters, en-gross'-ing, n. writing out 
a document in clear, legible characters 
for signature : adj. demanding or receiv- 
ing much attention ; intensely interest- 
ing. [F. en grot, in large. See gross.] 

en-gulf (-gulfed', -gulf -ing), v. to 
swallow up completely ; to overwhelm. 
[L. en - + gulf.] 

en-hance' (-hanced', -han'-cing), v. to 
raise to a higher point ; to increase ; to 
make more costly or attractive, en- 
hance '-ment,n. [L. en- + ante, before.] 

e-nig'-ma, n. (pi. -mas), a puzzle (in 
words) ; a riddle ; something very diffi- 
cult to understand or explain, en-ig- 
mat'-ic (or -ic-al), adj. [L.<Gr. 

en-join' (-joined', -join'-ing), v. to lay 

or urge an obligation upon ; to com- 
mand with authority. [F.<L. en- + 
jungo, I join.] 

en-joy' (-joyed', -joy'-ing), v. to feel 
pleasure in ; to possess or use with 
delight or satisfaction ; to have the use 
or benefit of. en-joy'-a-ble, adj. en- 
joy' -ment, n. [L. en-+joy.] 

en-kin'-dle (-died, -dling), v. to set fire 
to ; to excite the feelings of ; to rouse. 
[L. en--\- kindle.] 

en-large' (-larged', -lar'-ging), v. to 
make larger ; to increase (in size or 
number) ; to be diffuse in speaking or 
writing ; to exaggerate. en-large'- 
ment, v. [L. en- + large.] 

en-light' -en (-ened, -en-ing), v. to give 
light or knowledge to ; to make clear ; 
to inform, en-light'-en-ment, n. [L. 
en- -flight.] 

en-list' (-ed, -ing), v. to put the name of, 
on a list ; to enrol ; to engage (esp. as a 
soldier) ; to attract the sympathy or aid 
of. en-list' -ment, n. [L. en- + list.] 

en-li'-ven (-yened, -yen-ing), v. to give 
life to ; to make lively ; to cheer up. 
[L. en- + life.] [together. 

en masse (ah mass), [F.] in a mass ; all 

en-mesh' (-meshed', -mesh'-ing), v. to 
catch in the meshes of a net ; to entangle. 
[L. en- + mesh.] 

en'-mi-ty (-ml-tl), n. state of being an 
enemy; hatred; ill-will. [F.<L. 
inimicus, unfriendly, hostile.] 

en-no'-ble (-bled, -bling), v. to make 
noble ; to elevate or improve the mind ; 
to raise up (esp. to the rank and title of 
a noble). [L. en- + noble.] 

en-nui' (ah-nwe'), n. a feeling of weari- 
ness, lassitude, or dulness, for want of 
employment. [F. < L. in odio, in hatred] 

e-nor'-mous (-mm), adj. very large ; huge. 
e-nor'-mi-ty (-ml-ti), n. a very great 
crime or blunder. [L. e- + norma, rule.] 

e-nough' (-nuf), adj. sufficient; needing 
no more : adv. : n. sufficient quantity or 
number. [A.S. geiwg, enough.] 

en passant (ah pas-sah'), [F.] in pas- 
sing ; by the way. [to be taken. 

en prise (ahprez), [F.] (in prize) liable 

en-quire', more correctly inquire, q.v. 

en-rage' (-raged', ^ra'-ging), p. to put 
into a rage ; to make very angry. [L. 
en- + rage.] 

en rapport (ah rap-por'), [F.] in rela- 
tion with ; with reference to. 




en-rap' -ture (-tured, -tu-ring), v. to put 
into a rapture ; to fascinate ; to delight 
highly ; to transport (in feeling). [L. 
en- + rapture.] 

en regie (ah rdgl'), [F] in (or accord- 
ing to) rule. 

en revanche (ah rah-vahsh'), [F.] in 
revenge ; in return. 

en-rich' (-riched', -rich'-ing), v. to make 
rich or wealthy ; to make fertile (ground) ; 
to supply with ornament ; to adorn ; to 
store with knowledge. [L. en- + rich.] 

en-rol' (or -roll') (-rolled', -roll'-ing), 
v. to put (a person's name) on a roll or 
list ; to enlist, en-rol'-ment, n. [L. 
en- + roll.] [road. 

en route (ah-root'), [F.] on the way or 

en-sconce' (-sconced', -scon'-cing), v. 
to protect ; to hide safely ; to fix or 
place comfortably or snugly. [L. en- + 

en-sem'-ble (ah-sah' -bl) , n. [F.] the 
general effect, usually in the phrase tout 
(toot) ensemble; the whole (with all 
its parts). [< L. in siniul, in together.] 

en-shrine' (-shrined', -shri'-ning), v to 
enclose (as in a shrine) ; to preserve 
affection for. [L. en- -f shrine.] 

en-shroud' (-ed, -ing), v. to cover (as 
with a shroud) ; to envelope ; to hide. 
[L. en- + shroud.] 

en'-sign (sin), n. a military or naval flag 
or banner ; formerly a junior officer in 
the army (now sub-lieutenant) who car- 
ried the regimental flag In shipping, 
the white ensign is a white flag, the 
blue — a blue flag, and the red — a 
red flag, each with a Union Jack in the 
upper corner next the staff ; the white 
ensign also has the St. George's Cross 
(in red) dividing it into four. [L. en- + 
signum, a sign.] 

en'-sil-age (-dj, not -dj nor -dj). n. the 
storing of green fodder, vegetables, etc., 
in a silo or pit. [F.<L. en- + Gr. slros, 
a pit.] 

en-slaye' (-slaved', -sla'-Ying), v. to 
make a slave of ; to subject to the influ- 
ence of. en-slave'-ment, n. [L. en- 
+ slave.] 

en-snare' (-snared', -snar'-ing), (also 
insnare), v. to catch in a snare or trap ; 
to entangle. [L. en- + snare.] 

en-sue' (sit'), (-sued', -su'-ing), v. to 
follow ; to happen after ; to result from. 
[F.<L. en- + sequor, I follow.] 

en suite (ahsweet'), [F.] following each 

other in order ; in a set ; forming a 
series to match. 

en-sure' (-sured', -su'-ring), v. to make 
sure, certain, or secure. [L. en- + sure.] 

en-tab'-la-ture, n. the superstructure 
which rests upon the columns, and sur- 
mounts the capitals, in classical archi- 
tecture. [L. en- -t- tabula, a board, table.] 

en-tail' (-tailed', -tail'-ing), v. to settle 
an estate, property, etc., on a number of 
persons in succession, or in a certain 
way, so that it cannot be sold or be- 
queathed by any subsequent possessor; 
to bring about or cause : n. [F. entailler 
<tailler, to cut.] 

en-tan'-gle (-gled, -gling), v. to get into 
tangles ; to perplex ; to twist together ; 
to implicate, en-tan '-gle-ment, n. 
[L. en- + tangle.] 

entente (ah-taht'), n. [F.] agreement; 
understanding. entente cordiale 
(ah-taht' kor-dydl'), friendly under- 
standing (esp. between nations, and more 
esp. between England and France). 

en'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to go or 
come into ; to penetrate ; to become a 
member of ; to write down (in a book) ; 
to enrol, en'-trance, n. a place for 
entering ; a door ; admission : adj. 
en' -try, n. (pi. -tries), a passage ; an 
entering ; something entered or written 
down (in a book, list, etc.) ; (inpl.) those 
who (or things which) are entered to 
take part in a competition, race, etc. 
[F. <L. intro, I enter < intra, within.] 

en-ter'-ic, adj. relating to the intestines. 
en-ter'-ic fe'-yer, or en-ter-i'-tis 
(-1'-), n. inflammation of the small 
intestine. [Gr. enterikos."] 

en'-ter-prise (-priz), n. an undertaking ; 
daring ; energy and boldness in perform- 
ing an undertaking ; boldness ; activity. 
en'-ter-pri-sing (-zing), adj. [F. 
entreprendre<\j.prehendo, I seize.] 

en-ter-tain' (-tan'), (-tained', -tain'- 
ing), v. to receive in a friendly and 
hospitable manner ; to think about ; to 
hold in the mind ; to amuse, en-ter- 
tain' -er, n. one who — en-ter-tain'- 
ing, adj. affording entertainment ; 
amusing, en-ter-tain' -ment, n. recep- 
tion ; amusement ; hospitable treat- 
ment. \V.entretenir<~L. teneo, I hold.] 

en-thral' (-thralled', -thral'-ling), y. to 
make a thrall or slave of ; to captivate 
or charm, en-thral ' -ment, n. [L. en- 
+ thrall.] 




en-throne' (-throned', -thro'-ning), v. 

to place on a throne ; to make a monarch 
of ; to install as bishop, en-throne'- 
ment, n. [F.<Gr. thronos, a throne.] 

v. to fill with enthusiasm for, or to become 
enthusiastic in (any cause), en-thu'- 
si-asm (-zi-azm), n. a state of joyful 
excitement; great zeal, en-thu'-si-ast, 
n. one who is very zealous or intensely 
eager (in support of anything), en-thu- 
si-as'-tic, adj. zealous ; ardent, en- 
thu-si-as'-ti-cal-ly, adv. [Gr. enthou- 
siazd<en- + t]ieo$, a god.] 

en-tice' (-tls'), (-ticed', -ti'-cing), v. to 
allure ; to tempt ; to persuade ; to lead 
away, en-tice' -ment, n. en-ti'-cer, 
n. one who — [O.F. enticher<h. 
titio, a firebrand.] 

en-tire', adj. whole ; complete, en-tire'- 
ly, adv. en-tire'-ness, n. en-tire'-ty 
(•tir'-), n. completeness. [F.<L. 
integer, whole.] 

en-ti'-tle (-tied, -tling), v. to give a title, 
claim, or right to ; to empower ; to name. 
[L. en- + title.] 

en'-ti-ty (-tl-ti), n. (pi. -ties), being; real 
existence. [L ens, being <es»e, to be.] 

en-tomb' (-toom'), (-tombed', -tomb'- 
ing), v. to place in a tomb ; to bury. 
en-tomb'-ment, n. [L. en- + tomb.] 

en-to-mol'-o-gy (-ji), n. the science of 
insect life, en-to-mol'-o-gist, n. a 
student of — . [Gr. entomos, cut into.] 

en-tour-age' (ah-toor-dzh' ) ,n. that which 
surrounds ; surroundings ; followers ; 
attendants of a king, or at his court. [F.] 

en tout cas (ah too kd'), [F. in every 
case], a small-sized umbrella or a large 
parasol or sunshade used by ladies. 

en-to-zo'-a, n. pi. parasites (as worms) 
that live inside other animals. [G. 
entos, within +zoon, an animal.] 

entr'acte (ah-trakf), [F.] the time be- 
tween two acts of a play, or the music 
performed between the acts. 

en'-trails (-tralz), the internal part 
(of the body); the bowels. [F.<L. 
inter, within.] 

en-train' (-trained', -train'-ing), v. to 
put into a train and send off (esp. troops) : 
n. heartiness. [L. en- -f train.] 

en' -trance, n. See enter. 

en-trance' (-trans'), (-tranced', -tran'- 
cing), v. to put into a trance ; to charm 
greatly ; to delight, en-trance'-raent, 
n. en-tran'-cing,ad;'. [L.ew-+ trance] 

en-trap' (-trapped', -trap'-ping), v. to 
catch in a trap ; to ensnare. [L. en- + 

en- treat' (-ed, -ing), v. to beg earnestly; 
to implore, en- treat' -y (-1), n. [L. 
en- + treat.] 

en-tree' (ah-trd'), n. entry ; permission 
or liberty to enter ; a made-dish or course 
served at dinner (between the fish and 
the joint), at lunch, or at supper. [An 
entree is made of small pieces of meat 
(as distinguished from a joint) and 
usually served with sauce or gravy] . [F.] 

entre-mets' (ahtr'-md'), [F.] any dainty 
dish served at a meal (usu. after the 
jointor the principal dish) ; a sweetmeat. 

entre nous (ahtr 1 noo), [F.] between 

en-trench' (-trenched', -trench'-ing), v. 
(sometimes intrench), to dig a trench ; 
to fortify by digging a ditch round ; to 
encroach (upon), en-trench'-ment, n. 
a trench with a parapet formed of the 
earth dug out ; any protection ; an en- 
croachment. [L. en- + trench.] 

en-tre-pdt' (an-tr'-po'), n. a warehouse ; 
an emporium. [F.] 

en'-tre-sol (en'-ter-sol ; or, as in F., ah-tr'~ 
sol'), n. a low story of a house between 
two main stories (esp. between the 
ground-floor and the first story). [F.] 

en-trust' (-ed, -ing), v. (sometimes in- 
trust), to put into the care of. [L. en- 
+ trust.] 

entry, bee enter. 

Ent. Sta. Hall, entered at Stationers' 
Hall, London ; copyrighted. 

en-twine' (-twined', -twi'-ning), v. to 
twine round ; to interlace or weave. 
[L. en- + twine.] 

e-nu'-mer-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
number ; to call out names of. e-nu- 
mer-a'-tion, n. [L. e-+numero, I 
reckon up.] 

e-nun'-ci-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
pronounce (words) distinctly ; to state in 
clear terms or formally, e-nun-ci-a'- 
tion, n. — ; act or manner of uttering 
words, e-nun'-ci-a-tor, n. [L. e- + 
nuncio, I tell.] 

en-ure' (-ured', -u'-ring), v. {usu. in- 
ure, q.v.), to accustom by use or practice 
(to) . [L. en- -f M . E . ure < L . opera, work] 

en-Yel'-op (-oped, -o-ping), v. to wrap 
up; to enfold; to hide; to surround (as 
by troops). en'-Ye-lope, n. that which 
wraps ; the cover (of a letter). en-Yel'- 




op-ment, ». a wrapping or folding. [F.] 

en-Yen' -om (-Mm), (-omed, -om-ing), v. 
to put venom or poison into ; to embitter. 
[L. «i--f Yenom.] 

en-Yi'-ron (-roned, -ron-ing), v. to sur- 
round. en-Yi'-ron-ment, n. surround- 
ings ; the conditions under which any- 
thing lives, and which influence its life 
and growth. en'-Yi-rons (-vi- ov-vi'-), 
n. pi. the surrounding neighbourhood 
(esp. of a town). [F. environner .] 

en'-Yoy, n. a messenger (esp. one sent by 
a government on a special mission). 
[F.<L. en- + via, a way.] 

en'-Yy (-vi), (-Yied, -Yy-ing), v. to feel 
ill-will towards any one because he has 
greater happiness, success, fortune, or 
other superiority : n. the feeling of one 
who — . en'-Yi-a-ble, adj. exciting, or 
liable to excite, envy. en'-Yi-ous (-ws), 
adj. feeling envy. [F. <L. invidia, envy] 

Eolian. See ^Solian. 

e-o-li-enne' (-li-en'), n. a light, gauzy 
material used for millinery and dress- 
making ; a kind of voile. [See iEolian.] 

eon. See aeon. 

ep'-au-let (or -lette), n. the shoulder- 
badge of an officer in the navy, and 
formerly in the army. [F. epaule, 
shoulder <L.L. spatula, a broad blade.] 

e-pergne' (d-pern'), n. an ornamental 
stand, with dish and branches, to hold 
flowers and fruit on a table (esp. at j 
a dinner). [F. epargne, saving.] 

eph'-ah (ef'-a), n. a Hebrew measure of 
capacity (dry measure), variously esti- 
mated at from 4 to 9 or 10 gallons. [H.] 

e-phem'-er-al (-fern 1 -), adj. lasting only 
for a day ; short-lived, e-phem'-er-a, 
n. the May-fly ; a genus of short-lived 
insects. [Gr.<epi- + hemera, a day.] 

eph'-od (ef-), n. a kind of linen surplice 
worn by the Jewish high-priest. [H. 
dphad, to put on.] 

epi-, ep-, eph-, pre/. [Gr.] upon. 

ep'-ic, adj. relating to heroic story ; 
grand and lofty in style : n. a long poem 
relating such a story. [Gr. epos, a word, 

ep'-i-cene (-l-sen), adj. common to both 
sexes ; either masculine or feminine 
(gender). [Gr. epi- + koinos, common.] 

ep'-i-cure, n. one fond of good living and 
other luxuries, ep-i-cu-re'-an, n. a 
disciple of Epicurus (b.c. 341-270), an 
ancient Greek philosopher, who taught 

- that pleasure (with absence of pain and 

worry) should be the chief aim of life: adj. 

ep-i-dem'-ic, adj. spreading among the 
people (esp. of disease) : n. an infectious 
or contagious disease which attacks 
many people at the same time, ep-i- 
dem'-i-cal-ly, adj. spreading widely. 
[Gr. epi- -+• demos, the people.] 

ep-i-der'-mis, or ep'-i-derm, n. the 
cuticle, scarf-skin, or thin, outer skin 
covering the true skin (of animals and 
plants), ep-i-der -mal, adj. [Gr. epi. 
-f derma, the skin.] 

ep-i-gas'-tric, adj. relating to the ep-i- 
gas'-tri-um or upper part of the abdo- 
men, where the stomach is situated. 
[Gr. epi-+gaster, the stomach.] 

ep-i-glot'-tis, n. cartilage at the root of 
the tongue falling upon the glottis or 
wind-pipe and partly closing the larynx.. 
[Gr. epi- + glottis.] 

ep'-i-gram, n. (pi. -grams), a short, 
witty, or sarcastic saying (esp. in verse). 
ep-i-gram-mat'-ic(or-ic-al),ad;. ep- 
i-gram'-ma-tist, n. a writer of epi- 
grams. [Gr. epi- + gramma, a writing 
<grapho, I write.] 

ep'-i-graph, n. an inscription (on a build- 
ing, monument, tombstone, etc.). [Gr. 
epi-+grapho, I write.] 

ep'-i-lep-sy, n. a nervous disease accom- 
panied by fits of convulsions at intervals, 
and loss of consciousness ; also called 
the " falling sickness." ep-i-lep'-tic, 
adj. pertaining to — : n. one suffering 
from or subject to — . [Gr. epi- -f- lepsis, 
a seizing <lambdno, I take.] 

ep'-i-logue (-log), n. a speech at the end 
of a play ; the closing part of a discourse. 
[Gr. epi- -{-logos, a word, speech.] 

e-piph'-an-y (-pif-dn-l), n. an appear- 
ance ; a Christian festival held on 6th 
January to commemorate the manifesta- 
tion of Christ to the Wise Men of the 
East (St. Matthew ii., 1—12). [Gr. 
epip]ianeia<epi-+phaino, I shew.] 

e-pis'-co-pal, adj. relating to bishops. 
e-pis'-co-pa-cy,w. church government 
by bishops ; the office of a bishop ; the 
bishops as a body, e-pis-co-pa'-li-an, 
adj. relating to bishops, or to Church 
government by bishops : n. a member of 
an episcopal church, e-pis -co-pate, n. 
the office of bishop ; the period of office 
of a bishop ; the order of bishops. [Gr. 
epi- + skopeo, I watch.] 

ep'-i-sode, n. a story introduced as part 
of another and longer story ; an incident. 




[Gr. epi- + eis, into + odos, a way, road.] 

e-pis'-tle (-pis' -I), n. a letter ; (in the New 
Test.) a letter addressed by an Apostle 
to his Christian brethren, e-pis'-to-la- 
ry, adj. [Gr. epi- + stello, I send.] 

ep'-i-taph (-i-taf), n. an inscription on a 
tomb or monument in memory of the 
dead. [Gr. epi- + taphos, a tomb.] 

ep-i-tha-la'-mi-um, n. a marriage song 
or poem in honour of the bride and 
bridegroom ; a nuptial song. [Gr. epi- 
+ thalamos, a bride-chamber.] 

ep-i-the'-li-um (-the'-), n. (pi. -li-a), an 
exceedingly thin and sensitive kind of 
skin coating all the internal organs and 
parts of the body, ep-i-the -li-al, adj. 
[Gr. epi- + thele, a nipple.] 

ep'-i-thet, n. a word used to denote some 
quality, good or bad, of a person or 
thing ; a title or designation, ep-i- 
thet'-ic, adj. [Gr. epi- + tithemi, I 

e-pit'-o-me, n. a summary ; an abstract. 
e-pit'-o-mize (-mized, -mi-zing), v. to 
make an epitome of. [Gr. epi- + temno, 
I cut.] 

e'-poch (-pok), n. a fixed point of time ; 
a date ; an era ; a chief event in a series 
of events, epoch-making, adj. so strik- 
ing (an event) as to mark out a particular 
date. [Gr. epi- + echo, I hold.] 

ep'-ode, n. a kind of ode in which a 
shorter verse (line of poetry) follows a 
longer one. [Gr. epi- -f ode, an ode, song.] 

Ep'-som— salt (less correctly —salts), n. 
sulphate of magnesia, used as a purging 
medicine, formerly prepared from the 
mineral waters of Epsom, in Surrey. 

e'-qua-ble (or ek'-wa-), not varying; 
smooth ; even-tempered, e-qua-bil- 
i-ty (-i-tl), n. [L. cequabilis< cequus, 

e'-qual, adj. of the same size, number, 
value, capacity, ability, or rank : v. 
(-quailed, -qual-ling), to make or be 
equal to. e-qual'-i-ty, n. e -qual- 
ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. to make equal. 
equal to the occasion, fit or able to 
act in an emergency. [L. aqudlis.'] 

e-qua-nim'-i-ty (-l-ti), n. evenness of 
mind or temper. [L. cequdlis, equal -f 
animus, mind.] 

e-quate' (-qua'-ted, -qua'-ting), v. to 
make equal ; to reduce to an average. 
e-qua'-tion, n. equality (as of two ex- 
pressions in algebra), equation of 
time, the difference between the time as 

shown by the clock (sidereal time) and 
that shown by the sun-dial (solar time). 
personal equation, results, or the 
influence on events, arising from the par- 
ticular nature of the individual person 
or persons concerned. [See equal.] 

e-qua'-tor, n. an imaginary circle passing 
round the earth (midway between the 
poles), and so dividing it into two equal 
parts, e-qua-to'-ri-al (-ri-al), adj. 
[L. cequus, equal.] 

eq'-uer-ry (ek'-wer-i), n. an officer of the 
royal household (under the Master of 
the Horse) who attends on the sovereign. 
[F. ecurie, a stable.] 

e-ques'-tri-an (-tri-), adj. belonging to 
riding on horseback ; of horsemanship : 
n. (m. -tri-an,/. -tri-enne), a rider on 
horseback, e-ques -tri-an-ism (-izm), 
n. horsemanship. [L. equus, a horse.] 

e-qui-dis'-tant, adj. at equal distances 
from the same point, or from each other. 
e-qui-dis'-tance, n. [L. eequun, equal 
+ distant.] 

e-qui-lat'-er-al, adj. having all the sides 
equal. [L. cequus, equal + latus, a side.] 

e-qui-li'-brate (-bra-ted, -bra-ting), v. 
to balance (two scales or weights) equally. 
e-qui-li'-bra-tor, n. the end part of a 
flying-machine (acting like a bird's tail). 
e-quil'-i-brist, n. one who balances (as 
a tight-rope dancer, etc.). e-qui-lib'- 
ri-um, n. even balance ; a state of rest 
produced by it ; a level position. [L. 
eequus, equal + libra, a balance.] 

e'-quine, adj. of, or pertaining to, a 
horse. [L. equus, a horse.] 

e'-qui-nox (-kwi-), n. (pi. -es), one of 
the times when day and night are equal 
(about 21st March and 23rd September). 
e-qui-noc'-tial (-shal) (not -xial), adj. 
pertaining to the time of the equinoxes. 
equinoctial gales, severe storms which 
are supposed to prevail about the time 
of the equinoxes. [L. cequus, equal + 
nox, night.] 

e-quip' (-quipped', -quip'-ping), v. to 
make ready ; to fit out. eq'-ui-page 
(ek'-wi-), n. materials for equipping; 
attendants ; a carriage, e-quip'-ment, 
n. state of being equipped; outfit; things 
used in furnishing or equipping. [F. 

e'-qui-poise (-kwi-), n. equality of weight ; 
even balance. [L. cequus, equal + poise] 

eq'-ui-ta-ble(eA;'-«;I-), adj. just (inaction 
or dealing), eq'-ui-ty, n. just dealing ; 




fairness ; justice ; the sense of fairness 
which enables laws to be so interpreted 
that the carrying out of them does no 
injustice. [F.<L. aquus, equal.] 

e-quiy'-a-lent, adj. equal in value : n. a 
thing equal in value to another. [L. 
aquas, equal + vdleo, I am strong.] 

e-quiy'-o-cal, adj. with two or more 
meanings ; doubtful ; questionable, e- 
quiy -o-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to 
use misleading or doubtful words with 
intention to deceive, e-quiv-o-ca'- 
tion, n. [L. cequus, equal + vox, voice, 

E.R., Ed-uar'-dus Bex [L.] = King 
Edward. E.R. et I., Eduardus Rex et 
Imperotor, Edward, King and Emperor. 

e'-ra (-ra), n. a period of time. [L. ara, 
brass counters, pi. of as, brass.] 

e-rad'-i-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to 
uproot ; to destroy utterly, e-rad-i- 
ca'-tion, n. [L. e- + radix, root.] 

e-rase' (-rds'), (-rased', -ra'-sing), v. to 
rub or scrape out ; to efface, e-ra'-sa- 
ble, adj. e-ra'-ser, n. one who, or that 
which, erases ; india-rubber, e-ra'- 
sion (-zhun), n. e-ra'-sure (-zhur), n. 
[L. e-, out-frado, I scrape.] 

E-ras'-ti-an, n. a follower of Erastus, a 
Swiss divine of the 16th century, who 
taught that the Church is dependent 
on the State : adj. E-ras'-ti-an-ism 
(-izm), n. the doctrine of Erastians. 

ere (dr), prep.: adv. before; sooner. 
[A.S. car, before.] 

Er'-e-bus, n. (among the ancient Greeks 
and Romans) a dark and gloomy region 
of the dead. 

e-rect' (-ed, -ing), v. to set upright; to 
build ; to exalt ; to establish : adj. 
upright, e-rec'-tion, n. the act of 
erecting ; anything erected ; a building. 
e-rect'-or, n. one who, or that which, 
erects. [L. erectus, upright < erigo, I 
raise up.] 

er'-go. [L.] therefore. 

B'-rin go bvahl int. [Irish] Hurrah 
for Ireland ! 

er'-mine (-min, not -tow), n. a small fur- 
bearing animal ; fur obtained from it, 
much used for the official robes of judges 
and peers. [O.F. ermine (?).] 

e-rode' (-ro'-ded, -ro'-ding), v. to eat, 
gnaw, or wearaway. e-ro'-sion (-zhun), 
n. e-ro'-siye (-siv), adj. [L. e- + rodo, 
I gnaw.] [eros, love.] 

e-rot'-ic, adj. pertaining to love. [Gr. 

err (ur), (erred, er'-ring), v. to wander 
from the right path ; to go astray ; to 
make mistakes, er-ro'-ne-ous (-us), 
adj. wrong ; mistaken, er'-ror, n. a 
mistake ; a deviation from the truth ; a 
blunder. [F.<L. erro, I wander.] 

er'-rand, n. a message ; a commission. 
a fool's errand, a foolish undertaking. 
[A S. a rend."] 

er'-rant, adj. wandering; roving: n. a 
knight-errant, q.v. [See err.] 

er-rat'-ic, adj. wandering ; uncertain ; 
irregular, erratic rocks or boulders, 
masses or pieces of rock which have been 
carried from their original locality by 
the agency of ice or water, and left on 
the surface of the land. {See err.] 

er-ra'-tum (-rd'-, not -rd'-), n. (pi. -ta), 
[L.] a mistake ; an error to be corrected. 

Erse, n. the Celtic language as spoken in 
the West of Ireland ; sometimes used 
for the language (the Gaelic) spoken by 
the Gaels or Celts in the West High- 
lands of Scotland, as being of Irish 
origin. [A corruption of Irish.] 

erst, adv. at first; formerly, erst'-while, 
adv. formerly ; till now. [A.S. cerest, first 
(in time), superlative of ar. See ere.] 

e-ruc'-tate (l-ruk'-), (-ta-ted, -ta-ting), 
v. to belch, e-ruc-ta'-tion (e-ruk-), n. 
[L. eructo, I belch.] 

er'-u-dite (er'-u-), adj. learned, er-u- 
di'-tion (-dish'-un), n. learnings great 
knowledge (esp. of books). [L. erudltus.] 

e-rupt' (-ed, -ing), v. to burst forth ; to 
break out or through, e-rup'-tion, n. 
a bursting or breaking forth (esp. on or of 
the skin, of a volcano, etc.). e-rup'-tiye 
(-tiv), adj. [L. e- + rumpo, I burst.] 

er-y-sip'-e-las (er-l-), n. a disease accom- 
panied by inflammation, redness, and 
pain, esp. on the face and head. [Gr. 
eruthros, ved+pella, skin.] 

es-ca-lade f , n. a fierce attack on a forti- 
fied place by means of ladders : v. (-la'- 
ded, -la'-ding). [F.<Sp. escalada< 
L. scdla, a ladder.] [escalade.] 

es-ca-la'-tor, n. a moving staircase. [See 

es-cape' (-caped', -ca'-ping), v. to get 
safely away (from danger) ; to run or 
hasten away ; to shun or avoid : n, 
es-ca-pade' (Sp. form, es-ca-pa'-do, 
pi. -does), n. a foolish feat, prank, or 
adventure, es-cape'-ment, n. that 
part of a time-piece which allows one of 
the wheels, connected with the pendu- 
lum, or balance, to revolve (escape) one 




notch at a time. [F.<L. ex--\-cappa, 

es-carp' (-carped', -carp'-ing), v. to 
form (esp. rocky ground) into a steep 
slope in fortification, es-carp -ment, 
w. a very steep or precipitous side of a 
hill, rock, or fortification [F. escarper.] 

esch-a-lot' (esh-), same as shallot, q. v. 

es-cha-tol'-o-gy (-ka-tol'-o-jl), n. that 
part of theology which treats of last or 
final things, e.g., death, and what follows 
[Gr. escliatos, last -\- logos, a discourse.] 

es-cheat' {-diet'), n. the falling of land or 
other property to the State through 
want of heirs, or by forfeiture : v. (-ed, 
-ing). [O.F.<L. ex-+cado, I fall.] 

es-chew' (-chewed', -chew'-ing), v. to 
flee from ; to avoid ; to shun. [O.F.< 
Gr. scheuen, to be afraid of.] 

es-cort' (-ed, -ing), v. to attend ; to wait 
on or accompany ; to guard, es'-cort, 
n. a body of armed men as a guard ; a 
guide, attendant, or protector. [F. es- 
corte < L. ex- -f corrigo, I make straight.] 

es-cri-toire' (-krl-ticar 1 ), n. a writing- 
table or desk. [F. <L. scrlho, I write.] 

es-cu-la'-pi-an, adj. relating to .ffis-cu- 
la' -pi-us, the Greek and Eoman god of 
medicine ; relating to the healing art. 

es'-cu-lent, adj. eatable ; suitable for 
food: tt. [L. esculentus<esca, food.] 

es-cutch'-eon (-kuch'-un), n. a shield 
upon which a coat-of-arms is repre- 
sented ; a family shield ; a plate for a 
key-hole, usually (but incorrectly) called 
a scutcheon, q.v. a blot on the — , a 
stain on one's good name or character. 
[F. <L. scutum, a shield.] 

Es'-ki-mo, n. (pi. -mos), a form of 
Esquimau (pi. -maux), the name of 
a native race inhabiting Greenland, 
Labrador, and other Arctic regions. 

e-soph'-a-gus. See oesophagus. 

es-o-ter'-ic, adj. (doctrine or tenet) 
taught only to a chosen few ; private ; 
secret ; hidden ; mysterious. The reverse 
of exoteric. [Gr. esoterikos, inner.] 

es-pal'-ier (-yer), n. lattice or trellis- work 
on which fruit-trees are trained to grow. 
[F.<I. spalla, shoulder.] 

es-par'-to, n. a strong kind of grass used 
for making paper, cordage, basket-work, 
etc. [Sp.<L.<Gr. sparton, a rope.] 

es-pe'-cial (-pesh'-'l), adj. special ; par- 
ticular ; distinguished ; marked ; pecu- 
liar, es-pe'-cial-ly, adv. [F.<L. 
specidlis, of a species or kind.] 

Es-pe-ran'-to, n. an artificial, universal 
language. [Sp. esperar, to expect <L. 
spero, I hope.] 

es-pie'-gler-ie (-pya'-glcr-e), n. frolic ; 
sly, roguish tricks. [F.] 

es'-pi-on-age, n. See espy. 

es-pla-nade' (-ndd', not -ndd'), n. an 
open space for walking ; a road on the 
sea-front of a town ; a promenade. [F. 
<L. ex-+ planus, level.] 

es-pouse' (-pouz'), (-poused', -pous'- 
ing), v. to marry ; to take up and help 
on(acause). es-pous'-al,n. a marriage. 
[F.<L. spondeo, I promise.] 

es-prit' (-pre'), 11. soul; intelligence; wit; 
a strong-minded person, esprit de 
corps (es-pre' duh kor), [F.] the ani- 
mating spirit, feeling, or disposition 
which binds persons together as members 
of the same society or profession, and 
makes them regardful of the honour, 
etc., of the body as a whole and of each 
individual as a member of it. [F. <L. 
spiritus, spirit, soul.] 

es-py' (-pied', -py'-ing), v. to catch 
sight of ; to observe ; to watch, es- 
pi'-al, n. the act of — . es'-pi-on-age 
(-pl-on-aj, not -pi-), n. the act or practice 
of a spy ; secret watching over others. 
[F. espier<root of spy.] 

Esq., esquire. 

Es'-qui-mau, n. (pi. -maux), see Eskimo. 
The sing. Esquimau, is rarely used. 

es-quire', n. a shield-bearer ; a title next 
below that of a knight ; a landed pro- 
prietor ; a squire ; a title of courtesy 
[Esq.] placed after the name of a man 
in a good social position, and used 
instead of Mr. before the name. [O.F. 
escuyer<h scutum, a shield.] 

es-say' (-sayed', -say'-ing), v. to try ; 
to attempt, es'-say, tt. (pi. -says), a 
trial ; a short literary composition. 
es'-say-ist, tt. the writer of an — . [F. 
essai<L. exagium, a weighing.] 

es'-sence (-sens), n. the distinctive nature 
or chief quality of anything ; volatile 
oil extracted from a substance ; a per- 
fume, es-sen'-tial (-shul), adj. quite 
necessary or important ; containing the 
essence : n. something necessary, es- 
sen'-tial-ly, adv. [F.<L. esse, to be.] 

est., established. 

es-tab'-lish (-lished, -lish-ing), v. to 
make stable or firm ; to set up; to found; 
to prove ; to settle ; to enact by author- 
ity, es-tab'-lish-ment, n. that which 




is established ; an institution ; the 
Church of England (established by law). 
[F.<L. stabilis, firm.] 

es-tate', n. condition ; state ; property 
(esp. in land). The (three) Estates of 
the Realm, n. pi. (in the British Con- 
stitution) the Lords Spiritual (episcopal 
peers, i.e, bishops), the Lords Temporal 
(secular peers), and the Commons [not, 
as is often supposed, King, Lords, and 
Commons] . The Fourth Estate, news- 
papers, etc., often so called on account 
of their great influence in public matters. 
Personal estate, property in money and 
other moveables. Real estate, property 
in land, houses, etc. [F.<L. status, a 
standing <sto, I stand.] 

es-teem' (-teemed', -teem'-ing), v. to 
think highly of ; to set a high value 
on: n. es'-tim-a-ble, adj. deserving; 
worthy of esteem. [See estimate.] 

es'-ti-mate (-ma-ted, -ma-ting), v. to 
judge or calculate the value of ; to reckon 
roughly ; to form an opinion of : n. 
es'-ti-mates, n. pi. calculations as to 
income and expenses, cost, etc., esp. 
those of a public character, es-ti-ma- 
tion, n. judgement of moral worth or 
character; regard; opinion. [F.<L. 
astimo, I value.] 

es-top' (-topped', -top'-ping), v. to stop 
up ; to bar ; (in law) to stop, bar, or 
hinder proceedings (esp. by one's own 
act), es-top'-pel, n. [O.F. estoper< 
L. stuppa, tow (used to stop a hole).] 

es-trade' (-trad'), n. a low platform. [F.] 

es-trange' (-tranj'), (-tranged', -tran'- 
ging), v. to make strange ; to break up 
friendship between ; to divert from its 
original use, purpose, or possessor, es- 
trange'-ment, n. [F.<L. extrdneus, 

es-treat' (-tret'), n. a true copy of an 
original document, under which fines 
are to be levied : v. (-ed, -ing), to levy 
fines under an — . [O.F. < L. extrdho, 
I draw out, extract.] 

es'-tu-a-ry (-ri), n. (pi. -a-ries), the 
wide, tidal mouth of a river. [L. cestu- 
ai'ium<testus, heat, boiling, tide.] 

etc., et cet'-er-a, [L.] = and the others ; 
and so on. Sometimes written <fec. 
Sometimes used as a, etceteras, 
oddments ; sundries ; extras. 

etch (ech), (etched, etch'-ing), v. to form 
figures on glass, metal, etc., by the aid 
of an acid, etch'-er, n. one who — . 

etch'-ing, n. a picture printed from an 
etched plate. [See eat.] 

e-ter'-nal, adj. without beginning or end 
(of time) ; for ever ; ceaseless, e-ter'- 
nal-ly, adv. e-ter'-ni-ty (-ni-tl), n. 
endless time ; boundless existence ; the 
condition which begins at death. [F. 
<L. cetemus, lasting for an age.] 

e-te'-si-an (-zl-, less correctly -z/t'n), adj. 
(winds) blowing at certain seasons ; 
periodical. [Gr. etos, a year.] 

e'-ther, u. the clear, upper air; the 
medium which is supposed to pervade 
and fill all space ; (in chemistry) a light, 
clear, volatile liquid, e-the'-re-al, adj. 
pertaining to the ether ; volatile ; celes- 
tial ; airy ; spirit-like, e-the'-ri-on, n. 
a supposed gas present in the atmos- 
phere. [L. < Gr. aither, bright, pure air] 

eth'-ic(-al), adj. relating to eth'-ics (n. 
pi.), or the science of morals and duties. 
[Gr. ethos, custom, character.] 

eth'-nic(-al),arZ;'. relating to races of man- 
kind ; relating to heathens, eth-nog'- 
ra-phy (-/£), n. a description of races 
or nations. eth-nol'-o-gy, n. the 
science which treats of the various races 
of mankind, their origin, relations, and 
differences. [Gr. ethnos, a race, nation.] 

e'-ti-o-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to 
make or become pale by exclusion or 
absence of light, e-ti-o-la'-tion, n. 
[F. < L. stipilla, a straw (of pale colour) .] 

e-ti-ol'-o-gy (-jl), n. the science of causes 
(esp. of diseases), or of the origin and 
development of things, e-ti-o-log'-i- 
cal (-loj'-), adj. [Gr. aitia, cause-f- 
logos, a discourse.] 

et'-i-quette (-%-ket), n. the forms, rules, 
and observances for good behaviour and 
conduct towards one another generally, 
or on particular occasions ; decorum ; 
ceremony, professional — , the rules 
and customs which govern the actions 
of, and must be observed by, members of 
the same calling. [F. <root of ticket.] 

et seq , et se-quen'-ti-a, [L.] and 
the following, and so on. 

et-y-mol'-o-gy (-ji), n. the science of the 
origin , changes, and inflections of words. 
et-y-mo-log'-i-cal (-loj'-), adj. et-y- 
mol'-o-gist, n. one versed in — . et'- 
y-mon, n. a root word. [Gr. etiimos, 
true, real + Zotfos, discourse.] 

E.U., Evangelical Union. 

eu-, pref. [Gr.] well. 

eu-ca-lyp'-tus (-ka-lip'-), n. (pi. -ti or 




-tus-es), the Australian "gum-tree," a 
genus of evergreen laurels, eu-ca-lyp'- 
tus oil, n. an oil distilled from the leaves 

I of the gum-tree, and much used in 
medicine. [Gr. eu- + kaluptos, covered.] 
|Eu'-cha-rist(-A;a-),n. the Lord's Supper; 
the Holy Communion [literally ' a giving 
of thanks '] . eu-char-is'-tic, adj. 
[Gr. eu- + chdris, grace, favour.] 

eu'-chre (ii'-kr), n. a game of cards. [?] 

eu-gen'-ics,n.pZ. the science which treats 
of the improvement and development of 
the inborn qualities of the human race ; 
sometimes applied to the developing of 
fine breeds of cattle. v eu-gen'-ic, adj. 
[Gr. eu- + genos, a race.] 

eu'-lo-gy (-jty, n. praise of a pe.rson or 
thing, eu'-lo-gist, n. one who praises. 
eu-lo-gis'-tic, adj. praising highly. 
eu-lo'-gi-um {-jl-), n. formal praise. 
ej^v\o-gize ( or "£ ise )» (-g iz ed, -gi- 
zing), v. to praise highly. [Gr. eu- + 
logos, a word, speech.] 

eu'-nuch (-nuk), n. in the East, a man 
who has charge of the women's apart- 
ments ; a chamberlain. [Gr. euiie, a 
cou'cn + echo, I have (in charge).] 

eu'-phe-mism (-fe-mizm), n. expressing a 
harsh, unkind, or offensive idea in 
milder terms, eu-phe-mis'-tic, adj. 
[Gr. eu-+phemi, I speak.] 

eu'-phon-y (-fun-i), n. a sweet and pleas- 
ing sound, eu-phon'-ic, adj. eu-pho - 
ni-ous (-us), adj. pleasing to the ear. 
[Gr. eu-+phone, sound.] 

Bu'-phu-ism (u'-fu-izm), n. an affected 
style of conversation and writing fashion- 
able, for some time, in the Court of Q. 
Elizabeth, eu'-phu-ist, n. one who 
practised this style, eu-phu-is'-tic(-al), 
adj. [ m <Eup]mes, the name of a book 
written in this style by John Lyly (1580) 
<Gr. eu--\-phue, growth.] 

Eu-ra'-si-an, adj. of Eurasia, or Europe 
and Asia ; born of mixed European and 
Asiatic parentage. [< Europe + Asia.] 

eu-re'-ka, int. " I have found (it) ! " a 
Greek word used by the mathematician 
Ar-chi-me'-des (b.c. 287-212), after he 
had made a great discovery : n. a dis- 
covery, or a shout of triumph after it. 

eu-tha-na'-si-a(-z£-a,or-s£-), n. a happy 
or easy death. [Gr. eu- -f t liana tos, death] 

e-Yac'-u-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
make empty ; to leave. e-Yac-u-a'- 
tion, n. withdrawal (of troops from a 
place) ; emptying : the discharge 

from the bowels ; the faeces. [L. ex- + 
vacuus, empty.] 

e-vade' (-va'-ded, -Ya'-ding), v. to get 
out of the way of ; to avoid cunningly. 
e-Ya'-da-ble, adj. e-Ya'-sion, n. act 
of evading ; an excuse. e-Ya'-siYe 
(siv), adj. not straightforward ; shuff- 
ling. [L. ex- + vddo, I go.] 

e-Yal'-u-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
estimate carefully the value of. e-yal- 
u-a'-tion, n. [L. e --fYalue.] 

ey-an-es -cent (-es'-ent), adj. vanishing ; 
fleeting ; passing quickly away. eY-an- 
es'-cence (-ens), n. [L. evdnesco, I 
vanish < vdnus, vain.] 

e-Yan'-gel,n. good news, esp. the Gospels. 
e-Yan-gel'-ic-al, adj. pertaining to or 
contained in the Gospels ; earnest for 
the truths taught in the Gospels, e- 
Yan'-gel-ist, n. one of the four writers 
of the Gospels ; a Christian preacher ; 
an enthusiast, e-van'-gel-ize (-ized, 
-i-zing), v. to make known the Gospel 
to ; to bring under the influence of the 
Gospel truths ; to bring under the influ- 
ence of good teaching ; to convert to 
one's own opinion. [Gr. eu- + angello f 
I bring news.] 

e-Yap'-o-rate (-ra-ted, -ra-ting), v. to 
pass off in vapour ; to change into vapour. 
e-Yap-o-ra'-tion, n. [L. ex- + tf&por % 
vapour, steam.] 

eYe (ev), n. evening; the night before; 
the time just before (some important 
event) ; the day before (as Christmas- 
Eve, the day before Christmas-Day). 
e'-Yen, n. evening. e'-Yen-song, n. a 
form of prayer and worship for the 
evening. e'-Yen-tide, n. evening-time. 
[A.S. a fen, evening.] 

e'-Yen, adj. smooth ; level ; equal ; not 
odd : v. (e'-yened, e'-Yen-ing), to 
make — : adv. indeed; just so. e'-Yen- 
ness, n. even-handed, adj. fair ; im- 
partial ; just, even— minded, not of 
changeable disposition ; equable ; level- 
headed. [A.S. efen, level, even.] 

e'-Yen-ing, n. the close of the day ; the 
beginning of night, evening— dress, n. 
the dress worn by ladies and gentlemen 
at dinner (in the evening) and at parties. 
evening— star, n. Venus (or sometimes 
Jupiter) when it shines in the west at 
eventide. [A.S. eefnung.'] 

e-Yent', n. something which happens ; a 
result ; an incident ; an item in a pro- 
gramme (esp. of sports, etc.). e-Yent'- 




ful, adj. full of events or incidents; 
remarkable for one or more important 
events ; momentous. e-Yent'-u-al, 
adj. coming as a necessary event, result, 
or consequence. e-Yent-u-al'-i-ty 
(-l-ti), n. event ; occurrence. e-Yent'- 
u-al-ly, adv. in course of time ; in the 
end. e-Yen'-tu-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), 
v. to come about (as an event) ; to 
happen, [L. eventus, occurrence.] 

CY'-er, adv. at any time ; always. eY'-er- 
green, adj. always green : n. a tree 
always in leaf. eY-er-last'-ing, adj. 
never ending. eY-er-more', adv. un- 
endingly : n. unending time. eYer and 
anon, now and again. [A.S. cefre, 

ev'-er-y, adj. each one of all. eY'-er-y- 
bod-y, n. ev'-er-y-thing, n. ey'-er- 
y-where, adv. in every place. [A.S. 
<efre, ever-f celc, each.] 

C-Yict' (-ed, -ing), v. to dispossess by 
law ; to expel (from house or land) . 
e-Yic'-tion, n. [L. evictus, overcome 

eY'-i-dence, ». testimony; witness; a 
sign or token. eY'-i-dent, adj. clear ; 
plain. ev'-i-dent-ly, adv. eY-i-den'- 
tial (-shal), adj. giving evidence ; prov- 
ing, in evidence, clearly seen ; present ; 
accepted by a Law Court as evidence. 
to turn King's (or Queen's) evidence, 
(of an accomplice in crime) to give — 
against his partners. [F.<L. ex- + 
video, I see.] 

e'-Yil, adj. wicked ; bad : n. wickedness ; 
badness ; something which causes un- 
happiness, harm, an ill-effect, etc. 
evil-doer, n. one who does evil. 
eYil— eye, n. an eye which is supposed 
to exert a power for evil on that which 
it looks upon. e'-Yil-ly, adv. The 
EYil One, the Devil, evil-favoured, 
having a repulsive or disagreeable 
appearance. [A.S. yfel, evil.] 

e-Yince' (-vinced', -Yin'-cing), v. to 
prove clearly ; to make evident. e-Yin'- 
ci-ble (-si-bl), adj. able to be evinced. 
[L. ex- \-vinco, I overcome.] 

e-Yis'-cer-ate (-vis'-er-), (-a-ted, -a- 
ting), v. to take the viscera or entrails 
out of . e-Yis-cer-a'-tion, n. {L.ex- + 
viscera, the bowels.] 

e-Yoke' (-Yoked', -Yo'-king), v. to call 
or summon forth, ev-o-ca'-tion, n. 
[L. ex- + voco, I call.] 

e-volve' (-Yolved', -Yol'-ving), v. to 

unroll ; to unfold ; to develop ; to dis- 
close. eY-o-lu'-tion, n. gradual un- 
folding, working out, growth, or develop- 
ment ; the theory which teaches that 
higher forms of life (either plant or 
animal) have gradually arisen out of, 
or advanced from, or developed out of, 
lower forms ; the orderly movements of 
ships-of-war or of bodies of troops, ev- 
o-lu'-tion-ist, n. one who believes in 
evolution. [L. ex- + volvo, I roll.] 

ewe (ii),n. a female sheep. [A.S. eowu.] 

ew'-er \u'-), n. a large jug or pitcher (for 
water). [O.F.<L. aqudrius<dqua, 
water.] [of ; from. 

ex-, e-, ec-, ef-, es-, pref. [L.] out ; out 

ex., example. 

ex- (used before other words), former ; 
formerly ; late ; once ; as in ex-presi- 
dent, formerly president ; late president. 

ex-ac'-er-bate {-as'-), (-ba-ted, -ba- 
ting), v. to irritate ; to exaspertko , to 
render more bitter (against). [L. ex- + 
acerbus, harsh, bitter.] 

ex-act', adj. quite right ; accurate ; punc- 
tual ; precise : v. (-ed, -ing), to demand 
as a right; to force (payment). ex-».<*ct'- 
ing, adj. demanding with excessive 
harshness ; requiring too much, ex- 
ac'-tion,n. an oppressive demand, ex- 
ac'-ti-tude, n. exactness ; truthfulness. 
ex-act'-ly, adv. ex-act'-ness, n. [L. 
ex- -{-ago, I drive.] 

ex-ag'-ger-ate {-(ij'-jer-, not -ag'-ger), 
(-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to make too much 
of ; to over-estimate ; to overstate or 
represent too strongly, ex-ag-ger-a'- 
tion, it. a statement in excess of the 
truth, ex-ag'-ger-a-tor, n. [L. ex- 
+ aggero, I heap up.] 

ex-alt' (-alt'), (-ed, -ing), v. to lift up ; to 
raise in power, rank, etc. ; to praise 
highly; to fill with the joy of success. 
ex-al-ta'-tion, n. the act of — ; the 
state of being — . [L. ex- + altux, high.] 

ex-am'., n. (pi. ex-ams'.), a familiar 
abbreviation of examination. 

ex-am'-ine (-in), (-ined, -in-ing), v. to 
look into carefully ; to ask questions of ; 
to enquire or search into ; to test, ex- 
am-i-na'-tion, n. ex-am-i-nee', n. 
one who is being examined, ex-am'- 
i-ner, n. one who — . [L. examine-, I 
examine <exdmen, the tongue of a 

ex-am'-ple (-pi), n. a pattern ; something 
to be either imitated or avoided ; a 

Ex animo 



warning ; one of a number of the same 
kind. [F.<L. exemplum, example.] 

ex an'-i-ino, [L.] cheerfully; sincerely; 

ex'-arch (-ark), n. a bishop or superior 
in the Greek Church, ex'-arch-ate, n. 
the office or province of an — . [Gr. 
ex--\-archein, to lead.] 

ex-as'-per-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
make very angry ; to provoke in a high 
degree, ex-as-per-a'-tion, n. [L. ex- 
-jasper, rough.] 

ex cath'-e-dra. See cathedra. 

ex'-ca-vate (-kd-), (-Ya-ted, -Ya-ting), 
v. to dig, hollow, or scoop out. ex-ca- 
ya'-tion, n. ex'-ca-Ya-tor, n. one 
who — ; a machine for digging. [F. < 
L. excdvo<cdvus, hollow.] 

cx-ceed' (-sed'), (-ed, -ing), v. to go 
beyond ; to surpass ; to excel ; to be 
more than, ex-ceed'-ing, adj. ex- 
ceed'-ing-ly, adv. in a very high degree. 
[F.<L. ex- + cedo, I go.] 

ex-cel' (ek-seV), (-celled, -cel'-ling), v. 
to be better (or worse) than ; to surpass 
(esp. in praiseworthy actions) ; to be 
distinguished by superiority, ex'-cel- 
lence, n. (pi. -len-ces). ex'-cel-lent, 
adj. ex'-cel-len-cy, n. (pi. -len-cies), 
excellent quality ; a title of rank or 
honour (with capital " E "). [Note the 
two plurals.] [F.<L. excello, I excel.] 

ex-cept' (-se2)f), (-ed, -ing), v. to take or 
leave out ; to object : prep, leaving out. 
ex-cept'-ing, prep, leaving out. ex- 
cep'-tion, n. something left out ; some- 
thing not according to rule ; objection. 
ex-cep'-tion-a-ble, adj. liable to objec- 
tion, ex-cep'-tion-al, adj. not accord- 
ing to rule ; peculiar ; out of the ordi- 
nary. [F.<L. ex- + cdpio, I take.] 

ex'-cerpt (ek'-serpt, or ek-serpt'), n. an 
extract (esp. from a book). [L. excerpo 
<ex- + carpo, I pluck.] 

ex-cess' (ses'), n. what is over and above ; 
intemperance : adj. over and above : v. 
(-cessed', -cess'-ing), to charge with an 
excess fare, ex-cess -iye (-!»), adj. 
much too high or great, ex-cess'-iye- 
ly, adv. [See exceed.] 

ex-change' (-changed', -chan'-ging),v. 
to part with one thing for another : n. 
the act of — ; a place where merchants 
meet to transact business (also called 
'Change), ex-change'-a-ble, adj. able 
to be exchanged . [F . < L . ex- + ch ange.] 

ex-chequ'-er (-chek'-), n. the State trea- 

sury ; what a person has (in money). 
Exchequer chamber, until 1875, a 
court of Appeal, now called the Court 
of Appeal. [<root of chequer.] 

ex-cise' (-*«'), n. a tax on home products ; 
money paid for a licence, ex-cis' -a-ble 
(-slz'-), adj. liable to excise— duty, or 
those taxes which the Board of Inland 
Kevenue is responsible for collecting. 
ex-cise' -man, n. a collector of excise. 
[F.<L ex- -{-census, a tax.] 

ex-ci'-sion (-sizh'-un), n. a cutting out or 
off (esp. of small parts) ; extirpation. 
[L. excido, I cut out.] 

ex-cite' (-sit'), (-ci'-ted, -ci'-ting), v. to 
rouse into activity ; to stir up ; to 
irritate, ex-cit' -a-ble (sit'-), adj. easily 
excited, ex-ci'-ted, arf/. agitated, ex- 
cite '-ment, it. that which excites, 
rouses, or moves to action ; great agita- 
tion of mind; disturbance, ex-ci'-ter, 
n. one who, or that which, — . ex-ci'- 
ting, adj. causing excitement ; thrilling. 
[L. ex- + cieo, I stir up.] 

ex-claim' (-clam'), (-claimed', -claim'- 
ing), v. to cry out ; to speak aloud ; to 
speak vehemently, ex-clam-a'-tion, 
n. a loud cry expressing joy, surprise, 
etc. ; vehement utterance ; clamour. 
ex-clam'-a-to-ry (-rl), adj. crying out. 
[F.<L. ex- + cldmo, I cry out.] 

ex-clude' (-clu'-ded, -clu'-ding), v. to 
shut out ; to hinder from entrance ; not 
to count or reckon, ex-clu'-sion (-zhun), 
11. ex-clu'-siye (siv), adj. shutting 
out others or keeping them from par- 
ticipating ; sole ; entire ; not taking into 
account ; reserved ; select (party or 
society) : n. one belonging to such a party 
or society. [L. ex- + claudo, I shut.] 

ex-com-mu'-ni-cate (-nl-), (-ca-ted, 
-c a- ting), v. to expel or exclude (esp. 
from the rites and privileges of the 
Church), ex-com-mu'-ni-cant, n. one 
so excluded, ex-com-mu-ni-ca'-tion, 
n. [L. ex--}- communicate.] 

ex-co'-ri-ate (-ri-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. 
to strip, wear, or rub the skin from. 
ex-co-ri-a'-tion, n. [L. ex-+corium, 
skin, hide.] 

ex-cor'-ti-cate (-ti-), (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), 
v. to strip the bark from, ex-cor-ti- 
ca'-tion, n. [L. ex- -f cortex, bark.] 

ex'-cre-ment, n. matter discharged from 
the animal system ; dung, ex-cre- 
men-ti'-tious (-tish'-us), adj. £L. ex- 




ex-cres-cence (-ens), n. an out-growth ; 
that which grows out unnaturally from 
something else ; a part not wanted ; a 
wart or tumour, ex-cres'-cent (-ent), 
adj. [F.<L. ex- + cresco, I grow.] 

ex-crete' (-cre'-ted, -cre'-ting), v. to 
separate or throw out from the body ; 
to expel, ex-cre'-ta, matters dis- 
charged from the body, ex-cre'-tion, 
n. ex-cre'-tive (-tiv), adj. ex-cre'- 
to-ry (-ri), adj. [L. ex- + cerno, cretus, 
I separate.] 

ex-cru'-ci-ate (ski-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), 
v. to give great pain to ; to torture (as 
if on a cross), ex-cru'-ci-a-ting, adj. 
causing extreme pain (of body or mind) . 
[L. ex- + crux, a cross.] 

ex-cul -pate (-pa-ted, -pa-ting), v. to 
free or clear from blame ; to vindicate. 
ex-cul-pa'-tion, n. ex-cul' -pa-to-ry 
(-r%, not -kul-pd'-), adj. excusing; free- 
ing from fault or blame. [L. ex- -f culpa, 
fault, blame.] 

ex-cur'-sion (shun), n. a going forth ; a 
journey of pleasure ; a wandering away 
(from a subject, etc.). ex-cur'-sion- 
ist, n. one who makes an — (esp. for 
pleasure), ex-cur'-siye (-siv), adj. 
wandering (esp. from a subject) ; digres- 
sing, ex-cur'-sus, n. notes added to a 
book, and giving fuller information on 
some point. [L. ex- + curro, I run.] 

ex-cuse' (-kuz'), (-cused', -cu'-sing), v. 
to let off (esp. from punishment) ; to 
overlook (a fault of), ex-cuse' (-kus'), 
n. a reason offered for neglect, or to 
escape being blamed or punished, ex- 
cus'-a-ble (-kilz'-d-bl), adj. excuse 
me ! an apology for some slight impro- 
priety or fault, or when contradicting or 
questioning a statement. [F.<L. ex- 
+ causa, a cause, lawsuit.] 

ex'-e-at, [L.] let him go out : n. leave 
of absence (esp. at college or school). 

ex'-e-crate (-era' -ted, -era' -ting), v. to 
curse ; to express abhorrence of. ex'- 
e-cra-ble (-krd-bl), adj. detestable; 
accursed, ex-e-cra'-tion, n. the act 
of — . [L. exsecror<sacer, sacred.] 

ex'-e-cute (-cu-ted, -cu-ting), v. to per- 
form ; to carry out ; to put to death (by 
course of law), ex-e-cu'-tion, n. — ; 
manner of performing, ex-e-cu'-tion- 
er, n. one who carries out the sentence 
of death. ex-ec'-u-tiYe (-tlv), adj. 

t having full power to do or act on behalf 
of others ; carrying into effect : n. the 

power or authority which carries (laws ! 
and regulations) into effect, ex-ec'-u- 
tor, n. (/. -trix, pi. -tri-ces), one who 
sees to the carrying-out of instructions 
in the will of a dead person. [F.<L. 
ex- + sequor, I follow.] 

ex-e-ge'-sis (-je'-), n. interpretation or ex- 
planation (esp. of a book, and more esp. 
of the Bible), ex-e-get'-ic(-al) (-jet'-), 
adj. relating to interpretation ; explan- 
atory, ex-e-get'-ics (-jet'-), the 
science of interpretation. [Gr. exegeomai 
I explain.] 

ex-em'-plar, n. a person or thing worthy 
of being imitated, ex-em'-pla-ry (or 
ex' -em-), adj. worthy of imitation ; 
commendable ; serving as an example or 
a warning. [F. < L. exemplum, example] 

ex-em '-pli-fy (-pli-), (-fied, -fy-ing), v. 
to illustrate by examples, ex-em-pli- 
fi-ca'-tion, n. the act of exemplifying; 
a copy or transcript. [F. < L. exemplum, 
example +facio, I make.] 

ex-em' -pli gra'-ti-a, [L.] See e.g. 

ex-empt' (-emt'. The "p" is sometimes 
sounded in these words.), (-ed, -ing), 
v. to take or leave out ; to make free 
(from charge, duty, etc.) : adj. free (from 
charge, duty, etc.) ; released ; unaffected 
by. ex-emp'-tion, n. immunity or free- 
dom (from). [F. <L. eximo, I take out.] 

ex-e-qua'-tur, n. a document giving legal 
power to perform a certain act. [L. let 
him perform.] 

ex'-er-cise (-slz), (-cised, -ci-sing), v. to 
train by use (esp. the muscles) ; to put 
to work ; a putting in work ; an act of 
worship or devotion : n. use ; employ- 
ment ; training (esp. by gymnastics or 
athletics); a task. [F.<L. exerceo, I 
exercise <ar ceo, I drive.] 

ex-erf (egs-), (-ed, -ing), v. to put forth 
strength, ability, or power ; to strain. 
ex-er'-tion, n. [L. ex--\-sero, I join.] 

ex'-e-unt, [L.], see exit. 

ex-hale' (-haled', -ha'-ling), v. to give 
off (esp. vapour) ; to be given off. ex- 
hal-a'-tion, n. the action of breathing 
out ; being given off ; evaporation ; 
vapour; mist, etc. [F. <L. ex- + lidlo, 
I breathe.] 

ex-haust ' (-ed, -ing), v. to draw out fully ; 
to use up ; to wear or tire out : n. steam 
which escapes from the cylinder of a 
steam engine, ex-haust'-er, n. one 
who, or that which, exhausts, ex- 
haust' -i-ble (-i-bl), adj. ex-haus'- 



Expa; m inate 

tion (-haust-shun), n. state of being 
exhausted, ex-haust'-iye (-iv), adj. 
serving to — ; thorough ; complete. 
[L. ex- + haurio, I draw.] 

ex-hib'-it (-ed, -ing), v. to set forth to 
view ; to show : n. something exhibited. 
ex-hi-bi' -tion (-hl-bisW -un) , n. display; 
a public show ; an allowance (money) I 
granted to students, ex-hi-bi'-tion-er, J 
n. one who receives such an allowance. ! 
ex-hib'-i-tor, n. to make an exhibi- 
lion of oneself, to behave foolishly and i 
so excite ridicule or contempt. [L. ex- j 
■\-hdbeo, I have.] 

ex-hil'-a-rate (-ra-ted, -ra-ting), v. to 
make very cheerful or merry ; to enliven. 
ex-hil-a-ra'-tion, n. ex-hil'-a-ra- 
to-ry (not -rd'-to-ri), adj. [L. ex- + 
hildris, cheerful.] 

ex-hort' (-ed, -ing), v. to urge strongly 
(esp. to good deeds, or to forbear) ; to 
give earnest advice to ; to encourage. 
ex-hor-ta'-tion, n. a religious dis- 
course ; a warning, ex-hor'-ta-tiye 
(-td-tiv), adj. [F.<L. ex--\-hortor, I 

jx-hume' (-humed', -hu'-ming), v. to 
take (a dead body) out of the grave ; to 
disinter; to bring to light, ex-hu- 
ma -tion, n. ex-hu'-mer, n. [F.< 
L. ex- + humus, the ground.] 

5X-i-geant' (ek-sl-jdh'), adj. exacting. 
[F. see next word.] 

sx'-i-gent {-i-jent), adj. pressing; urgent. 
ex'-i-gence (-jens), n. ex'-i-gen-cy 
(-i-jen-sl), n. [L. ex- -{-ago, I drive.] 

5X-ig'-u-ous (-us), adj. small ; slender. 
ex-i-gu'-i-ty (-gu'-l-tl), n. ex-ig'-u- 
ous-ness, n. [L. exiguus, small.] 
x'-ile (eks'- or egs'-), (-iled, -i-ling), v. 
to expel (from a country or home) ; to 
banish : n. act of exiling ; a person 
exiled, ex-il'-ic, adj. [F.<L. exilium.'] 
x-ist' (-ed, -ing), v. to be ; to live, ex- 
is'-tence (-tens), n. state of having form 
and life ; continuing to live ; a living 
being ; a creature, ex-is'-tent, adj. 
living. [L. existens, living.] 

ix'-it, n. a going out ; a way out ; death. 
exit, [L.] he goes out (esp. of an actor 
on the stage), ex'-e-unt, they go out. 

2x'-o-dus, n. a going out ; a departure ; 
the second book of the Old Testament. 
[Gr. exudos, a way ont.] 
sx of-fi'-ci-o (-jish' -i-5) , [L.] by virtue, 
or on account, of one's office or position. 
5x'-o-gen {-jen), n. a plant which grows 

by the addition of outside efface. [L. 

og'-e-nous (-oj'-e-nus), adj. t 

out + genos, race, family.] * 

Exon., Ex-o-ni-en'-sis, [L.]=of Exeter; 
the signature of the Bishop of Exeter. 

ex-on'-er-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to free 
from blame or obligation ; to acquit. 
ex-on-er-a'-tion, n. ex-on'-er-a-tiye 
(-a-tiv), adj. [L. ex- + onus, a burden.] 

ex-or'-bi-tant (-hi-), adj. beyond what is 
just ; excessive ; extravagant, ex-or'- 
bi-tance, u. ex-or'-bi-tan-cy (-si), n. 
[F.<L. ex- + orbis, orb, circle.] 

ex'-or-cize (-siz), (-cized, -ci-zing), v. to 
drive out (evil spirits) ; to deliver from 
the influence of (an evil spirit), ex'-or- 
ci-zer, or ex'-or-cist, n. one who — . 
ex'-or-cism (-sizm), n. the act of exor- 
cising, or the prayers, charms, cere- 
monies, or form of words used in it. 
[Gr. exorkizo, I exorcize <horkos, an 

ex-or'-di-um(-3£-), n. the beginning or 
opening part (esp. of a speech), ex-or'- 
di-al (-dl-), adj. introductory. [L. ex- 
+ ordlor, I begin.] 

ex-o-ter'-ic (or -ic-al), adj. belonging to 
the outside ; fit to be communicated to 
the public. The reverse of esoteric 
(q.v.). [Gr. exoterikos<exo, outside.] 

ex-ot'-ic, adj. introduced from a foreign 
country ; not indigenous ; not acclima- 
tized, hence delicate : n. anything of 
foreign origin (as a plant, custom, etc). 
[L.<Gr. exotikos<exo, outside.] 

ex-pand' (-ed, -ing), v. to stretch or 
spread out in all directions ; to enlarge ; 
to develop ; to bring out in fuller 
detail ; to open out. ex-panse', n. 
extent ; the heavens, ex-pan' -siye, 
adj. widely extended, ex-pan' -si-ble 
(-si-bl), adj. able to be expanded, ex- 
pan-si-bil'-i-ty (-i-tl), n. capability 
of being expanded, ex-pan'-sion, n. 
act of expanding; state of being ex- 
panded. [L. ex--\-pando, I stretch.] 

ex par'-te, [L.] from (one) side ; one- 
sided ; hence, an ex parte statement 
is one which presents an account of one 
side only of a question. 

ex-pa' -ti-ate (-shl-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), 
v. to move or wander without restriction 
or limits ; to speak or write at length ; 
to praise highly, ex-pa-ti-a'-tion, n. 
[L. ex- + spdtium, space.] 

ex-pa' -tri-ate (-tn-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), 
v. to banish from one's father-land, ex- 

Excrer ect 



ex-cres'-c*'^ 011 ' n * banishment ; exile. 

that "^+l>atria, one's native land.] 
^A-pect' (-ed, -ing), v. to wait or look 
for ; to hope or fear the arrival of some- 
thing or somebody ; to presume or 
suppose, ex-pect'-ant, adj. ex-pec- 
ta'-tion, n. act or state of expecting ; 
prospect of something good to come ; 
in pi. prospect of fortune or success, or 
of profit by a will, ex-pect'-ed-ly, 
adv. as expected. [L. ex- -\-specto, Hook.] 

ex-pec' -to-rate (-ra-ted, -ra-ting), v. to 
spit, ex-pec-to-ra'-tion, n. spitting. 
ex-pec'-to-rant, n. or ex-pec'-to-ra- 
tiye, n. a medicine which promotes 
discharges (as phlegm) from the lungs 
or throat: adj. [L. ex- -\-pectus, the 

ex-pe'-di-ent, adj. proper ; advisable ; 
advantageous ; suitable : n. a plan or 
contrivance ; a means to an end ; an 
alternative, ex-pe'-di-ence, n. haste ; 
despatch ; suitableness, ex-pe -di-en- 
cy, n. policy ; regard for self-interest or 
advantage. [L. expedio, I unloose.] 

ex'-pe-dite (-dit), (-di-ted, -di-ting), v. 
to remove obstacles from ; to hasten ; 
to send forth, ex-pe-di'-tion (-dlsh'- 
un), n. speed or quickness ; an under- 
taking ; an important enterprise ; a 
journey ; the persons who take a journey 
or who are engaged in an enterprise. 
ex-pe-di'-tious (-dish' -us), adj. speedy. 
[L. ex- -{-pes, pedis, the foot.] 

ex-pel' (-pelled', -pel'-ling), v. to drive 
out ; to banish, ex-pul -sion (-puV- 
shun), n. [h. ex-+pello, I drive.] 

ex-pend' (-ed, -ing), v. to pay out ; to 
spend ; to devote (as energy, study, 
etc.). ex-pen -di-ture (-dl-tur), n. 
ex-pense', n. cost ; outlay, ex-pen' - 
give, adj. costly ; extravagant. [L. ex- 
+pendo, I weigh, pay.] 

ex-pe' -ri-ence, n. long and frequent trial ; 
knowledge thus gained : v. (-enced, 
-en-cing), to try ; to prove ; to learn 
by personal trial ; to feel or suffer, ex- 
pe'-ri-enced, adj. practised ; skilful ; 
expert. [O.F. <L. experientia< experior 
I try.] [ence teaches. 

ex-pe-ri-en'-ti-a do'-cet, [L.]experi- 

ex-per'-i-ment (-per'-i-), n. a trial to 
discover something ; something done as 
a proof ; a practical test : v. (-ed, -ing), 
to make trial, ex-per-i-ment'-al, adj. 
[O.F.<L. experior, I try.] 

ex-pert', adj. skilful ; clever, ex'-pert, I 

n. one who has skilled knowledge and 
experience ; one who is expert. [O.F. 
<L. experior, I try.] 

ex'-pi-ate (-pi-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
atone for ; to make satisfaction, amends, 
or reparation for. ex-pi-a'-tion, n. 
atonement, ex-pi-a'-to-ry, adj. [L. 
ex-+pio, I atone iox<pius, devout.] 

ex-pire' (-pired', -pi'-ring), v. to breathe 
out ; to die ; to come to an end. ex- 
pi-ra'-tion, n. a breathing out from 
the lungs ; end. ex-pi'-ra-to-ry (-to- 
ri), adj. relating to breathing out. ex- 
pi'-ry (-pl'-rl), n. end ; termination. 
[F.<L. ex--\-splro, I breathe.] 

ex-plain' (-plained', -plain'-ing), v. to 
make plain or clear ; to cause to be 
understood ; to account for. ex-pla- 
na'-tion, n. ex-plan'-a-to-ry (-a-to- 
ri), adj. to — away, to get rid of by 
explaining (usu. as an excuse, or in a 
bad sense). [F. < L. ex- ~ planus, plain.] 

ex'-ple-tiye (-tiv), adj. filling out ; super- 
fluous : n. a word or syllable put in to 
fill out ; an oath (often coarse or pro- 
fane). £L. expleo, I fill out.] 

ex'-pli-cate (-pit-), (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), 
v. to unfold ; to explain, ex'-pli-ca- 
ble (-ka-bl), adj. able to be explained. 
ex-pli-ca'-tion, n. ex'-pli-ca-to-ry, 
n. [L. ex-+pltco, I fold.] 

ex-plic'-it (-plis 1 -), adj. quite clear or 
distinct ; outspoken ; plain in language. 
ex-plic'-it-ly, adv. ex-plic'-it-ness, 
7i. [L. explicitus<explico, I fold out.] 

ex-plode' (-plo'-ded, -plo'-ding), v. to 
burst with a loud report; to cause to 
be disbelieved ; to burst with laughter. 
ex-plo'-sion (-zhun), n. — ; a breaking 
out of the feelings (as mirth, wrath, 
etc.). ex-plo'-sive (-siv), adj. liable to 
explode : n. that which explodes (as 
gunpowder). [F.<L. ex-+plaudo, I 
clap the hands.] 

ex-ploit', n. a brave or remarkable deed ;{ 
a noteworthy act : v. (-ed, -ing), tc; 
make use of; to utilize for one's own, 
ends, ex-ploi-ta'-tion, n. the success-^ 
f ul application of labour to any work (a.E \[ 
agriculture, mining, etc.). [F.<L. 
expllco, I unfold, finish.] 

ex-plore' (-plored', -plo'-ring), v. tc, 
search carefully ; to examine thoroughly. 
ex-plo-ra'-tion,w. searching, ex-plo'- 
rer, n. one who explores (esp. an un- 
known region) . [F. < L. exploro, I s« 
out; investigate-.] 




ex-po'-nent, n. one who, or that which, 
explains or makes clear ; a number 
indicating the power of another (i.e., the 
number of times it is to be multiplied 
by itself), ex-po-nen'-tial (-shal), adj. 
[L. ex-+p5no, I place.] 

ex-port' (-ed, -ing), v. to carry or send 
(goods) to another country, ex '-port, 
n. that which is exported, ex-por-ta'- 
tion, n. the act of exporting, ex-port' -er, 
n. one who — . [L. cx-+por to, I carry.] 

ex-pose' {-pdz'), (-posed', -po'-sing), v. 
to uncover ; to fay open to view ; to 
display (goods for sale) ; to put in the 
way of danger ; to abandon (as an 
infant), ex-po-se' (-zd'), [F.] the dis- 
closing of something meant to remain 
secret ; a formal recital or explanation. 
ex-pos'-i-tor, n. one who explains ; an 
interpreter, ex-po-si'-tion (-zish'-un), 
n. the setting out to view ; exhibition ; 
explanation, ex-pos'-i-to-ry (-l-to-ri), 
adj. serving to explain, ex-po -sure 
(-zhur), n. the act of exposing ; the lay- 
ing open publicly the character or con- 
duct of any one (esp. if bad or wrong) ; 
influence of climate or weather. [F. < 
L. ex-+pono, I place.] 

ex post fac'-to, [L.] (legal term) after 
the deed has been done ; retrospective. 

ex-pos'-tu-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to 
reason earnestly with some one on im- 
proper conduct ex-pos-tu-la'-tion, n. 
ex-pos'-tu-la-tor, n. one who — . ex- 
pos'-tu-la-to-ry (-ld-to-rl), adj. [L. 
expostulo<ex-+postulo, I demand.] 

ex-pound' (-ed, -ing), v. to explain ; to 
interpret, ex-pound' -er, n. one who — . 
[L. ex-+pono, I place.] 

ex-press' (-pressed', -press'-ing), v. to 
press out ; to declare ; to state in words : 
adj. clear ; for the exact purpose ; sent 
quickly (as an express-letter, —parcel, 
etc.) : n. a special messenger or con- 
veyance ; a fast railway-train (stopping 
at few stations) : adv. with haste. 
ex-pres'-si-ble, adj. ex-pres'-sion 
(•presh'-un), n. a form of speech ; em- 
phasis ; manner of looking, ex-pres'- 
siye, adj. expressing much ; striking. 
[F.<L. ex- + press.] 

ex-pro '-pri-ate (-prl-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), 
v. to put out of possession ; to dispossess. 
ex-pro-pri-a'-tion, n. [L. ex-+pro- 
prius, one's own.] 

ex-pul'-sion (shun), n. See expel. 

ex-punge' {-punj'), (-punged', -pun'- 

ging), v. to wipe out ; to efface. [L. 
ex--tpwigo, I prick.] 

ex' -pur-gate (-ga-ted, -ga-ting), v. to 
purify (from dirt, guilt, etc.) ; to cut 
out undesirable passages or words from 
a book, ex-pur-ga'-tion, n. ex'-pur- 
ga-tor (-gd-), n. one who — . ex-pur' - 
ga-to-ry (-to-ri), adj. [L. ex-+purgo, 
I purge.] 

ex'-qui-site (-kwi-zit) , adj . of fine quality ; 
excellent ; very keen (as pain or plea- 
sure) : n. a fop. [L. ex- + qu(ero, I 
seek, search.] 

ex-sic'-cate (-hat), (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), 
v. to dry up. ex-sic'-cant, adj. : n. a 
drug possessed of drying properties. 
ex'-sic-ca-tor (-Jed-), n. an apparatus 
for drying ; esp. a milk-dryer, for bring- 
ing milk into a powdered state. [L. ex- 
-f- siccus, dry ] 

ex-tant', adj. still in existence. [L. ex- 
-f stuns, standing.] 

ex-tem-po-ra'-ne-ous (-us), adj. done at 
the very moment, without preparation. 
ex-tem'-po-re (-po-re, not -por), adj. 
(of speech or sermon) spoken, not read : 
adv. without previous study or prepara- 
tion, ex-tem'-po-rize (-rized, -ri- 
zing), v. to deliver (speech or sermon) 
off-hand, or without preparation. £L. 
ex tempore, at the moment.] 

ex-tend' (-ed, -ing), v. te stretch or spread 
out; to enlarge, ex-ten'-si-ble (-si-bl), 
adj. able to be extended, ex-ten'-sion 
(-shun), 11. enlargement ; increase, ex- 
ten'-siYe (-siv), adj. reaching far; very 
large; comprehensive, ex-ten'-sive- 
ly, adv. widely ; largely, ex-tent', n. 
size. [L. ex--\-tendo, I stretch.] 

ex-ten'-u-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to 
lessen ; to weaken ; to soften ; to miti- 
gate, ex-ten-u-a'-tion, n. palliation, 
as of a crime ; mitigation, as of punish- 
ment, in extenuation of, in partial 
excuse of, so as to make a crime or 
wrong-doing appear less serious than it 
is. [L. ex- + tenuis, thin.] 

ex-te'-ri-or, adj. outward ; outer; belong- 
ing to the outside : n. the outside, or 
outer part; personal appearance. [F. 
<L. exterior <exter, outward.] 

ex-ter'-mi-nate (-mi-), (-na-ted, -na- 
ting), v. to destroy utterly ; to put an 
end to; to root out. ex-ter-mi-na'-tion, 
n. complete destruction . ex-ter ' -mi-na- 
tor, n. one who — . [L. ex- + terminus, 
a boundary.] 




ex-tern', adj. of or relating to the outside : 
n. a day-school ; a day-pupil in a school 
(as opposed to boarders). [L. extemus, 

ex-ter'-nal, adj. relating to the outside ; 
outward ; on the surface. ex-ter'- 
nal-ly, adv. ex-ter'-nals, n. pi. out- 
ward appearances ; non-essential forms 
or ceremonies. [L. extemus, outward.] 

ex-tinct', adj. extinguished ; no longer 
existing ; dead, ex-tinc'-tion (-tink'- 
shun), n. putting out (or being put out) 
of being, ex-tinc'-teur (-tier), [F.] a 
small, portable apparatus (of which 
there are many kinds) for extinguishing 
fire. [See extinguish.] 

ex-tin'-guish (-ting'-gicish), (-guished, 
-guish-ing), v. to put out (esp. light or 
fire) ; to quench ; to eclipse ; to put an 
end to. ex-tin'-guish-a-ble, adj. ex- 
tin'-guish-er, n. an instrument for 
putting out the light of a candle. [L. 
extinguo, I quench.] 

ex'-tir-pate (-pa-ted, -pa-ting), v. to 
root out ; to destroy utterly, ex-tir- 
pa'-tion, n. [L. ex--rstirps, a stem 
of a tree.] 

ex-tol' (-tolled', -tol'-ling), v. to sound 
the praise of ; to praise very highly. 
[L. ex- + tollo, 1 lift up.] 

ex-tort' (-ed, -ing), v. to wring or force 
(from) ; to gain or draw (from) by com- 
pulsion or violence, ex-tor' -sive, adj. 
ex-tor' -tion, n. the act of extorting 
anything (but esp. money) ; an over- 
charge, ex-tor'-tion-ate, adj. oppres- 
sive, ex-tor' -tion-er, n. one who — . 
[L. ex- + torqueo. I twist.] 

extra-, pref. [L.] beyond. 

ex'-tra, adj. : adv. over and above ; in 
addition ; over and beyond : n. some- 
thing over and above . [L . extra, beyond] 

ex-tract' (-ed, -ing), v. to draw out by 
force or otherwise ; to choose out or 
select ; to find out (as the root of a 
number). ex'-tract,w. something drawn 
out or extracted ; a tincture; an essence; 
a passage selected from a book or writing. 
ex-trac'-tion,n. a drawing out ; birth ; 
origin, ex-trac'-tiye (-tiv), adj. : n. 
an extract. [L. ex- + traho, I draw.] 

ex-tra-di'-tion (-dish'-un), n. delivery by 
one government to another of fugitives 
from justice, ex'-tra-dite (-di-ted, 
-di-ting), v. extradition treaty, a 
treaty between two governments by 
which each undertakes to allow the other 

to pursue fugitives from justice in its 
territory. [L. ex--\-trddo, I give up.] 

ex-tra— ju-di'-cial (-dish'-al), adj. out of 
the proper court or beyond the ordinary 
limits of legal proceedings. [L. extra- 

ex-tra-mu'-ral, adj. outside of or beyond 
the walls (of a city). [L. extra- + mums, 
a wall.] 

ex-tra'-ne-ous {-us), adj. foreign ; not 
belonging to a subject or thing ; not 
essential. [L. extrdneus, from without.] 

ex-tra-or'-di-na-ry (-di-nd-ri), adj. un- 
common ; remarkable ; not usual or 
regular. [L. extra- -\-ordo, order.] 

ex-tra— pa-ro'-chi-al, adj. beyond the 
limits of a parish. [L. extra- + parish.] 

ex-tray' -a-gant, adj. going beyond 
bounds ; excessive ; unreasonable ; 
spending too much, ex-tray '-a-gance, 
n. ex-tray-a-gan'-za, n. a literary 
composition of eccentric character; a 
wild burlesque or farce (for the stage). 
[F.<L. extra- + vdgor, I wander.] 

ex-tray'-a-sate (-sa-ted, -sa-ting), v. 
to let out of the proper vessels (esp. 
blood). ex-tray-a-sa'-tion,u. effusion 
(of blood). [L. extra- + vas, a vessel.] 

ex-treme', adj. to the utmost point, edge, 
or border ; furthest ; outermost ; high- 
est in degree ; most urgent : n. the 
most distant point, ex-treme'-ly, adv. 
ex-tre'-mist, n. one who is in favour of 
adopting extreme measures, or who 
holds extreme views, ex-trem'-i-ty 
(-l-ti), n. the very end ; the utmost or 
farthest point (of) ; very great need ; 
urgency, in the extreme, as much as 
possible. the last extremity, the 
utmost depth of misfortune ; death. 
to go to extremes, to go too far; to 
use — measures. [F.<L. extremus< 
extents, outward.] 

ex'-tri-cate (-ca-ted, -ca-ting), v. to 
disentangle ; to set free, ex'-tri-ca- 
ble (-kd-bl), adj. able to be extricated. 
ex-tri-ca'-tion, m. disentanglement. 
[L. extrico<ex- + tricce, hindrances.] 

ex-trin'-sic, adj. belonging to the outside; 
external ; unessential ; the reverse of 
intrinsic. [F.<L. extrinsecus, from 
without, on the outside.] 

ex-trude' (-tru'-ded, -tru'-ding), v. to 
push or force out ; to expel, ex-tru'- 
sion (-zhun), n. expulsion. [L. ex- + 
triido, I thrust.] 

ex-u'-ber-ant, adj. very fruitful ; plente 




ous ; overflowing (as with merriment, 
etc.). ex-u'-ber-ance, n. [L. ex- + 
uber, rich, fruitful.] 

ex-ude' (-u'-ded, -u'-ding), v. to dis- 
charge through pores (as the perspira- 
tion) or through incisions (as sap from a 
tree), ex-u-da'-tion, n. [L. ex- + 
siido, I sweat.] 

ex-ult' (egz-ulf), (-ed, -ing), v. to rejoice 
very much ; to triumph, ex-ult'-ant, 
adj. rejoicing greatly, ex-ulrta'-tion, 
n. rapturous delight ; triumph. [F. < 
L. exsulto<ex- + salio, I leap.] 

ex-u'-Yi-se (-vi-e), cast-off skins, 
shells, or other coverings of animals. 
[L. exuo, I put off, lay aside.] 

ex vo'-to, [L.] according to a vow (usu. 
said of an offering or sacrifice) ; vowed. 

ey'-a-let (I'-), n. formerly a division or 
province (of the Turkish empire), ruled 
by a pasha, now called a vilayet. [Ar.] 

eye (i), ft. the organ of sight ; a small 
hole (as in a needle) ; a catch for a hook ; 
a bud or shoot ; judgement : v. (eyed, 
ey'-ing or eye'-), to look at or watch 
narrowly. eye'-ball,n. the ball or apple 
of the eye. eye' -brow, n. the hairy arch 
above the eye. eye'-glass, n. a single 
lens to assist the eyesight, eye'-lash, 
n. the hair on the edge of the eyelid. 
eye'-let, or eye'-let hole, n. a small 
hole (as in a garment) to receive a cord, 
lace, hook, etc. eye'-lid, n. the move- 
able skin which covers the eye-ball, eye- 
opener, n. something which makes 
one open the eyes (with astonishment). 
eye— service, n. work or duty performed 
only when watched by the master. 
eye' -sight, n. the power of seeing (with 
the eye), eye' -sore, n. something 
objectionable or annoying to the sight. 
eye— strain, n. a feeling of weariness in 
the eyes from overwork, weakness, etc., 
resulting in dimness of sight and head- 
ache, eye— tooth, n. one of the two 
teeth (canine) in the upper jaw under 
the eyes, eye-witness, n. one who 
has actually seen a thing done, the 
apple of one's eye, something espe- 
cially loved, the green eye, jealousy. 
the mind's eye, intellect; perception. 
by the naked eye, without the aid of 
glasses, telescope, microscope, etc. to 
give an eye to, to attend to. to keep 
an eye on, to watch carefully or closely. 
to pipe the eye, to weep, to throw 
dust in one's eyes, to deceive, up to 

the eyes, as busy as possible. [A.S. 
eage. eye.] 

ey'-ot {%'•), n. a small island (esp. in a 
river or lake) ; also called an ait (at). 
[A.S. igoth, a small island.] 

eyre (ar), n. a journey or circuit of a 
court of law. justices in eyre, judges 
who formerly travelled about from town 
to town to administer justice (somewhat 
like our judges of assize). [O.F. eire< 
L. itlnere, on a journey.] 

ey'-rie (i'-ri), or ey'-ry. See aerie. 

F., or Fahr., Fahrenheit (thermometer). 

f.=forte (in mus.), [I.] loud; following 
page. ff. = fortissimo (in mus.), [I.] 
very loud ; following pages. 

F.A., Football Association. 

Fa'-bi-an, ft. a member of the Fabian 
Society, an English society of Socialists 
founded in 1884, for gradually improv- 
ing the condition of the people, esp. in 
the lower classes, by bringing land and 
capital more directly under the control 
of the State and Municipalities, and 
bettering the conditions of life, without 
taking extreme measures. Fabian tac- 
tics, proceeding slowly and cautiously. 
[KFabius Maximus (died, 203 B.C.), a 
Koman leader, who, by cautious delay 
and carefully avoiding a direct engage- 
ment, wore out the strength of Hannibal, 
whom he durst not meet in battle.] 

fa'-ble (-M), n. a short, made-up story 
teaching a lesson ; a falsehood : v. (-bled, 
-bling), to make fables; to invent, fa'- 
bled, adj. mythical ; fictitious, fab'-u- 
lous (-lus) , adj. like a fable ; untrue ; 
greatly exaggerated ; incredible. [F. < 
L. fabula, fable <fdri, to speak.] 

fab'-ric, ft. a building ; workmanship ; 
texture ; structure of anything ; manu- 
factured cloth, fab'-ri-cate (-ca-ted, 
-ca-ting), u. to make; to invent, fab- 
ri-ca'-tion,n. construction ; an invented 
story; a falsehood, fab'-ri-ca-tor, n. 
[F.<h.faber, a worker.] 

fac-ade' (fas-ad', or -dd'), n. the face or 
front view (of a building). [F.<L. 
fades, face.] 

face (fas), n. the front part of the head ; 
the outside make or appearance ; the 
countenance: v. (faced, fa'-cing), to 
stand before ; to meet boldly ; to resist. 
face to face (of two persons or parties) 




in front of, or in presence of, each other. 
fa'-ci-al (si-), adj. of the face, fa'- 
cing, n. the front covering : adj. with 
the face towards, to — out, to carry 
out by boldness ; to take the conse- 
quences of. to — the music, to meet a 
difficulty boldly, to fly in the — of, 
to set at defiance ; to resist, to put a 
good — on, to make the best of a thing 
as it stands, to set one's — against, 
to oppose strongly, face yalue, the 
nominal or stated value of a note, 
stamp, article, etc., as compared with its 
market Yalue, q.v. \F .<L. fades, face] 

fa'-cet (set), n. a small, flat surface (esp. 
of a crystal or precious stone). [F.< 
L. fades, face.] 

fa-ce'-ti-se (fa-se'shi-e), witty or 
humorous sayings ; jests, fa-ce'-tious 
(se'shus), adj. witty ; humorous. f_F. 
<.L. jacetus, witty, humorous.] 

fa'-cia(-sM), (orfa'-scia,orfa'-shia),n. 
the flat, upper part of a shop window- 
frame, on which the name is painted. 
[I.<L. fades, face.] 

fac'-ile (fas' -11, not fd'-sll or fa' -seel), 
adj. easy ; of easy temper or disposition ; 
yielding, fa-cil'-i-tate (-sil'-i-), (-ta- 
lked, -ta-ting), v. to make easier, fa- 
cil'-i-ty (sil'-l-ti), n. easiness; readi- 
ness ; dexterity. [F.<L. facllis, easy.] 

facile princeps (fas'-i-le prin'-seps), 
[L.] easily (or indisputably) first. 

fac-sim'-i-le (faksim'-l-le),n. (pi. -les), 
an exact copy or likeness. [L. fdcio, I 
make + similis, like.] 

fact, n. a deed ; an actual truth ; a 
reality ; anything done, as a matter 
of — , in reality ; actually. f_L. factum 
<fdcio, I do.] 

fac'-tion (-shun), n. a party (in opposi- 
tion), using its power for self-interest in 
a contentious spirit ; dissension, fac- 
tious (slius), adj. contentious ; quarrel- 
some. [F. < L. /actio <fdcio, I do.] 

fac-ti'-tious (slius), adj. made by art; 
artificial ; conventional. [See faction.] 

fac'-tor, n. a doer ; an agent ; one who 
buys and sells goods on commission ; a 
manager of an estate ; a part of a com- 
pound (number or thing), fac-to' -ri- 
al (-ri-), adj. fac'-to-ry (-ri), n. a 
building in which goods are manu- 
factured ; a trading settlement in a 
distant country (esp. a colony). Factory 
Acts, many Acts of Parliament passed 
to regulate the hours of labour in fac- 

tories and the conditions of work (esp. 
of women and children). [L. j 'ado, I do. 1 

fac-to'-tum, n. one who does all kinds 01 
work (for another). [L. factotum, do all.] 

fac'-u-la, n. (pi. -la), a bright spot often 
seen in the sun's disc. [L., a torch.] 

fac'-ul-ty, n. (pi. -ties), power of mind 
or body ; the members of a profession 
(as " the medical faculty") ; the body 
of professors at a University or in some 
department of it ; power or liberty of 
doing something conferred by law, or 
permission ; a dispensation or licence. 
[F.<L. facultas<fdcilis, easy.] 

fad, n. a project, whim, or fancy taken up 
and held without reason ; a hobby. 
fad'-dist,n.onewhohasa — or a special 
hobby, fad'-dy, adj. particular about 
trifles. [F.<L.fatuus, foolish.] 

fade (fa'-ded, fa'-ding), v. to lose colour, 
strength, or freshness ; to decline ; to 
waste away ; to vanish, fade'-less, 
ad;, not liable to fade. [F. fade, insipid.] 

fa'-ces (fe'sez), (less correctly fe'-ces), grounds; sediment; excrement. 
fa'-cal (-kal), adj. [L.fcex, sediment.] 

fag (fagged, fag'-ging), v. to toil; to 
drudge : n. a drudge ; weariness ; a boy 
at school who acts as a servant for 
another and older boy ; f a cigarette. 
fag— end, the end (esp. of cloth) that 
hangs loose ; the last remains or refuse 
of anything, fagged, adj. very tired and 
worn. [(?)< flag, to droop.] 

fag'-got, or fag'-ot, n. a bundle (esp. of 
sticks for fuel), faggot— YOter, n. one 
who has obtained a vote by irregular or 
questionable methods. [F. fagot (?)< 
L. fax, a torch.] 

Fah'-ren-heit (fd'-ren-hit), n. and adj. a 
name applied to a thermometer in which 
freezing point is marked 32° (32 degrees) 
and boiling point 212°. [< G. D. Fah- 
renheit (1686-1736), the inventor, a 
German scientist.] 

fa-tence' (fd-ydhs', or better fd-ydhs'), 
[F.] a fine kind of decorated (painted 
and glazed) pottery. [<Faenza, in 
Italy, where first made.] 

fail (failed, fail'-ing), v. not to succeed ; 
to fall away ; to fall short or be want- 
ing ; to decay ; to disappoint ; to become 
bankrupt, fail'-ing, n. a fault: adj. fail'- 
ure, n. want of success ; bankruptcy. 
[F. faillir<h. fallo, I lead astray.] 

fain, adj. glad or joyful : adv. gladly. 
[A.S. fcegen, glad.] 




faint, adj. weak ; exhausted ; languid ; 
inclined to swoon ; weary ; lacking 
courage ; hardly able to be seen or 
heard : v. (-ed, -ing), to become weak ; 
to lose one's senses; to swoon: n. a 
fainting fit ; a swoon, faint'-ness, n. 
faint— hearted, adj. timid ; not cour- 
ageous. [F. <h. Jingo, I form, feign.] 

fair, adj. light in colour ; free from clouds 
or rain ; beautiful ; just, a fair copy, 
one made in a clear, neat manner, and 
free from errors, the fair sex, the 
female sex, the ladies, fair'-ness, n. 
fair'-way (or, less correctly, fare'- 
way),« the passage (often narrow, and 
lying between rocks, sandbanks, etc.), 
for vessels entering or leaving a harbour. 
fair— spoken, civil ; plausible, fair 
play, justice ; just treatment, fair 
and square, honest and straightfor- 
ward, a — field, equal treatment with 
others, a — wind, a favourable wind. 
to bid — , to appear to be likely or 
favourable, fair-trade, n. the system 
of free-trade with ourselves restricted to 
those countries which offer us a like 
privilege. [k.S.fceger, fair.] 

fair, ». a large market held on a regular, 
stated date, often called a statute fair, 
fancy fair, n. a kind of bazaar. [F. 
foire<h. feria, a holiday.] 

fai'-ry (fd'-ri), n. (pi. -ries), a light, 
airy, imaginary spirit in human form ; 
an elf ; a spirit : adj. fairy-circle or 
—ring, a small, round patch of grass 
which has grown more luxuriantly than 
the rest. (Formerly supposed to be 
caused by fairies dancing in a circle). 
fairy— land, n. the land inhabited by 
fairies, fairy— tale, n. a tale in which 
fairies are introduced ; an untrue story ; 
a romance. [O.F. <L.fdtum, fate.] 

fait ac-com-pli' (fdt ak-koh-ple'), [F.] 
an accomplished fact or deed ; a thing 
already done. 
|faith (fdth), n. firm and earnest belief ; 
trust ; reliance on the statements, 
strength, or qualities of another ; a 
system of religion ; that which is believed 
on any subject ; fidelity to promises ; 
honesty, faith'-ful, adj. true; staunch; 
loyal, faith '-ful-ly, adv. faith'-ful- 
ness, n. faith'-less, adj. not faithful ; 
untrue ; false, faith-cure or faith- 
healing, n. a system of belief that sick 
persons can be cured by means of the 
prayers of those who have faith in their 

prayers (see St. James v., 14-15). in 
good — , with sincerity. The Faithful, 
believers, esp. those who believe in 
Mohammed. [O.F.<l>.jides, faith.] 

ffake (faked, fa'-king), v. to deceive, 
esp. in making articles to appear other 
or better than they are : n. the act of — . 
fa'-ker, n. one who — . fake'-ment, 
n. any swindling device. [?] 

fa-kir' (-keer'), (sometimes fa-quir'), n. 
a begging priest (in India), fa-kir'- 
ism, n. [\r.faqir, poor.] 

fal'-chion (fdl' -shun, not fal'-), n. a short 
sword, bent somewhat like a sickle. 
[F.<L.falx, a sickle.] 

fal'-con (fol'-kn or faw'-kn, not fdl'-kn), 
n. a kind of hawk (formerly used to hunt 
wild birds), fal'-con-er (faw'-), n. 
one who trains and uses falcons for 
hunting wild birds, fal'-con-ry (faio'-), 
n. the hunting of wild birds with trained 
falcons. [See falcliion. The bird has 
a hooked beak.] 

fald'-stool, n. formerly a folding-stool; 
now a desk at which the Litany is read 
in churches. The sovereign of England 
kneels on a faldstool at his Coronation. 
[O.G. faldan, to iold + stuhl, a stool.] 

fall (fdl), (fell, fall' -en, fall'-ing), v. to 
drop or slope down ; to be cast down in 
spirits ; to decline in power, wealth, 
reputation, value ; to be overthrown ; to 
die ; to go wrong : n. the act of falling ; 
ruin ; death ; descent ; decrease in value. 
falling— sickness, ». epilepsy, fal- 
ling—star, n. a meteor, to — away, 
to become lean ; to desert, to — flat, 
to fail of the intended effect, to — in, 
to take a place in. to — in with, to 
agree with, to — foul of, to come into 
collision with, to — on one's feet, to 
he fortunate, to — through, to come 
to nothing. [A.S. feallan, to fall.] 

fal-la'-cious (-situs), adj. deceptive ; mis- 
leading, fal'-la-cy (-si), n. a false idea 
or statement ; an argument which 
appears correct, but is false in reason- 
ing, [h.fallax, deceitful.] 

fal-lal, n. a piece of ribbon or trifling 
ornament worn by ladies. [Imit.] 

fal'-li-ble (-li-bl), adj. liable to error. 
■fal-li-bil'-i-ty (-l-tl), n. [L. fallo, I 

fal' -low (-15), adj. (land) ploughed but 
left unsown ; yellowish : n. fal' -low- 
deer, n. deer of a yellowish- brown 
colour. [A.S. (?)fealo, yellowish-red.] 




false (fawls), adj. untrue ; unfaithful; 
deceptive ; treacherous ; not genuine or 
real ; not according to rule, false'- 
hood, n. a lie ; deceitfulness. fal'-si- 
fy (-fled, -fy-ing), v. to make false ; to 
forge, fal-si-fi-ca'-tion (si-fi-), n. 
fal'-si-ty (-sl-tl), n. being false, to 
play — , to act treacherously, to put 
in a — position, to cause one to be 
misunderstood or to act foolishly. [F. 
<L. falsus, false.] 

fal-set'-to, n. an unnatural or artificial 
(high-toned) singing voice, chiefly in 
men. [1.<L. falsus, false.] 

Fal'-staf-fi-an, adj. jovial, humorous, 
and corpulent, like Falstaff in Shake- 
speare's Merry Wives of Windsor, etc. 

fal'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to be 
feeble ; to want courage ; to hesitate. 
[(?)< root of fault.] 

fame, n. rumour ; report ; renown. 
famed, adj. much spoken of. fa'- 
mous (-mus), adj. renowned. [F.<L. 
fdma<fdn, to speak.] 

fa-mil'-i-ar, adj. well-known ; intimate ; 
friendly ; sociable ; having thorough 
knowledge of. fa-mil-i-ar'-i-ty (-l-tl), 
n. close acquaintance ; freedom from 
ceremony. fa-mil'-i-ar-ize (-ized, 
-i-zing), v. to make well known or easy 
by practice or study, [h.familidris, of 
the family.] 

fam'-i-ly (-i-li), n. the members of a 
household (related by birth) ; a race ; 
a group (as of plants, animals, lan- 
guages) . [F. < L. familia, household.] 

fam'-ine (-in), n. great scarcity (esp. of 
food), fam'-ish (-ished, -ish-ing), v. 
to deprive of food ; to starve. [F.<L. 
fames, hunger.] 

fan, n. an instrument for producing a 
current of air : v. (fanned, fan'-ning), 
to cool with a fan ; to winnow (corn). 
fan'— light, n. a window over a door. 
[A.S. fann<L>. vannus, a fan.] 

fa-nat'-ic or -ic-al, adj. wildly or un- 
reasonably zealous (esp in religious or 
other causes) ; enthusiastic ; visionary : 
n. a bigoted enthusiast, fa-nat'-i-cism 
(-i-sizm), n. [F.<L. fdnum, a temple.] 

fan'-cy (-«&), »• imagination (of a lighter 
kind) ; opinion ; caprice ; whim ; taste : v. 
(-cied, -cy-ing), to picture in the mind ; 
to have a liking for : adj. fine ; elegant ; 
extravagant ; not real, fan'-ci-er, n. 
one guided by the fancy (in some par- 
ticular pursuit), as a dog- or bird-fancier. 

the fancy, sporting characters gener- 
ally, esp. pugilists, fan'-ci-ful, adj. 
belonging to the imagination ; not real ; 
led by the fancy. [<fantasy.] 

fan-dan' -go, n. a lively Spanish dance 
for two persons, introduced by the 
Moors ; the music for such a dance. 
[Sp.] [a temple.] 

fane, n. a temple ; a church. [L.fanum, 

fan '-fare (-fdr, or -far), n. a flourish of 
trumpets ; bravado, fan'-far-on, n. 
a boaster or braggart, fan-far-on- 
ade', n. noisy boasting ; swaggering. 
[F. fanfare."] 

fang, n. a sharp-pointed tooth ; a tusk (as 
of a boar, etc.) ; the part of a tooth 
buried in the gum and fixed to the jaw- 
bone, fanged, adj. having fangs. 
[A.S. fang <f on, to seize.] 

fan'-gled (-gld). See new-fangled. 

fan-ta'-si-a (-td'-zi-d, not -ta'-), n. a 
musical composition of a fanciful and 
irregular kind. [See fantastic] 

fan-tas'-tic or -tic-al, adj. fanciful ; not 
real ; ludicrous ; odd. [O.F. < Gr. 
phantasia, fancy, vision.] 

fan'-ta-sy (-ta-si), n. (pi. -sies), caprice ; 
imagination ; whim. [See fantastic] 

Far'-ad, n. the unit of electrical capacity. 
[< Michael Faraday, an English elec- 
trician (1791-1867).] 

farce (fars), n. a short, humorous play ; 
something ridiculous ; a pretence. 
far'-ci-cal (si-), adj. farce, n. (in 
cookery) stuffing or forcemeat, far-cie' 
(-se'), adj. stuffed (as of fowls, meat, or 
other provisions). [F.<L./amo,Istu£f.] 

far' -del, n. a bundle ; a burden. [O.F. 
fardel (F.fardeau), a burden.] 

fare (fared, fa'-ring), v. to get on or 
succeed ; to do or be ill, or well ; to 
feed : n. food ; the price of a journey ; 
a person carried in a public conveyance 
(cab, tram, etc,), fare-well', n. leave- 
taking : int. good-bye ! [A.S.faran, to go] 

far— fetched adj. brought from a great 
distance ; forced : unnatural or un- 
likely. [A.S. feor, far + fetch.] 

fa-ri'-na (-r%'-nd or -re'-, not far'-), n. 
meal; flour ; the pollen of plants, far- 
i-na'-ceous (-shus), adj. consisting of, 
yielding, or made of, flour or meal; 
mealy. [L. farina, flour.] 

farm, n. land in cultivation with house, 
barns, sheds, and other out-buildings 
attached : v. (farmed, farm'-ing), to 
cultivate (a farm) ; to let for a term (to 




a tenant) ; to lease (or let out) on condi- 
tion of receiving a fixed portion of the 
profits, or a fixed sum, the lessee making 
what profit he can. farm'— stead, n. 
a farm with the house and out-buildings 
belonging to it. [A.S./eorwi, feeding, 
property <h.firmus, fixed, established.] 

fa'-ro (fa'-, not fd'-), n. a game at cards 
accompanied with betting on the cards 
turned up. [F.< Pharaoh, King of 
Egypt, whose likeness is said to have 
formerly appeared on one of the cards.] 

far-ra'-go, n. a confused mass or collec- 
tion of things; amedley. [L./ar,meal.] 

far— reaching, adj. extending a long 
way ; (effects) continued over a great 
distance or a long period. [A.S./eor, 
far + reach.] 

far'-ri-er (-ri-), n. one who shoes (and 
sometimes doctors) horses, far' -ri-er-y 
(-er-i), n. the art of the farrier. [O.F. 
<L. ferrdrius, a blacksmith.] 

far'-row (-ro), n. a litter of pigs. [A.S. 
fearh, a pig.] 

far'-ther (-(her), adj. and adv. at a 
greater distance, far'-thest (-thest), 
adj. and adv. at greatest distance. 
(Note, use farther, farthest for distance, 
and further, furthest, for quantity). 
[Compar. and superl. of far.] 

far' -thin-gale (-thing -gale), n. a hooped 
petticoat introduced by Queen Elizabeth 
and fashionable in the 16th century. 
[O.F.<Sp. verdugo, a young shoot, a 
hoop<L. virldis, green.] 

F.A.S., Fellow of the Society of Arts ; 
Fellow of the Antiquarian Society. 

fas'-ces (-sez), n. pi. a bundle of rods 
surrounding an axe, borne (in ancient 
times) before the chief magistrates of 
Rome. [L.] 
as'-cin-ate (sin-), (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. 
to charm ; to enchant ; to influence in 
an uncontrollable manner, fas'-cin- 
a-ting, adj. charming ; delightful. 
fas-cin-a'-tion, n. — ; the attractive 
power exerted by a person's manner or 
words, [h.fasclno, I bewitch or charm.] 

fas-cine' (-sin'), n. a bundle of faggots 
(used in fortifications) to fill ditches, 
etc. [L. fascis, a bundle.] 
fash (fashed, fash'-ing), v. to annoy, 
trouble, fash'-ious (-us), adj. annoy- 
ing. [L. fastldium, dislike, disgust.] 
fash'-ion (-un), n. form ; shape ; custom 
(of the time), as in dress, etc. ; genteel 
society : v. (-ioned, -ion-ing)> to form 

or shape, fash'-ion-a-ble, adj. in 
general use at a particular time : n. one 
who dresses according to the fashion. 
after a — , in a way ; to a certain 
extent. old— fashioned, adj. not in 
keeping with the times ; (of a child) 
precocious. [F. <L. fdcio, I make.] 

fast, adj. firm ; fixed ; steadfast ; quick ; 
rapid ; sound (of sleep) fas' -ten (fas ' -n) , 
(-tened, -ten-ing), v. to make fast ; to 
fix firmly, fas' -ten-ing, n. that which 
fastens (as a lock, bolt), fast'-ness, n. 
firmness ; a fortress (esp. among moun- 
tains), fast by, close by. to play fast 
and loose, to act recklessly ; to say one 
thing and do another, a fast life, a 
life given to reckless pleasure-seeking. 
a fast train, an express train. [A.S. 
fast, firm, fixed.] 

fast (-ed, -ing), v. to do without food: 
n. doing without food (esp. as a religious 
duty), fast— day, n. a day on which 
abstinence from food is practised ; a day 
of humiliation and prayer. [A S.fcestan, 
to i&s>t<fcest, firm.] 

fas-tid'-i-ous (-i-us), adj. difficult to 
please; over-nice, fas-tid'-i-ous-ness, 
n. [L. fastuliosus<fastus, disdain.] 

Fa'-ta Mor-ga'-na (jd'-td mor-gd' -nd) , 
n. a kind of mirage often seen in the 
Strait of Messina ; something deceptive 
or unreal. [I., the Fairy Morgana, 
supposed to cause the appearance.] 

fate, n. inevitable necessity ; appointed 
lot; doom; destiny; death, fa'-tal, 
adj. causing or relating to death, fa'- 
tal-ist, n. one who holds that all events 
happen by fate or unavoidable necessity. 
fa'-tal-ism, n. the belief of fatalists. 
the Fates, n. pi., or the Fatal Sisters, 
amongst the ancient Greeks and Romans 
three goddesses who were supposed to 
determine the birth, life, and death of 
all men. [F.<L. fdtum, fate.] 

fa'-ther, n. a male parent ; an ancestor 
or forefather ; a contriver or originator ; 
God the Creator, the first person of the 
Trinity ; a familiar term for an old man, 
or for any man revered for age, learn- 
ing, or piety ; a name given to R.C. 
priests: v. (-thered, -ther-ing), to 
adopt ; to ascribe, father-in-law, 
n. (pi. fathers—), a wife's or husband's 
father, fa'-ther-land, n one's native 
country, f a'-ther-ly, adj. like a father 
in affection and care. , City fathers, the 
aldermen of a city or borough. Holy 




Father, the Pope. Father of Lies, 
the Devil. [A.S. feeder."] 

fath'-om, n. six feet (length) : v. (-omed, 
-om-ing), to find the bottom of ; to get 
to understand (a mystery), fath'-om- 
less, adj. having no bottom ; incompre- 
hensible ; impenetrable. [A.S. fcethm ] 

fa-tigue' (-teg'),n. weariness (from labour 
of body or mind) : v. (-tigued', -ti'- 
guing), to weary, fatigue-duty, n. 
the non-military or ordinary labouring- 
work of a soldier fatigue— party, n. a 
number of soldiers appointed to do some 
ordinary work, as preparing camp, etc. 
[F.<L. fatlgo, I weary.] 

fat'-u-ous (-u-us), adj. very foolish; 
idiotic ; deceptive, fa-tu'-i-ty (-i-ti),n. 
folly added to conceit ; stupidity ; ex- 
treme foolishness. [L. fatuus, foolish.] 

fau'-bourg (fo'-boorg, or more correctly 
fo-boor'), n. the suburb of a city. [F.] 

fau'-ces (faio'-sez), the upper part 
of the throat, from the root of the tongue 
to the entrance to the gullet. [L.] 

fau'-cet, n. a pipe inserted (in cask, etc.) 
to draw liquor, usu. stopped with a vent- 
peg. [F. fausset (?)<L. falsus, false.] 

fault, n. an error ; a wrong action ; an 
imperfection ; a displacement of strata 
or veins ; a wrong serve at tennis ; an 
accidental leak in an electric circuit. 
fault'-y, adj. fault'-less, adj. fault- 
finder, n. one who finds fault (esp. with- 
out proper occasion or necessity), at 
fault, open to blame ; (of dogs in hunt- 
ing) unable to find the scent ; puzzled. 
[F. faute <li. f alio, I deceive.] 

fau'-na, n. (pi. fau'-nse or fau'-nas), a 
collective name for all the animal life of 
a country or region. Faun,w. arural 
deity among the ancient Romans who 
was supposed to protect the lower 
animals. [L. faunus<fdveo, I am 

faute de mieux (fot duh myuh), [F.] 
for the want of (a) better. 

fau-teuil' (fo-tuh-i', less correctly 
fo-tul'), n. an arm-chair. [F.] 

faux pas (fo pd), [F.] a false step. 

fa'- your (-vur), n. good- will ; kindness ; 
an ornament (esp. of ribbon) worn to 
show good-will or good feeling towards : 
v. (-Youred, -Your-ing), to regard or 
treat with — ; to prefer ; to aid ; to 
resemble. fa'-YOur-a-ble, adj. fa r - 
Your-ite (-it), adj. favoured : n. one 
preferred before others. fa'-YOur-it- 

ism (-izm), n. a showing favour or 
partiality (esp. unjustly), to curry 
favour (with) , to try and gain the favour 
of, by flattery or unfair means. [F.< 
L. favor."] 

fawn, n. a young deer ; a very light-brown 
colour : adj. (as in fawn— coloured) : 
v. (fawned, fawn'-ing) (with on or 
upon), to cringe ; to flatter. [M.E. 
faunen<A.S. fcegenian, to rejoice.] 

fay, n. a fairy. [F. fee<h.fdtum, fate.] 

F.B.A., Fellow of the British Academy. 

F.C., Free Church (of Scotland) ; Football 
Club. [Chartered Accountants. 

F.C.A., Fellow of the [Institute of] 

F.G.P., Fellow of the College of Preceptors. 

fcp., foolscap (paper) . 

F.C.S., Fellow of the Chemical Society. 

F.D., Fi-de'-i De-fen' -sor, [L.] Defender 
of the Faith (a title of the English 
Sovereign, as Head of the English 

fe'-al-ty (-ti), n. loyalty; fidelity. [O.F. 
<L. Jidelitas, faithfulness.] 

fear, n. a feeling of alarm at danger, etc. ; 
anxiety ; alarm ; piety towards God : 
v. (feared, fear'-ing), to have fear or 
awe (of or at) ; to be in doubt, fear'- 
ful, adj. feeling fear ; causing fear, 
fear -less, adj. fear -some, adj. caus- 
ing fear ; frightful. [A.S. far.] 

fea'-si-ble (-zl-), adj. able to be done ; 
practicable ; possible, fea-si-bil'-i-ty 
\-i-ti), n. [F.<L. fdcio, I do.] 

feast, n. a sumptuous meal ; a banquet ; 
rich enjoyment for the body or mind ; 
a time of rejoicing : v. (-ed, -ing), to 
partake of a feast ; to entertain (at a 
feast); to delight or gratify. [F.<L. 
festum, a holiday, feast.] 

feat, n. a deed of strength, skill, or cour- 
age ; an exploit. [F.fait < L. fdcio, I do.] 

feath'-er (feth'-), n. (\npl.) the covering 
of birds ; one of the distinct parts of 
such covering, feather— brained, at 
light-headed ; weak-minded, feath'- 
er-y^ adj. resembling feathers ; light in 
weight, feather-stitch, (in needle- 
work) an ornamental stitch taking the 
form of a zigzag line, feather— weight, 
the lightest weight (of rider) allowed to 
be carried by a horse in a handicap race. 
a — in one's cap, see cap. birds of a 
— , people of the same class, etc. in 
high — , in great favour, to feather 
(an oar), to turn the blade of the oar in 
a flat or horizontal position as it leaves 




the water, to feather one's nest, to 
accumulate wealth for oneself, esp. 
while serving others, white feather, 
cowardice. [A.S. f ether."} 

fea'-ture (/e'-), ft. a mark by which any- 
thing is recognized ; a marked peculi- 
arity or characteristic ; a prominent 
part ; the cast of the face ; in pi. the 
countenance. fea'-ture-less,ady. with- 
out distinct features, hard— featured, 
adj. of stern and forbidding appearance. 
[O.F. <Ii. factum, a making.] 

feb'-ri-fuge (-fuj), n. a medicine for 
lessening fever. [F.<h.febris, fever + 
fugo, I put to flight.] 

fe'-brile (or feb'-ril), adj. pertaining to 
fever; feverish, [F.<L.febris, fever.] 

Feb'-ru-a-ry, n. the 2nd month of our 
year. [L Februdrius (mensis) , the month 
of purification ; the Romans held a feast 
of purification (februa) in this month.] 

fee, fe'-cit [L.]=he (or she) did (it). 

fe'-ces, n. See faeces. 

tec'-u.-\a.(fek'-),n powdery dregs obtained 
by steeping and crushing certain plants 
in water; starch; far ma. fec'-u-lence, 
n. fec'-u-lent, adj. containing sedi- 
ment; muddy; foul. {F.<h. fcecula, 

fe'-cund, fe-cund'-ant, adj. fruitful ; 
fertile, fe-cun'-di-ty (-di-ti), n. [F.< 
L. fecundus, fruitful.] 

fed'-er-al, adj. relating to a treaty or 
league, fed'-er-al-ize (-ized, -i-zing), 
v. to join together in a Federal union. 
fed'-er-al-ist, n. one who favours the 
policy of a Federal Union, that is, a 
union of several States (as the United 
States of America), each independent 
in local affairs, but under a central 
government, to which each sends repre- 
sentatives, for general matters, fed'- 
er-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to combine. 
fed-er-a'-tion (shun-), n.& league; a 
compact ; a Federal union, fed-er-a'- 
tion-ist, a. one who is in favour of 
Imperial Federation, that is, federa- 
tion of the Colonies of the British 
Empire with the mother country for 
bearing tho cost of measures adopted for 
the well-being of the Empire as a whole. 
[F.<L. feed us, a treaty, league.] 

fee, w. payment for services ; recompense ; 
wages ; a hoJding (of land) : v. (feed, 
fee'-ing), to pay a fee to. to hold in 
fee, to hold in possession . fee— simple, 
n. a holding (land) which the owner nas 

the right to dispose of at will. [A.S. 
feoh, cattle, property.] 

fee'-ble (-bl), adj. weak ; infirm ; without 
strength (of mind, body, or will) ; 
faint ; dull, fee'-ble-ness, n. feeble- 
minded, of weak intellect. [F.<L. 
fiebilis, lamentable <jieo, I weep.] 

feel (felt, feel'-ing), v. to touch; to 
handle ; to perceive ; to have compas- 
sion, feel'-er, n. one who, or that 
which, feels ; a proposal or hint put 
forward or thrown out in order to find 
out the opinions of others ; one of the 
organs (in insects) by which the sense 
of touch is conveyed, feel'-ing, n. the 
sense of touch ; consciousness or sensa- 
tion (of pleasure, pain, etc.) ; tenderness ; 
emotion ; an opinion ; in pi. passions ; 
affections; emotions. [A.S./eZan.] 

feet, n. {pi. of foot, q.v.) 

feign (fan), (feigned, feign'-ing), v. to 
pretend ; to imagine, feint (fdnt), n. 
a false appearance ; a pretence ; a 
deceptive movement (in fencing, etc.). 
feigned, adj. not real or genuine. [F. 
<~L. jingo, I form, fashion.] 

F.E.I.S., Fellow of the Educational Insti- 
tute of Scotland. 

feld'-spar, fel'-spar, feld'-spath, or 
fel'-spath, n. a general name for the 
most important rock-forming mineral, 
found as crystals, granite, etc., chiefly 
forms of alumina. [G. Feldspath ; 
cognate with field and spar.} 

fe-lic'-i-ty {-Us'-), n. great happiness; a 
successful or gratifying event, fe-lic'- 
i-tate (-ta-ted, -ta-ting), v. to con- 
gratulate, fe-lic'-i-tous _{-tus), adj. 
happy ; fortunate. [F. <h.felix, happy.] 

fe'-line, adj. of or belonging to the cat ; 
stealthy ; treacherous. [L. jelis, a cat.] 

fell, adj. cruel ; barbarous ; inhuman ; 
ravenous; bloody. [O.F./d.] 

fell, n. skin (with the hair on) ; hide. 
fell— monger, n. a dealer in hides. 
[A.S. fell.} Wall, a hill.] 

fell, 11. a barren or stony hill. [Scand. 

fell (felled, fell'-ing), v. to cause to fall ; 
to hew or knock down : n. a kind of 
hem (in sewing). [A.S. fellan.} 

fel'-lah, n. {pi. fel'-la-heen or fel- 
lahs), an Egyptian peasant or field- 
labourer. [Ar.] 

f el' -low, n. a companion ; a learned man 
in a university, who is elected to a fellow- 
ship in order to assist him in continuing 
his studies ; a member of the governing 




body of a university or college ; a mem- 
ber of a literary or scientific society ; one 
of a pair ; a worthless person, fellow- 
feeling, n. sympathy, f el' -low-ship, 
n. companionship ; the position of fellow 
(in a university) ; an income from the 
funds of a university granted to a clever 
student under certain conditions ; joint 
interest. [Ic. felagi.] 

fel'-ly or fel'-loe (-15), n. (pi. -lies or 
-loes), the exterior rim, or part of the 
rim, of a wheel. [A.S. felg."\ 

fe'-lo de se (fe'-lo de se), n. (pi. felos) 
one who murders himself while of sound 
mind; a suicide. [Low L., lit., felon 
of (or concerning) oneself.] 

fel'-on, n. one guilty of felony ; a criminal ; 
a whitlow, a painful inflammation of 
the fingers or toes, fel'-on-y (-1), ft. a 
very serious crime, such as murder, 
forgery, coining, burglary, robbery with 
violence, etc., but not treason, perjury, 
or misdemeanour, fe-lo'-ni-ous (-ni- 
us), or fel'-on-ous (-us), adj. of felony ; 
very wicked or criminal. [F. <Low L. 
felo, a felon.] 

fel'-spar. See feld'-spar. 

felt, or felt'-ing, n. a kind of woollen 
cloth, not woven, but made by matting 
the fibres into a mass. [A.S./eZt.] 

fe-luc'-ca (-luk'-ka), n. a long, narrow 
vessel with oars and sails (often seen in 
the Mediterranean). [I.<Ar.] 

fe'-male, n. a girl or woman ; one of the 
softer sex : adj. [O.F. femella ; dim. 
of L. femina, a woman.] 

fera'-in-ine (-in-in), adj. of or pertaining 
to a woman ; (gender) denoting the female 
sex ; womanish ; womanly, fem'-in- 
ist, n . one who thinks that women should 
have equal rights and privileges with 
men. fem'-in-ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. 
to make feminine or womanish. [F. < 
L. femina, a woman.] 

feme—sole (f em-sol), (or femme—) f 
[F.] an unmarried woman. 

femme-de-chambre (fam'-duh-shan'- 
br), (pi. femmes), [F.j achambermaid 

fem'-o-ral, adj. relating to the thigh. 
[L. femur, the thigh.] 

fen, ft. low, marshy land often partly 
covered with water. [A.S. fen.] 

fence, n. a wall, hedge, or other defence 
marking a boundary ; f a man who 
receives stolen property : v. (fenced, 
fen'-cing), to surround with a fence ; to 
fight (with a sword), generally as an 

exercise or trial of skill ; to fend off 
danger ; to give evasive answers, to 
sit on the fence, to hesitate between 
two opinions, or two or more courses of 
action. [< defence.] 

Fen'-ci-bleSjtt.^pL soldiers enlisted mainly 
for home service. [<fence.] 

fend j-ed, -ing), v. to ward off. fen'-der, 
n. a guard set on the hearth before the 
fire ; a piece of wood or a bundle of old 
rope, etc., hung over a ship's or boat's 
side to guard it from injury when 
approaching a wharf, etc. [< defend.] 

Fe'-ni-an, n. a member of an association 
of Irishmen, founded in New York in 
1857, to overthrow the English rule in 
Ireland ; one who approves of the objects 
of this society. Fe'-ni-an-ism, n. the 
principles, purposes, and methods of 
the Fenians. [Irish.] 

fen'-nel, n. a common, fragrant plant. 
[A.S. jinol<Yi. fenum, hay.] 

fent, n. a remnant or odd piece of cloth, 
etc. [F.fente<~L.jindo, I split, cleave.] 

feoff (fef), n. a fief (q.v.). 

fe'-rae (fe'-re),n. pi. (or, in law, fer'-se 
na-tu'-rse), wild animals, fe'-ral, 
adj. become wild (said of animals and 
plants), fe'-rine, adj. of or like a wild 
animal; savage. [L./e ra, a wild animal] 

fe'-ri-al, adj. relating to holidays, or to 
days that are neither fasts nor festivals. 
[h.feria, a holiday.] 

fer'-ment, ft. internal motion or agita- 
tion ; a ptate of unrest ; heat ; any sub- 
stance that causes fermentation, fer- 
ment' (-ed, -ing), v. to cause or be sub- 
jected to — . fer-men-ta'-tion, n. a 
chemical decomposition of an organic 
substance resulting in the production of 
new compounds, as alcohol (in brewing 
and distilling), carbonic acid (in raising 
flour with yeast), etc. ; an active state 
of the intellect or the feelings ; restless- 
ness of mind. [L. ferment um<ferveo, 
I boil.] 

fer'-me-tur, n. the mechanism for closing 
the chamber of a breech-loading gun. 
[F.<L. firmo, I make fast.] 

fern, n. a well-known form of plant-life. 
fern'-er-y, n. a place for rearing ferns. 
[A.S. fear n.] 

fe-ro'-cious (shus), adj. very fierce; 
wild; cruel, fe-roc'-i-ty (-ros'-), n. 
[F.<L. ferox, wild, fierce.] 

Fer-ra'-ra (-ra'-), n. a broadsword of, 
superior quality, so called from Andrea 




Ferrara, a famous Italian swordsmith 
of the 16th century. 

fer'-re-ous, adj. pertaining to, or made 
of, iron. [h. ferrum, iron.] 

fer'-ret, n. a small animal of the weasel 
kind : v. (-ed, -ing), to search (out). 
[O.F. furet<L. fur, a thief.] 

ferro-concrete, n. See concrete. 

fer'-ro-type, n. a photograph taken on a 
thin plate of iron. [L. ferrum, iron.] 

fer-ru'-gi-nous (-ji-nus), adj. of iron ; of 
iron-rust colour. [L. ferrum, iron.] 

fer'-rule, n. a metal ring or shoe on the 
end of a staff. [F. <L. viriola, a little 

fer'-ry (-ried, -ry-ing), v. to carry across 
(esp. a river) in a boat : n. (pi. ferries), 
a place across which persons are ferried. 
ferry— boat, n. fer'-ry-man, n. the 
boatman or keeper of a ferry. [A.S. 
ferian, to carry <faran, to go.] 

fer'-tile (-tUor-tll), adj. fruitful (ground) ; 
j capable of producing fruit ; productive ; 
rich in thought or genius ; inventive. 
fer-til'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. fer'-ti-lize 
(-lized, -li-zing), v. to make fertile or 
fruitful ; to supply nourishment to 
plants. cross— fertilization, n. (in 
botany) fertilization of one plant by 
pollen from another plant. [F.<L. 
pro, I bear.] 

fer'-ule, u. a rod for punishing; a "cane." 
[L. ferula, a rod, staff.] 

fer'-vent, adj. eager; heated; very 
earnest, fer'-yen-cy (-si), n. great 
heat, earnestness, or devotion, fer'-yid, 
adj. fer'-YOur (-vur), n. heat; great 
earnestness. [F.<L. ferveo, I boil.] 

F.E.S., Fellow of the Entomological 

fes'-tal, adj. of a feast or holiday ; joyous ; 
gay. fes'-ti-Yal, n. a grand feast ; a 
banquet ; a time of rejoicing ; an anni- 
versary day. fes'-tiye (-tiv), adj. 
relating to a festival. fes-tiv'-i-ty 
{-i-tl),n. feasting; rejoicing. [F.<L. 
festum, a feast.] 

fes'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to form a 
fester, that is, a sore containing a mass 
of corrupt matter (esp. in a wound) ; to 
corrupt; to rankle. [O.F.<L. fistula, 
a pipe, fistula.] 

fes-ti-na len'-te. [L.] hasten slowly. 
 fes-toori', 11. a long wreath or garland 
(suspended) ; a carved ornament resem- 
bling it : v. (-tooned', -toon'-ing). 
[F. feston<h. festum, a feast.] 

fetch (fetched, fetch'-ing), v. to get or 

bring from a place ; to sell for (so 
much). [A.S./efirtu.] 

fete (fat), n. [F.] a festival : v. (fe'-ted, 
fe'-ting), to feast ; to honour with a 
festival. fete champetre (shah- 
pdtr'), [F.] an open-air festival, fete- 
day, n. a birth-day. Fete-Dieu 
(dyuh), the Feast of Corpus Christi, q.v. 
National Fete, a general holiday in 
France on the 14th July, to celebrate 
the establishment of civic freedom after 
the Eevolution of 1789. 

fet'-id, or fce'-tid (fe'-), adj. smelling 
very disagreeably ; stinking, fet'-id- 
ness, n. [L. faztidus.] 

fe'-tish (or -tich) (fe'- or fet'-), n. an 
object of worship by certain uncivilized 
people (esp. in W. Africa) ; any object 
to which one is exceedingly devoted. 
fe'-tish-ism (or -tich-), n. the system 
of such worship. [F. <Po. <L. fdcio, 
I make.] 

fet' -lock, tt. a tuft of hair on the hind 
part of a horse's foot ; the part where 
it grows. [<foot and lock (of hair).] 

fet'-ter, n. a chain or cord for the feet ; 
(in pi.) anything that restrains : v. 
(-tered, -ter-ing), to chain or bind. 
[k.S.feter<fot, pi. fet, foot.] 

fe'-tus (more correctly fce'-tus), n. the 
young of animals when just born, or 
about to be born, fe'-tal, adj. [L.] 

feud (fud), n. a bitter strife between tribes 
or families ; a fief, q.v. feu'-dal-ism 
(4zvi),n. the system in the Middle Ages 
under which fiefs were held by vassals 
on condition of military or other service. 
feu'-dal, adj. [< root of fee.] 

feu-de-jole (fuh-d y -zhwaio),n. a bonfire, 
or a firing of guns in token of joy. [F. = 
fire of joy.] 

feuil-le-ton' (fuh-ye~toh' or foo'-i-toh), n. 
a part of a newspaper (esp. French) 
containing tales, and literary and critical 
articles. [F.<L. folium, a leaf.] 

fe'-ver, n. a class of diseases accompanied 
with burning heat of the body ; heat (of 
passion, anxiety, etc.) ; great excite- 
ment. fe'-Yer-ish, adj. [F.<L.febri* 
< ferveo, I boil.] 

fez, 11. (pi. fez'-es), a small, brimless, red 
cloth cap worn in Turkey and N. Africa. 
[F. <Fez, in Morocco, where made.] 

F.F.A., Fellow of the Faculty of Actuaries. 

F.G.S., Fellow of the Geological Society. 

F.H., fire hydrant. See fire. 




F.I.A., Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries. 

fi-a'-cre (fee-d'-kr), n. a hackney-coach, 
f <the Hotel de St. Fiacre, Paris, where 
first used in the 17th century.] 

fi-an-ce' (je-an-sd'),n. (/. -cee'), a person 
about (or engaged) to be married (affi- 
anced). In English generally used in 
the feminine. [F. <L. fldo, I trust.] 

fi-as'-co (fe-as'-ko), n. (pi. -cos), a 
failure; a breakdown. [I. <L. ?] 

fi'-at, n. a command or order (expressing 
the will of a person in authority). 
fi-at jus-tit -i-a, ru'-at coe-lum, 
[L.] let justice be done, even if the 
heavens fall (i e., whatever may be the 
consequences). [L.ftat, let it be done.] 

fi'-bre (-ber), n. one of the thread-like 
parts in vegetable or animal bodies. 
fi'-bril, n. a small fibre, fi'-brous 
(-briis), adj. having, or composed of, 
fibres. [F.<Ii. fibra, a thread.] 

fi'-brin, n. a peculiar compound of the 
nature of albumen found in animals and 
vegetables ; a similar substance found in 
blood and causing it to clot. [ < fibre.] 

fib'-u-la, n. a brooch, clasp, or buckle; 
the smaller of the two bones of the 
lower leg. [L.] 

F.I.C., Fellow of the Institute of Chemistry. 

fi-celle' (-seV), n. a kind of buff-coloured 
cord (also lace) , used for trimming ladies' 
dresses. [J?.<L./iZtH», thread.] 

fich'-u (fish'-oo), n. a three-cornered, thin, 
light covering (of lace or muslin) for a 
lady's neck and shoulders. [F.] 

fick'-le, adj. changeable ; inconstant ; 
irresolute ; unreliable, fick'-le-ness, 
n. [A.S. ficol, deceitful.] 

fic'-tile (-til, not -til), adj. belonging to 
the art of the potter. \h.jict%lis<Jingo, 
I form.] 

fic'-tion (shun), n. absence of truth ; an 
invented story ; romance ; all books of 
imagination (esp. romances and novels). 
fic-ti'-tious (-tish' -us) , adj. imaginary ; 
not real or genuine; false. [F.<L. 
fwtio<fingo, I form.] 

F.I.D., Field Intelligence Department. 

fid'-dle, n. a violin, fiddle-bow or 
fiddle— stick, n. a bow used for playing 
a fiddle, fiddle— de— dee ! int. non- 
sense ! fid'-dle-sticks ! int. nonsense ! 
fid'-dler, n. a player on the fiddle, to 
play first (or second) fiddle, to take a 
leading (or subordinate) part in any- 
thing. [k.$.Jithele.l 

fi-de'-i de-fen'-sor, [L.] Defender of 

the Faith ; a title of the English sov- 
ereign. Usually contracted (on coins, 
etc.) to Fid. Def. 

fi-del'-i-ty (J 'i-del'-l-ti or fl-), n. faithful- 
ness ; honest discharge of duty ; firm 
adherence. [F.<L. fidelitas< fides, 
faith, trust.] 

fidg'-et (fij'-), (-ed, -ing), v. to be rest- 
less ; to move about uneasily : n. one 
who — . fidg'-et-y, adj. [Ic. fika."] 

fi-du'-ci-al (-shi- or fi-du'-shal), adj. 
showing confidence or trust ; confiding. 
fi-du'-ci-a-ry, adj. trustful ; held in 
trust : n. one who holds in trust. £L. 
fulucia<fidG, I trust.] 

fi'-dus A-cha'-tes (d-kd'-tez), [L.] 
faithful Achates ; a faithful friend or 
companion. [Achates is the faithful 
friend of iEneas,the hero in Virgil's poem 
the Mneid, begun b.c. 27.] [./?.] 

fie (fi), int. expressing disapproval. [F. 

fief (fef), n. land held on condition of 
military or other service. [F. See fee.] 

field (feld), n. open country; cleared 
land ; an enclosed space of ground either 
in pasture or sown with food-stuffs ; 
scope ; opportunity ; chance ; (in elec.) 
any space in which electric force exists, 
or in which its presence, due to a gener- 
ator, or to an electrified body, can be 
detected : v. (-ed, -ing), to stand out in 
the cricket-field, or at base-ball, to stop 
or catch the ball, field' -er, n. one 
who — . field— battery, n. a battery of 
from 4 to 6 cannon suitable for accom- j 
panying cavalry or infantry, field- 
book, n. a book in which a' surveyor j 
writes down the particulars of his survey. 
field— company, n. a company of 140 
mounted soldiers provided with field- 
guns, field— day, n. a day when troops 
are drawn up for exercise or review ; a 
fete day or gala day. field-fare, n. a 
migratory bird of the thrush kind. 
field— glass, n. a very powerful double- \ 
tubed telescope, field— gun, n. a small J 
kind of cannon for active use on the ] 
battle-field, field— ice, n. large, flat 
masses of ice (floes) as distinguished from 
icebergs, field— marshal, n. an officer of 
the highest rank in the British army. 
field— mouse, n. a very . small mouse 
living in the fields, field-officer, n. a 
military officer above the rank of captain, 
but below that of general (as major, 
lieutenant-colonel, or colonel), field- 
sports, n. hunting, shooting (of game), I 




and other such diversions in the open 
country, field— train, n. a department 
of the Koyal Artillery chiefly responsible 
for the supply of ammunition on the 
battle-field, field— works, n. trenches 
or other temporary fortifications made 
by troops when in the field, to "keep 
the field, to be in a state of active 
operation ; to maintain one's ground. 
to take the field, to commence active 
operations (in war, politics, etc.). [A.S. 

fiend (fend), n. an evil spirit ; a deadly 
enemy, fiend'-ish, adj. [A.S. /eoruZ, 
an enemy.] 

fierce (fe~rs) , adj. savage ; furious ; violent. 
fierce '-ness,n. [O.F.<L./e?ws, wild] 

fie'-ry (fi'-ri ox fi'-er-i). See fire. 

fi.—fa. = fi-e'-ri fa'-ci-as, [L.] cause 
it to be done. The title of a writ of 
execution giving effect to the judgement 
of a court. 

fife, n. a wind musical instrument resem- 
bling the flute. [A.S. jifre."] 

fig, n. the fruit (green or dried) of the 
fig— tree, it is really the end of a hollow 
stem, green fig, one ripe, but not 
dried (as are the grocers' figs), in full 
fig, in full dress, not to care a fig, 
not to care at all. 

fight {fit), (fought, fight'-ing, fought), 
v. to strive against ; to contend ; to act 
in opposition : n. a combat ; a struggle ; 
pugnacity, fight'-er, n. one who — . 
to fight shy of, to avoid, from mistrust, 
fear, etc. [A.S./eo/ttaw.] 

fig'-ment, n. something formed or 
invented ; a fiction. [L. jingo, I form.] 
g'-ure (-ur), n. form; a drawing; a 
diagram ; a sign (esp. one signifying 
number) ; the ornamental markings in 
(or on) wood, marble, etc. : v. (-ured, 
-ur-ing), to form ; to invent ; to make 
a sign or symbol, fig'-u-rant, n. (pi. 
-rants, or -ran-ti), (/. -rante [-rant] , 
pZ. -rantes) , on e who dances at the opera 
along with others; a ballet-dancer. 
fig-u-ra'-tion, n. giving figure or form 
to anything. fig'-u-ra-tiYe {-tiv), 
adj. relating to a figure or sign ; used 
in a typical (not literal) sense; not 
real, figure— head, n. a carved figure 
often placed at the head (prow) of a 
ship ; one who appears as head of a 
society, etc., but has no power or 
authority ; one who allows his name to 
be used to give standing to an enterprise, 

but who undertakes no responsibility. 
fig-u-rine' (-ren'), n. a small carved 
figure. [F. < L. figura < jingo, I form.] 

fil'-a-ment, n. a thread-like substance ; 
a small fibre ; the fine, thread-like sub- 
stance in an incandescent electric lamp, 
which, when heated by a current, glows 
and radiates light. [F.<L. fllum, a 

fil'-bert, n. the nut of the hazel tree. 
[<St. Philibert, whose day, August 
22nd, is in the nutting season.] 

filch (filched, fil'-ching), v. to steal small 
things ; to pilfer. [?] 

file, n. an instrument for wearing away 
metal by rubbing : v. (filed, fi'-ling). 
fi' -lings, n. pi. [A.S. feol."] 

file, n. a wire for securing papers ; the 
papers secured on a file ; a row or line 
(as of soldiers) standing one behind 
another : v. (filed, fi'-ling), to secure 
on a file, rank and file, all soldiers 
in rank below commissioned officers ; 
hence, the general body of a party as 
distinguished from the leaders, single 
or Indian file, a line of men standing (or 
marching) one behind another, to — 
out, to march out one by one. to — 
a petition, etc., to bring it before the 
proper court. [F. <h.filum, a thread.] 

fil'-i-al, adj. of or relating to a son or 
daughter, filial affection, the natural 
love of a child for its parents, {h.fllius, 
a son ; fllia, a daughter.] 

fiT-i-beg (or fill'-i-beg, or phil'-i-beg), 
n. the short kilt or petticoat reaching 
nearly to the knees, worn by the High- 
landers of Scotland (as distinguished 
from the great kilt which covered the 
body). [Gal. feileadh-beag<feileadh, a 
fold, a plait + beag, little.] 

fil'-i-bus-ter, n. a lawless pirate or adven- 
turer (esp. in America) ; one who 
obstructs business in parliament by un- 
necessary speeches, motions, etc. [Sp. 
<D. vrijbuiter (E. freebooter)."} 

fil'-i-form, adj. of the form of a thread, 
[L. fllum, a thread.] 

fil'-i-gree, n. fine, delicate, open thread- 
work (esp. in gold and silver). [F.<I. 
< L. fllum, a thread +grdnum, a grain. J 

fil' -let, n. a narrow band ; a joint of meat 
(esp. veal) from the thigh ; strips of 
fish: v. (-ed, -ing), to cut into strips 
(esp. fish for cooking). [F.<L. fllum, 
a thread.] 

fd'-lip (-liped, -lip-ing), v, to strike with 




the tips of the fingers ; to help forward : 
n. a light blow with the fingers ; a help 
forward. [A variation of flip.] 

fil'-ly (-11), n. (pi. -lies), a young mare. 
[Dim. oifoal, q.v.~] 

film, n. a very thin skin or surface ; (in 
photography) a thin coating of collodion, 
etc., spread on the paper, glass, or cellu- 
loid upon which a photograph is taken ; 
also the celluloid used for this purpose : 
v. (filmed, film'-ing), to form a film. 
film'-y (-*), adj. [L.S. filmen."] 

fiT-o— fioss, w. soft, fine embroidery thread. 
[F.<Jj.fllum. thread + floss.] 

fil'-o-sel, or nT-o-selle, n. floss-silk ; a 
kind of stuff fabric (of silk and wool). 
[I. <L.follis, an air-bag or cushion.] 

fil'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to strain 
liquids : n. an instrument for filtering. 
filter— bed, n. a tank, pond, or pit with 
the bottom filled with fine sand or gravel 
and serving (in a waterworks) as a large 
filter, fil'-trate, n. the liquor after 
filtering, fil-tra'-tion, n. the process 
of filtering. [F . <L.L. Jiltrum.] 

filth, n. foul matter ; dirt ; anything that 
defiles, filth'-y, adj. fiT-thi-ness, n. 
filthy state or action. [AS. fylth< 
fill, foul.] 

fim'-bri-a or fim-bri-a'-tion, n. an edge 
or border, fim'-bri-a-ted, adj. bordered 
with a narrow edge or band (as the 
white edging to the crosses in the Union 
Jack) ; (in botany and zoology) bordered 
with hairs. [L. fimbria, thread, fibre, 

fin, n. the organ with which a fish balances 
itself and moves about in the water. 
fin'-ny, adj. having fins. [A.S../WM.] 

fi'-nal, adj. belonging to the end ; last ; 
ultimate ; decisive : n. fi-na'-le (fi- 
nd' -la), n. the ending (esp. of a musical 
composition) ; the closing scene of an 
opera or oratorio ; the last piece at a 
concert ; close ; termination, fi-nal'- 
i-ty (-i-tl), n. state of being final. 
fi'-nal-ly, adv. [F.<L. finis, end.] 

fin-ance' (fin-ans' not /!'-), n. money 
matters ; income ; revenue ; public 
money ; the science of raising and 
expending the public revenue : v. 
(-anced', -an' -ring), to provide money 
for, (esp. for speculative purposes), fin- 
an'-cial (shal), adj. fin-an'-cier 
(ser), (sometimes -cer), n. one who 
attends to money matters, high — , 
the management of money affairs on a 

grand scale, esp. the finances of a nation 
that was in a bankrupt state and is 
brought back to a state of solvency. [P. 
<L.L. <L. finis, an end.] 

finch, n. the name given to a family of 
singing birds. [A.S../mc] 

fin-de-siecle (fan-duh-syd-k'l) [F.] end 
of the century ; advanced ; modern. 

fine, adj. beautiful ; slender ; thin ; keen ; 
sharp ; showy, fine arts, those which 
appeal to the finer feelings of one's 
nature and require genius and taste in 
the producer, as painting, sculpture, 
music, to fine down, to refine ; to 
purify, fine'-ness, n. fi'-ner-y, n. 
fine, showy things (esp. to wear), fine- 
drawn, adj. (of a rent in a fabric) sewn 
up so finely that it is not seen ; drawn 
out too finely or fastidiously, fine- 
spun, adj. finely spun out ; artfully 
contrived. [F.Jm<h.finitU8, finished.] 

fine, n. money paid as a penalty : v. 
(fined, fi'-ning), to impose a fine on. 
in fine, in conclusion. [L. finis, end.] 

fi'-nem res'-pi-ce, [L._j look to the end. 

fi-nesse' (fl-nes'), (-nessed',-nes'-sing), 
v. to make use of artifice : n. artifice 
or stratagem ; (in card-playing) artful 
play as opposed to play according to 
rule ; fineness ; refiued grace ; cunning; 
dexterity. [F.] 

fin'-ger, n. one of the five members of the 
hand : v. (-gered, -ger-ing), to handle 
with the fingers ; to play (on an instru- 
ment) with the fingers, fin' -ger-ing, 
n. the manner of playing on a keyed 
instrument ; a kind of soft wool for 
knitting, finger-end, n. (pi. -ends), 
finger— mark, n. a dirty mark (soil) 
made by the fingers, finger-plate, n. 
a plate of metal, etc., placed near the 
edge of a door to keep it from being 
finger-marked, finger— post, n. a guide- 
post with an arm or arms pointing out 
the direction, finger-prints, n. marks 
of the ridges on the finger-tips left on 
articles touched. As no two persons 
have quite similar ridges, these impres- 
sions form a valuable means of detect- 
ing criminals, whose finger-impressions, 
specially taken in prison, are compared 
with those of the persons suspected. 
finger— stall, n. a covering (like a glove- 
finger) for a wound on a finger, a — 
in the pie, a share in some business or 
affair (esp. in a meddlesome sense), to 
have fingers all thumbs, to have 




clumsy fingers, to haye at one's 
fingers' ends, to know thoroughly, or to 
be fully acquainted with. [A.S. finger. ] 

fin'-i-al, n. the ornamental termination 
of a pinnacle, gable, spire, pew-end, etc. 
[h. finis, the end.] 

fin'-ic-al (-ik-), adj. over nice, particular, 
or fastidious in speech, dress, manners, 
actions, etc. fin'-ick-ing, adj. being 
over nice or particular. [F.<L. finis, 
an end.] [{esp- of a book). 

fi'-nis (/*'-), n. [L.] end ; conclusion 

fin'-ish (-ished, -ish-ing), v. to bring or 
come to an end ; to destroy ; to com- 
plete ; to perfect : n. the completion ; 
the end ; the last fine touch, fin'- 
ished, adj. complete ; perfect ; very 
artistic, fin'-ish-er, n. one who — . 
[F.<L. finio, I finish <finis, end.] 

fi'-nite, adj. having an end, limit, or j 
boundary ; limited in quantity, degree, 
or capacity. [L. finitus, finished < 
finio, I finish.] 

Finn, n. a native of Finland. 

Fin. Sec, Financial Secretary. 

Fin'-sen rays, part of the Roentgen rays 
(q.v.) under which patients are exposed 
for the cure of lupus and other skin 
diseases. Finsen lamp, a special form 
of electric lamp for using the Finsen 
rays. [<A r . R. Finsen (L860-1904), a 
Dane, the discoverer.] 

fiord, or fjord (fyord), n. a long, narrow 
inlet of the sea (esp. in Norway). 
[Dan. fiord.'} 

fir, n. a species of cone-bearing trees yield- 
ing valuable timber. [A.S./ur/t.] 

fire, n. heat, light, and flame produced by 
burning ; anything burning ; the lustre 
of a precious stone ; severe trial ; 
ardour; enthusiasm: v. (fired, fi' -ring), 
to set on fire ; to discharge (gun, etc.) ; 
to animate ; to stir up. fi'-er-y, adj. 
of fire ; passionate, fire— alarm, n. an 
outcry or notice of fire ; an apparatus for 
giving notice of, and calling aid in putting 
out, fire, fire— arm, n. a gun or other 
weapon discharged by a fiery explosion. 
fire-balloon, n. one which rises by the 
air it contains being heated by a fire at 
its mouth, fire— box, n. the box or 
chamber in which the fire is placed on 
a locomotive, fire— brand, n. a flaming 
piece of wood ; a mischief-maker, fire- 
brick, n. a brick made from fire— clay, 
a clay which will stand very great heat. 
fire— brigade, n. a number of firemen 

kept at a fire- station, fire-damp, n. a 
gas (carburetted hydrogen) frequently 
found in coal-mines and liable to explode 
when mixed with air. fire— eater, n. a 
juggler who pretends to eat fire ; a 
quarrelsome person, fire— engine, n. a 
strong, moveable forcing-pump for 
throwing large jets of water on a fire. 
fire— escape, n. an apparatus providing 
the means of escape from burning build- 
ings, fire-extinguisher, n., (see ex- 
tincteur). fire-fly, n. a winged lumin- 
ous insect, fire— guard, n. a protecting 
framework of wire placed in front of a 
fire-place (sometimes wrongly called a 
fire-screen, q.v.). fire-insurance, n. a 
contract by which an insurance company 
agrees to make good to a person loss by 
fire on the payment of a certain sum 
periodically ; such contract is called a 
fire— policy, fire— man, n. one whose 
business it is to help in extinguishing 
fires; a stoker, fire— pan, n. a moveable 
fireplace, fire— plug, n. a valve in the 
water-main in a street from which water 
can be obtained for the fire-engines 
(sometimes incorrectly called a hy- 
drant) . fire— proof , adj. proof or secure 
against damage by fire ; incombustible. 
fire— screen, n. a moveable screen 
placed in front of a fire to intercept the 
direct heat, fire— ship, n. a small vessel 
filled with combustibles sent against an 
enemy's ships to set them on fire. 
fire— water, n. ardent spirits, fire- 
works, n. pi. preparations of gunpowder, 
etc., to be fired (let off) as a show. 
fire— worship, n. the worship of fire, 
chiefly by the Parsees of Persia and 
India, fi'-ring, n. the discharge of fire- 
arms ; wood for burning, firing— party, 
n. a detachment of soldiers to fire a volley 
over the grave of a dead comrade, or to 
shoot a prisoner sentenced to death. 
cross fire, firing from different direc- 
tions at the same time. Greek— fire, n. 
a burning composition used by the 
Greeks in warfare, fiery— cross, n. a 
small cross charred and dipped in blood, 
formerly sent round by the Highlanders 
of Scotland as a call to arms. Kentish- 
fire, n. a form of applause at public 
meetings by regular hand-clapping, line 
of — , n. the direction in which a bullet, 
or other missile, travels, running fire, 
n. rapid discharge of fire-arms in succes- 
sion along a line of troops, or a constant 




discharge of muskets or cannon ; fig. 
a rapid succession, to fire up, to 
make a big fire ; to fly into a passion. 
to set the Thames on — , to do some 
remarkable or unexpected thing, to 
heap coals of — on the head, to return 
good for evil (Prov. xxv. 22). to hang 
fire, to fail to explode; to make no 
progress. [A. S. ffjr] 

fir'-kin, ft. a measure of nine gallons (the 
fourth part of a barrel), used for butter, 
herrings, etc. [<D. vier, four, with 
dim. term, -kin.'] 

firm, adj. fixed ; solid ; immoveable ; 
decided; resolute: n. a house of business 
(esp. one managed by partners), firm'- 
ness, n. [F.<L. Jirmus, firm] 

fir'-ma-ment, n. the sky ; the heavens. 
[L. Jirmamentum<iirmus, firm, solid.] 

fir' -man, n. a decree, mandate, order, 
passport, licence, etc., of an Oriental 
government (esp. of the Sultan of 
Turkey). [P.fermdn, a decree.] 

flrn, n. last year's snow (on the Alps) con- 
solidated into ice ; glacier-snow. [G. 
firn, last year's.] 

first, adj. before all others (in time or 
place) ; foremost ; most eminent ; chief. 
first— aid, n. assistance given at once 
to the wounded in street or other acci- 
dents, and in cases of sudden illness, 
before a doctor can be had. first- 
class, adj. of the best quality, first- 
fruits, n. the earliest produce, effects, 
or results ; the first year's income of a 
benefice, etc., formerly paid to some 
superior, first'-ling, n. the first pro- 
duce (of an animal), first— rate, adj. 
of excellent quality, at first hand, 
obtained direct from the original source. 
[A.S. fyrst.] 

firth, or frith, ft. an estuary ; a narrow 
inlet of the sea (esp. in northern countries 
of Europe). [Ic. fjorthr."\ 

fis'-cal, adj. relating to public money- 
affairs (esp. the revenue), fls-cal'-i-ty 
(-i-ti), ft. ( -ties), money dealings 
or affairs, fiscal policy, the arrange- 
ments of the government with regard to 
the revenue of a country (esp. that 
obtained from customs' duties), fiscal 
reform, a suggested rearrangement of 
import and export duties, especially in 
connection with our own Colonies and 
Possessions, fiscal tariff, the rates of 
export and import duties. [L.fiscus, a 
money basket, public treasury.] 

fish, n. (pi. fish [collectively], fish'-es 
[individually]), a cold-blooded animal 
living only in water and breathing bv 
gills : v. ijfished, fish'-ing), to try to 
catch fish ; to seek to obtain by scheming 
or by flattering words, fish'-er, n. one 
who fishes, fish'-er-man, n. fish'- 
er-y (-i), n. the business of, or place 
For, catching fish, fish— glue, n. a glue 
made from the sounds of fishes; 
isinglass, fish'-mon-ger, n. a dealer 
in fish, fish'-y, adj. consisting of, or 
abounding in, fish ; fish-like ; of doubt- 
ful character ; not strictly straight- 
forward, fish— ladder or —way, n. a 
kind of dam, in steps, to assist fish (esp. 
salmon) to ascend a fall in a river. 
fish— plate, n. a flat plate of iron bolted 
on each side of a joint, as in a rail, 
beam, etc., to make a secure joint, 
called a fish-joint, coarse fish, all 

• fresh-water fish not of the trout or 
salmon families, game fish, all fresh- 
water fish of the trout and salmon 
families. (The grayling is classed 
coarse or game indifferently), white 
fish, a collective name for cod, haddock, 
halibut, hake, ling, plaice, pollack, 
turbot, sole, and whiting (all sea fishes). 
the royal fish, the sturgeon, to hayej 
other — to fry, to have something els€ 
more important to do. to be neither - 
nor flesh, to be neither one thing noi 
the other. [A.S.yisc] 

fis'-sion (fish'-un), n. the act or process ol 
cleaving. [L. Jissus, e\eit<findo, 1 

fis'-sure (fish'-ur), n. a cleft or split ; c 
chasm. [L.fissura<findo, I cleave.] 

fis'-tu-la, n. a narrow passage or duct; ? 
deep-seated ulcer or abscess. £L. fistula. 
a pipe.] 

fit, adj. suited ; proper : v. (fit'-ted, fit'- 
ting), to make fit ; to suit ; to be of th< 
right size, fit'-ments, article,' 
for furnishing (as a room), esp. nick 
nacks ; the necessary parts of a machine 
fit'-ness, n. being fit or suitable. Af- 
ter, n. one who — (esp. parts oi 
machine or clothing), to fit up, t< 
furnish. [Ic.fitja, to knit together.] 

fit, n. an attack of convulsions ; a sudder 
effort ; a passing humour or caprice ; ai 
impulsive or irregular action, fit'-ful 
adj. by fits or sudden efforts, by fiti 
and starts, irregularly. [A.S. Jitt, i\ 
song, a struggle.] 




I fives, n . a game played by driving a ball 

with the hand against a wall. [?] 
j fix (fixed, fix'-ing), v. to set firm ; to 
fasten ; to secure ; to settle ; to adjust : 
n. a difficulty, fixed, adj. firmly placed 
or settled, fixed stars, those which 
keep the same relative positions to each 
other (as contrasted with the planets). 
fix'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. state of being fixed in 
time, place, or purpose, fix'-ture, n. a 
firmly fixed article (exp. in a house) ; a 
fixed date (for a cricket match, race, 
etc.). fixing bath, a bath of chemicals 
in which a photographic plate, or a print 
from such a plate, is placed to fix it, i.e., 
make it insensible to the action of light. 
[F. <L. fixus, fixed.] 
I fizz (fizzed, fiz'-zing), v. to make a hiss- 
ing sound, fiz'-zle (-zled, -zling), v. 
to hiss or splutter ; to make a disgrace- 
ful failure. [Imitative.] 

Fla., Florida, U.S.A. 

flab '-by, adj. soft ; yielding ; hanging 
loose, flab'-bi-ness, n. flab'-ber- 
gast (-ed, -ing), v. to astonish greatly 
by extraordinary statements or actions. 

fjeld (fyeld), n. a mountainous plateau 
(in Norway). [Scan.] 

fjord (fyord), n. See fiord. 

fla-bel'-lum, n. (pi. -la), a fan (esp. one 
carried before the Pope on state occa- 
sions) ; one used in churches to drive 
away flies from the holy table. [L. 
flabellum, a small fan.] 

flac'-cid (flak'-sid), adj. soft and yielding 
to the touch. [L. Jlaccldus.] 

Bag, n. a wide strip of decorated fabric 
intended to float in the wind ; a water- 
plant (so called because its broad leaves 
wave in the wind like flags), flag- 
officer, n. the commander of a squadron, 
or a naval officer privileged to carry a 
flag showing his rank — admiral, commo- 
dore, etc. flag— ship, n. the ship of a 
fleet which carries the admiral's (or the 
flag-officer's) flag, black flag, a pirate's 
flag, flag of distress, a flag flown as a 
signal of distress and asking assistance, 
usu. upside down at half-mast, red flag, 
one used as a danger signal, as a chal- 
lenge or defiance, or as an emblem of 
revolution, white flag, a flag of truce, 
or an emblem of peace, yellow flag, one 
hoisted to show presence of infectious 
disease on board a ship, and of quaran- 
tine and hospital in time of war. to 

dip the — , to lower and then raise the 
flag again as a token of respect, to 
strike or lower the — , to haul down 
the — in token of surrender. [Dan.yfa#.] 

flag, n. a flat stone : v. (flagged, flag- 
ging, to lay (a pavement, etc.,) with 
flags, flag-stone, n. [Ic. Jlaga, a 

flag (flagged, flag'-ging), v. to droop ; to 
lose interest. [Ic. flaka, to droop.] 

flag'-el-late (flaj'-), (-la-ted, -la-ting), 
v. to whip ; to scourge, flag'-el-lant, n. 
one who scourges himself by way of 
penance, flag-el-la'-tion, n. a scourg- 
ing. fL. jlagellum, a small whip.] 

flag'-eo-let (jlaj' -5-), n. a small wind- 
instrument with a mouthpiece, holes, 
and keys like the flute. [F.<root of 
flute, with dim. term, -let.] 

fla-gi'-tious (-jish'-us), adj. very wicked ; 
heinous crime); shameful. [h.fldgi-<fldgitium, a disgraceful act.] 

flag'-on, n. a narrow-mouthed vessel for 
liquor. [F. flacon ; cognate with flask.] 

fla'-grant, adj. glaring and open (esp of 
crime) ; notorious, fla'-gran-cy, n. 
[F.<L. flagrans, burning <flagro, I 
burn.] [hostilities. 

flag-ran' -te bel'-lo, [L.] during active 

flag-ran' -te de-lic'-to, [L] (caught) 
in the very act (of theft or other offence). 

flail, n. an instrument for threshing corn. 
[O.F.<L. jlagellum, a small whip.] 

flair (fldr), n. odour ; smell ; scent ; per- 
ception. [F.<L. fragro, I am sweet- 

flake, n. a small, light mass (as of falling 
snow) ; a small, flat or dish-like layer ; 
a scale : v. (flaked, fla' -king), to 
separate into flakes. fla'-ky, adj. 
[Scand. flak, a slice.] 

flam'-beau (-65), n. (pi. -beaux) (-boz), a 
flaming torch, flam-boy'-ant, adj. (of 
architecture) having light and wavy 
tracery (like flame) ; flaming. [F. <L. 
flavuna, flame.] 

flame, n. a sheet of fire ; a blaze ; wrath ; 
burning zeal ; great enthusiasm : v. 
(flamed, fla'-ming), to send up flame ; 
to be in a rage. [F. < L. flamma , flame.] 

fla' -men, n. (pi. -mi-nes or -mens), (in 
ancient Rome) the priest devoted to the 
service of some particular god. [L.] 

fla-min'-go, n. (pi. -gos), a large tropical 
bird with light-red plumage, and long 
legs and neck. [Sp. < L. flamma, flame.] 

fla-neur' (fld-nur'), n. (fern, -neuse'), 




a lounger ; an idler, flane-rle' (Jldn- 
ri'), n. lounging. [F.] 

flange (flcuij), it. the projecting edge of a 
wheel (as of a railway carriage), a rail, 
or a pipe : v. flanged, flang'-ing). [< 
root of flank.] 

flank, n. the fleshy or muscular part of 
the side of an animal ; the side of a 
mountain, an army, etc. : v. (flanked, 
flank '-ing), to be on the side of ; to 
attack or threaten at the side ; to border 
or touch, flank files, n. soldiers on the 
extreme right and left of a body of 
troops, flank movement, a movement 
of soldiers designed to turn an enemy's 
flank or to attack it on the flank. [F. 
Jlanc, flank.] 

flan'-nel, n. a kind of soft woollen cloth. 
flan'-nel-ly, adj. " flannelled fool," 
a name given, in scorn, to a cricketer, 
and sometimes to other athletes. [ W. 
gwaleiKgwlan, wool.] 

flan'-nel-ette (not " 11 "), n. an imitation 
of flannel made of cotton. [See flannel.] 

flap, n. something hanging loose (esp. part 
of a garment) ; a blow as with a flap : 
v . (flapped, flap'-ping), to strike with 
a flap ; to move like wings ; to hang 
loosely, cellar— flap, n. a flat covering 
over the entrance to a cellar, one that 
can be moved up and down on hinges. 
[Imit. from the sound.] 

flare (flared, fla'-ring), v. to burn with a 
glaring, unsteady flame ; to flutter with 
gaudy show : n. to flare up, to burst 
into a flame suddenly ; to grow angry 
suddenly. [Sc.flara, to blaze.] 

flash, n. a quick outburst of flame, light, 
merriment, or intelligence : v. (flashed, 
flash'-ing). fflash or flash'-y, adj. 
showy ; gaudy ; (language) spoken by 
thieves, flash'-ing, it. a piece of metal 
(generally lead) lapping over the joinings 
of a wall, aroof, etc. : adj. showy ; vulgar. 
flash— light, it. a quick, bright light 
shown in lighthouses ; a similar one for 
taking an instantaneous photograph. 
flash notes, n. imitation bank-notes. 
flash-point, or flashing— point, n. the 
temperature at which an inflammable 
liquid takes fire, a flash in the pan, 
any sudden outburst which accomplishes 
nothing ; a short and unsuccessful 
attempt. [Ic. jiaza, to rush.] 

flask, n. a narrow-necked bottle (for 
liquor or powder). [k.S.jlasce.'} 

flat, adj. smooth ; level ; dull ; uninter- 

esting ; below pitch (in music) ; taste- 
less : to. a flat or level surface or 
plain ; a musical mark ; the floor or 
story of a house which forms a complete 
residence ; a simpleton, flat'-ting, n. 
painting with colour containing turpen- 
tine to deaden the gloss of the oil. 
flat -ten (-tened, -ten-ing),v. to make 
flat, flat— fish, to. a fish with narrow 
body and flat sides, flat— foot, n . a foot 
in which the entire sole rests on the 
ground, flat— iron, n. an instrument 
for smoothing cleaned linen or cloth. 
flat— race, n. a race in which the com- 
petitors run over a level course without 
obstacles, to fall — , not to succeed ; 
to be uninteresting. [Ic. flatr, flat.] 

flat'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to praise 
insincerely or too much ; to please with 
false hopes or undue praise, flat'-ter- 
er, ii. one who — . flat'-ter-y, n. false 
praise. [F. flatter <(?).] 

flat'-u-lent, adj. affected or troubled with 
wind (in the stomach) ; empty ; vain. 
flat'-u-lence, or -len-cy, to. [L. flatus, 
a blowing <flo, I blow.] 

flaunt (-ed, -ing), v. to wave or display 
before the eyes in an impudent or showy 
manner ; to defy in an impudent j 
manner : to. [?] 

flau'-tist, to. a flutist, or player on the 
flute. [See flute.] 

fla'-YOur (-vur), to. a distinguishing taste 
or smell ; that quality which gives a 
distinctive character to a production : 
v. (-youred, -Your-ing), to give flavour 
to ; to season (as food). [? L. flo, I 

flaw, n. a small crack or break ; a defect or 
imperfection. [A.S. floh, a fragment.] J 

flax, to. the fibres of the flax— plant (used | 
for weaving into linen) . flax— dresser, 
w. one who prepares flax for the spinner. 
flax'-en, adj. of flax ; like flax. [A.S. 

flay (flayed, flay'-ing), v. to strip the; 
skin from. [A.S. Jiean, to flay.] 

flea Ifle), n. a well-known, wingless, biting i 
insect, flea-bane, n. one of several 
plants supposed to have a strong smell j 
which is said to drive away 

fleam, n. a kind of lancet (esp. oi 
used in bleeding cattle). [O.F.<L.] 
jietoma, a lancet.] 

fleche (M sh )i n - a slender spire. [F. 




fleck, n. a small spot or mark ; a streak : 
v. (flecked, fleck' -ing). [Ic. flekkr.'} 

fledge (flej), (fledged, fledg'-ing), v. to 
provide with wings or feathers, fledge'- 
ling (less correctly fledg'-), n. a young 
bird just fledged ; an inexperienced 
person. [A.S.flycge, flying.] 
| flee (fled, flee'-ing), v. to fly away ; to 
run away hurriedly. [k.&.fleon, to flee.] 

fleece (fles), n. all the wool of one sheep ; 
any soft, woolly covering : v. (fleeced, 
flee'-cing), to cut the fleece from a 
sheep ; to cheat, flee'-cy (si), adj. 
woolly ; soft. [A.S. fleos, fleece.] 

fleer (fleered, fleer' -ing), v. to make a 
wry face in contempt ; to mock at. 

fleet, adj. swift ; nimble : v. (-ed, -ing), 
to pass swiftly, fleet' -ing, adj. passing 
quickly (as time). [A.S. fleotan, to 
float, sail.] 

fleet, n. a number of ships (esp. war- 
ships) sailing in company. [A.S. fleot, 
a ship.] 

flesh, n. the soft substance of an animal's 
body ; meat : v. (fleshed, flesh '-ing), 
to cause (hunting-dogs, etc.) to like 
flesh food, flesh'-er, n. a butcher ; a 
two-handled knife, used in tanning 
for scraping hides, flesh'-ings, n. a 
thin, flesh-coloured, tight-fitting gar- 
ment covering the body and limbs like 
skin, worn by actors, actresses, etc. 
flesh'-ly, adj. having much flesh ; 
carnal (as opposed to spiritual), flesh- 
fly, n. a fly that feeds and lays its eggs 
on flesh-meat, flesh— wound, n. a 
wound which does not injure the main 
blood-vessels or the bone, flesh and 
blood, human nature ; family relation- 
ship, in the flesh, alive ; in life. 
[A.S. fleesc, flesh.] 

fleur-de-lis, n. (pi. fleurs-), (pro. in both 
cases fluhr-duh-le'), [F.] the flower of 
the lily ; the national emblem of France. 
[Note, not -lys.] 

flex'-i-ble (-i-bl) , adj. easily bent ; pliable ; 
yielding ; tractable ; manageable : n. a 
cord made of fine wires insulated from 
each other for conveying electric currents 
(esp. for lighting), flex-i-bil'-i-ty (-i-tl), 
n. flex' -ion (Jlek'-shun), n. the act of 
bending ; a bending, flex'-or, n. a 
muscle that bends a limb at a joint. 
flex'-u-ous or flex'-u-ose, adj. full of 
windings and turnings ; variable, 
flex'-ure, n. a bending. [F. <L. flecto, 

I bend.] 

flick (flicked, flick' -ing), v. to strike 
lightly : n. a flip. [Iniit.] 

flick'-er (-ered, -er-ing), v. to flame 
weakly and unsteadily ; to flap the 
wings (as a bird) : n. a sudden and brief 
increase of brightness or energy. [A.S. 
flicerian, to flutter.] 

flight (flit), n. the act of flying ; a number 
(of birds, arrows, etc.) flying together ; 
a series (of steps one above another) ; 
soaring ; hasty removal, flight'-y, adj. 
changeable ; fanciful ; empty-headed ; 
giddy, flight' -i-ness, n. [A.S. flyht 
<fleogan, to fly.] 

flim'-sy (-zi), adj. weak; thin: n. the 
thin paper upon which press-news is 
written at the post-office ; paper used by 
reporters to produce one or more copies 
of what they are writing ; f a banknote. 
flim'-si-ness, n. [?] 

flinch (flinched, flinch '-ing), v. to draw 
back ; to shrink (from) ; to lose courage. 
[F. fl€chir<L. flecto, I bend.] 

fling (flung, fling'-ing), v. to throw ; to 
cast ; to scatter : n. a throw or cast 
from the hand ; a taunt or sneer ; com- 
plete freedom and unlimited enjoyment 
of pleasure ; a kind of dance. [Scand. 
flenga, to strike.] 

flint, n. a very hard stone ; a variety of 
quartz, flint' -y, adj. very hard (like 
flint), flint— glass, n. a beautiful glass 
made originally from powdered flints, 
and used for table glasses and the glasses 
of optical instruments, flint— lock, ». 
a musket with a piece of flint fixed in 
the hammer, whicb, when striking the 
steel, produces a spark and ignites the 
priming. [A.S. flint.] 

flip, n. a smart blow (as with a whip) ; a 
hot drink of beer and spirits sweetened 
with sugar, flip-pant, adj. pert; 
saucy ; thoughtless in speech ; talka- 
tive, flip'-pan-cy, n. flip-flap, n. a 
repeated flapping, or the sound made by 
it ; fa somersault on the hands and 
feet ; a machine for a popular amuse- 
ment, consisting of two long arms 
moving backwards and forwards on an 
axle, with a kind of cage at the free end 
of each in which the passengers sit. 

flirt (-ed, -ing), v. to move quickly and 
suddenly ; to trifle with love : n. one 
who — ; a pert, giddy girl, flir-ta- 
tion, n. a playing at courtship. [Imit. 




cf. flip, flick, etc.] 

flit (-ted, -ting), v. to move quickly from 
a place ; to dart away ; to remove ; to 
flutter on the wing (as a bird). [Scand. 
flytta, to remove.] 

flitch (flicli), n. a salted and cured side of 
a pig (bacon). [A.S. jlicce.~\ 

flit' -ter— mouse, n. a bat. [flit + mouse.] 

float (-ed, -ing), v. to lie on the surface 
of a liquid ; to cause to float ; to com- 
mence (an undertaking) ; to circulate 
(as a rumour) ; to drift aimlessly : n. 
anything which floats ; the support for 
a net (or line) in fishing ; a kind of cart 
(for milk, etc.). float'-age, ft. floating 
capacity. [A.S. flotian."] 

float'-ing, n. the spreading of plaster, or 
stucco, or paint, on walls, etc. float- 
ing—battery,?!, a battery on rafts, or an 
old ship heavily armed,for the bombard- 
ment of a place or for the protection of a 
harbour, floating— bridge, n. a bridge 
built on rafts ; a large steam ferry. 
floating-dock, n. see dock, floating- 
light, 11. a small ship, bearing a light, 
moored to a sunken rock, a shoal, etc., 
as a warning to sailors, floating— pier, 
ft. a kind of raft, moored to the shore, 
that rises and falls with the tide. 
floating— ribs, n. the two lower ribs on 
each side of the body. [See float.] 

flock, n. a company (esp. of birds or sheep) ; 
the congregation of a Christian church : 
v. (flocked, fleck' -ing), to come together 
in large numbers, flock— master, n. 
the owner or guardian of a flock. [A.S. 

flock, ii. a lock of wool (used for stuffing 
beds, etc.). floc'-cu-lent, adj. woolly ; 
flaky, flock— bed, w. a bed filled with 
tufts, of wool or woollen rags, flock- 
paper, ft. wall-paper covered with very 
fine sifted woollen refuse. [O.F.<L. 
floccus, a lock (of wool).] 

floe (flo), n. a thick sheet of floating ice. 
[Scand. flage."] 

flog (flogged, flog'-ging), v. to whip or 
beat ; to chastise. [? L. flagellum, a 

flood (find), ft. a vast flow of water ; the 
tide coming in ; an overflow of water on 
the land ; an over-abundance of any- 
thing : v. (-ed, -ing). flood-gate, n. 
a barrier for stopping or regulating the 
flow of water, flood— tide, ft. the flow- 
ing in or rising of the tide ; high tide. 
The Flood, the deluge in the days of 

Noah. [A.S.fldd, a flowing, flood.] 

floor (flor) , ft. the lower surface of a room ; 
all the rooms of a house on one level ; a 
story : v. (floored, floor '-ing), to put 
a floor in ; to make an end of ; to bring 
down to the floor ; to knock down. 
floor— cloth, n. a covering for the floor 
made of painted canvas or of woven 
material for protecting the carpet ; a 
cloth for washing floors, floor'-er, n. a 
knock-down blow ; a conclusive answer 
or retort ; a question or a task beyond 
one's abilities, first— floor, ft. the floor 
in a house above the floor that is level 
with the ground, to take the floor, to 
rise to speak or to dance. [A.S. flor.] 

flo'-ra, ft. (pi. -ras (-re), or -ras), a col- 
lective name for all the plant life of a 
country or region, flo'-ral, adj. of or 
belonging to flowers, flo-res'-cence 
(sens), ii. the coming or bursting out 
(of plants) into flower, flo -ri-a-ted 
(less correctly flo'-re-), adj. decorated 
with floral ornament, flo'-ret, ft. a 
single flower of a bunch or united 
system, flo'-ri-cul-ture, ft. the culti- 
vation of flowers. flo-ri-cuT-tu-rist, 
ii. one who cultivates flowers. flor f -ist, 
11. a cultivator of, or dealer in, flowers. 
[L. flos, floris, a flower <Flora, the 
goddess of flowers.] 

flor '-id, adj. flowery ; bright ; red-look- 
ing ; gay-looking ; highly ornamented. 
[See flora.] 

flor'-in, ft. an English silver coin, value 
2s. [F. florin. Properly a Florentine 
(i.e., of Florence) coin, stamped with a 
lily<I. fiore, a flower.] 

floss, ft. a loose, downy, silky substance 
(found in the husks of certain plants, as 
the bean, etc.). flos'-sy, adj. made of 
floss-silk ; silky ; downy, floss— silk, 
n. soft, downy, untwisted thread made 
of fine silk, and used for embroidery 
and crewel-work. [I. floscio<Jj.fluxus, 
loose, flowing (Ij.fluo, I flow).] 

flot, ft. a long scarf of Jap silk or other 
light material ; a bunch of ribbons or 
feathers forming streamers. [F.<G. 
<L. fluctus, a flowing.] 

flo-ta'-tion (not float-), w. the act of 
floating ; the science of floating bodies ; 
the action of starting a company or 
enterprise. [See float.] 

flo-til'-la, n. a small fleet ; a fleet of 
small ships. [Sp. flotilla, dim. oiflota, 
a fleet.] 




flot'-sam, 11. parts of a ship or its cargo 
lost by shipwreck and floating on the 
sea. Often found in the phrase flotsam 
and jetsam (see jetsam) ; this phrase 
is also used jocularly for odds-and- 
ends. [See float.] 

flounce, n, a strip of material sewn by the 
top edge only round the skirt of a dress : 
v. (flounced, floun'-cing), to sew a 
flounce on. [F. fronds, a plait <L. 
from, the forehead (wrinkled).] 

flounce (flounced, floun'-cing), v. to 
dart forward or about quickly : n. a 
sudden, jerking motion of the body. 
[Ic. flunsa, to plunge.] 

floun'-der (-dered, -der-ing), v. to 
struggle (as in water, mire, etc.) ; to 
struggle along with difficulty ; to make a 
clumsy effort. [Tt.flodderen, to splash.] 

floun'-der, n. a small flat-fish. [?] 

flour, n. the finely-ground meal of wheat 
or other grain ; fine, soft powder of 
many substances : v. (floured, flour'- 
ing), to grind into flour or powder ; to 
besprinkle with flour, flour'-y, adj. 
seconds flour, n. flour of coarser quality 
than fine flour. [F . fleur (de farine) , 
the flower or finest part (of meal). See 

flour' -ish (fliir'-), (-ished, -ish-ing), v. 
to thrive luxuriously ; to be in bloom ; 
to prosper ; to brandish or wave (a 
weapon) : n. sounding (of trumpet) ; 
brandishing (a weapon, etc.) ; a free 
stroke of the pen. a — of trumpets, 
a trumpet-call on the arrival of a person 
of distinction ; an ostentatious intro- 
duction, flourishing— thread, n. un- 
twisted, mercerized, cotton thread used 
for embroidering on linen or cotton 
fabrics. [F.<L. floreo, I come into 
flower, bloom <flos, fioris, a flower.] 

flout (-ed, -ing), v. to mock ; to jeer at ; 
to treat with contempt : n. a mock ; a 
jeer. [Properly, to play the flute. See 

flow (flo), (flowed, flow '-ing), v. to move 
along like water ; to glide smoothly 
along ; to circulate (as the blood in the 
veins) ; to become liquid ; to hang 
loosely : n. motion like that of water ; the 
coming in or rising (of the tide) ; 
abundance ; great cheerfulness (as, flow 
of spirits) ; the volume of a current of 
electricity passing along a conductor. 

flow'-er (Jlou'-), n. the blossom of a 

plant ; the best part of anything ; the 
prime of life : v. (-ered, -er-ing), to 
come into bloom ; to flourish, flower- 
de-luce, »*. (see fleur-de-lis), the iris. 
flow'-er-y, adj. of flowers ; ornamental ; 
richly adorned (language, etc.). flower— 
head, n. a compound flower consisting 
of a cluster of small flowers or florets 
(as the daisy), flower— service, n. a 
service in church or chapel at which 
offerings of flowers are made, to be after- 
wards sent to hospitals or the poor. 
flower— show, n. an exhibition of flow- 
ers, fruits, vegetables, etc. [O.F.<L. 
fids, fldris, a flower.] 

F.L.S., Fellow of the Linnean (or 
Linnasan) Society. 

fluc'-tu-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to flow 
hither and thither ; to rise and fall ; to 
vary, fluc-tu-a'-tion, n. [h.fluctus, a 
wave <fl u o, I flow.] 

flue (floo),n. (pi. flues), a smoke passage ; 
a chimney. [F.<L. (?).] 

flue (jloo), n. light, floating, downy sub- 
stance. \_See flock.] 

flu'-ent, adj. flowing ; ready in the use 
of words, flu'-en-cy (-si), n. [L. 
fluens, flowing <jluo, I flow.] 

fluff, n. light, floating, fleecy matter. 
fluf'-fy,(wZj. fluf'-fi-ness,n. [?< flock] 

flu'-id (Jloo'-), n. that which flows, as 
water, air, etc. : adj. flu-id' -i-ty (-i-t I), 
n. fluid state. [F.<L fluo, I flow.] 

fluke, n. the part of an anchor which 
fastens into the ground ; an accidental 
but successful hit (at billiards, cricket, 
etc.) ; a success which comes about 
accidentally ; one of the lobes of a 
whale's tail, flu'-ky, adj. [?] 

fluke, n. a small flat-fish ; a kind of 
potato ; the worm which causes the 
disease liver-rot in sheep. [A.S. floe, a 
kind of flat-fish.] 

flume, n. a water-channel ; esp. the 
channel for the water that drives a mill- 
wheel. [L. fliimen, a river.] 

flum'-mer-y, n. a kind of jelly made of 
oatmeal or flour ; a mere empty com- 
pliment. [W. llymry, flummery.] 

flun'-key (not flun'-ky),«. (pi. -keys), a 
servant in livery ; a footman ; a mean, 
servile flatterer, flun' -key-ism (-izm), 
n. the state or conduct of a flunkey ; 
toadyism. [F.flanquer, to keep at the 
side (flank) of.] 

flu'-or (floo'-or), or fluor-spar, n. a 
beautiful transparent mineral, usually 




coloured, and sometimes crystalline. 
flu-or'-ic, adj. {L.fluo, I flow.] 

flu-or-esce' (floo-or-es'), (-esced', -es'- 
cing), v. to reflect a light different in 
colour from that of a substance itself 
(as in many transparent crystals). 
flu-or-es'-cence, n. flu-or-es'-cent, 
adj. {See fluor.] 

flu'-or-ine (-in or -een), n. a gas obtained 
from fluor-spar, flu'-or-ide, n. a com- 
pound of fluorine with another sub- 
stance. {See fluor.] 

flur'-ry, n. a slight gust of wind ; agita- 
tion ; bustle ; commotion : v. (-ried, 
-ry-ing), to set in a — . [?] 

flush, n. redness in the face (from heat, 
anger, illness, etc.) ; sudden impulse ; 
bloom ; freshness ; vigour ; (in card- 
playing) having many cards of one suit 
in the hand : v. (flushed, flush'-ing), 
to have flush in the face ; to flow swiftly 
and suddenly ; to pour a stream of water 
down (a drain) ; to startle (birds, etc.) : 
adj. level with the surrounding surface ; 
having plenty (of money), flushed, adj. 
unduly elated (with victory, success, 
etc.) ; excited ; having redness in the 
face from heat, exercise, excitement, or 
illness ; (of birds in shooting) partly 
frightened, startled. [?] 

flus'-ter, n. hurry ; confusion ; agitation : 
v. (-tered, -ter-ing), to put into a state 
of — . flus'-ter-ment, n. flus'-ter-y 
(-t), adj. [< flutter.] 

flute (floot), n. a wind musical instrument 
with finger-holes which produces sweet, 
soft notes ; a groove in a pillar, etc. : v. 
(flu'-ted, flu' -ting), to play the flute ; to 
make flutes (flutings) in a pillar, flu'- 
tist (better flau'-tist, q.v.), n. a player 
on the flute, fluting— machine, n. a 
machine for corrugating sheet metal ; 
also one for turning twisted and spiral 
balusters, etc. flu'-ty, adj. flute-like. 
[O.F.<L.>, I blow.] 

flut'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to move 
the wings rapidly ; to confuse ; to 
agitate : n. the state of heing fluttered ; 
a bold venture (in gambling). [A.S. 
floterian, to float, to flutter.] 

flu'-Yi-al (-vi-), adj. of, or belonging to, 
rivers ; living and growing in rivers. 
{L.fluvius, a river< fluo, I flow.] 

flux, n. a flowing (as of the tide) ; flowing 
water or matter ; a substance used in 
soldering to assist in making the solder 
melt and flow, and form a perfect joint. 

flux'-ion (fluk'-shiin), n. the act or state 
of flowing, flux'-ions, a mathe- 
matical system of analysis. [F.<L. 
fluo, I flow.] 

fly (flew, flown, fly'-ing), v. to move 
through the air on wings ; to run very 
swiftly : n. (pi. flies), a common winged 
insect ; (pi. flys), a light carriage (drawn 
by one horse) ; a cab. flys, the 
space above the stage of a theatre where 
the scenes are moved. The fly of a 
flag is its field : the width from the 
staff to the extreme end. fly'-er, n. 
one who, or that which, flies, fly- 
blow, n. the eggs or larvae deposited by 
the flesh fly, one of the species of flies 
(as the blue- bottle) whose larvae feed on 
flesh, fly— blown, adj. having the eggs 
of the blow-fly or flesh-fly deposited on, 
or their larvae feeding thereon ; hence, 
tainted, contaminated, corrupt, fly- 
fishing, n. the act or art of angling for 
fish with natural or artificial flies as 
bait, fly'-leaf, n. a blank leaf at the 
beginning or end of a book, fly '-wheel, 
n. a heavy wheel by means of which the 
motion of machinery can be regulated. 
to fly at, to attack with violence, to 
fly in the face of, to oppose ; to insult ; 
to defy, to let fly, to discharge with 
violence, f to fly the kite, to raise money 
by an accommodation bill , the endorser 
himself having no money, as the crow 
flies, in a straight line. [A.S. fleogan, 
to fly.] 

fly'-ing, n. the act of moving in the air 
with wings or otherwise : adj. moving 
rapidly ; intended for rapid movement. 
flying-buttress, n. (in arch.) a kind of 
arch-formed prop for strengthening the 
part of a building that rises above the 
rest, flying-column (or -squadron), 
n. a body of troops (or a fleet) equipped 
for rapid movement. Flying— Dutch- 
man, n. a phantom ship, once supposed 
to frequent the seas about the Cape of 
Good Hope, flying— fish, n. one of 
several kinds of fish which is able to 
leap out of the water and move forward 
some distance in the air (its large pec- 
toral fins serve to balance it, but do not 
enable it to fly, as wings do a bird). 
flying-jump or running-jump, a 
jump taken after a short run to get up 
impetus, flying— machine, n. an appar- 
atus for navigating the air ; an aeroplane. 
flying-start, n. (in racing, esp. in 




yacht and bicycle racing) a race in which 
the signal to begin the race is given 
after the competitors are actually in 
motion, a — shot, a shot fired at a 
moving object, with — colours, with 
flags flying ; with great success. 

F.M., 'Field- Marshal. 

F.O., Field-Officer ; Foreign Office. 

fo., folio. 

foam (fom),n. froth (produced by heat or 
violent motion) : v. (foamed, foam'- 
Ing), to throw up — . [A.S. /aw, foam.] 

fob, ft. a small pocket in the waistband of 
the trousers (esp. for a watch or a 
purse) : v. (fobbed, fob'-bing), to 
impose upon ; to cheat. [G./uppe.J 

f.o.b., free on board. 

fo'c'sle, see forecastle. 

fo'-cus (-kits), n. (pi. -ci (-**) or -cus-es), 
a point where rays (of light, etc.) meet 
and are collected after being reflected or 
refracted ; any central point or centre 
of activity : v. (-cused, -cus-ing), to 
cause to meet in one point, fo'-cal, 
adj. fo'-cal-ize (-it), (-ized, -i-zing), 
v. to cause to meet in a focus, in focus, 
so placed or adjusted as to secure dis- 
tinct vision, or a clear and well-defined 
image. [L. focus, a hearth.] 

|bd'-der, ?i. food for cattle : v. (-dered, 
-der-ing), to provide with — . [A.S. 
fodor, fodder.] 

foe (fo), n. an enemy ; an ill-wisher ; one 
who opposes on principle, foe'-man, 
Ft. [A.S. fa, enemy <fdh, hostile.] 

fog, ft. thick mist or vapour ; a second 
crop of grass after the hay is gathered. 
S>£'-gy> a 4)' fog-bank, n. a thick 
mass of fog. fogged, adj. confused ; 
muddled ; bewildered ; (in photography) 
clouded (so as to be indistinct). fog- 
horn, n. a horn sounded as a warning 
in time of fog. fog— signal, ft. a signal 
(on a railway, etc.) giving a loud report, 
as a warning, in foggy weather. [?] 

fo'-gy (not fo'-gey),n. (pi. fo'-gies), a 
dull, old fellow; one with antiquated 
notions, fo'-gy-ish, adj. [?] 

foi'-ble (-M), n. a weak point in one's 
character ; a weakness or failing. [O.F. 
See feeble.] [liver. 

toie-de-veau (fioa -de-vo'), [F.] calves' 

foie gras (fwa grd), [F.] fat goose 

; liver, usually in the term pa-te -de- 

foies-vras, pasty with fat goose-livers. 

foil (foiled, foil'-ing), v. to frustrate ; to 

: prevent success of ; to baffle : n . a blunt 

sword for fencing. [F. fouler, to tread 
under foot<L./«iZo, a fuller of cloth.] 

foil, ft. a leaf or thin plate of metal, as tin- 
foil ; a thin leaf or plate of metal, put 
under jewels to show off their brilliancy ; 
anything which shows off another thing 
to advantage ; a leaf-like ornament in a 
window. \y.feuille<\j. folium, a leaf.] 

foist (-ed, -ingj, v. to insert deceitfully ; 
to pass off something spurious as 
genuine. [D. vuisten, to take in the 
fist {vuist)."] 

fold, n. a doubling over (cloth, paper, 
etc.) : v. (-ed, -ing). folding— doors, 
n. pi. a pair of doors, hung on opposite 
jambs, and meeting (when closed) in the 
middle. [A.S. fealdan, to fold.] 

fold, ft. an enclosure for protecting domes- 
tic animals (esp. sheep) ; a flock of 
sheep ; fig. a Christian Church and its 
members : v. (-ed, -ing), to inclose in 
a fold. [D. fold, a fold.] 

fo'-li-age (-ll-aj), n. leaves of trees or 
plants, fo-li-a'-ceous (-shus), adj. of 
leaves or flat layers; leafy, fo'-li-a- 
ted, adj. (design) drawn after or resem- 
bling leaves, fo-li-a'-tion, n. the leaf- 
ing of plants, fo-lif'-er-ous (-us), adj. 
leaf-bearing. [F. < L. folium, a leaf.] 

fo'-li-o, ft. (pi. -os, not -oes), a sheet of 
paper once folded, so as to make two 
leaves ; a book made of folios ; (in law) 
a certain number of words (72 or 90) 
used as a basis for calculating the length 
of a document ; a page in a ledger ; two 
opposite pages of a book bearing the 
same number : adj. [L. folium, a leaf.] 

folk (fok), n. (pi. folks), people, folk- 
land, ft. (among the A.S.) public land. 
folk— lore, n. popular tales, traditions, 
legends, customs, observances, and 
beliefs of the common people. [A.S. 
folc, people.] 

fol'-li-cle (-ll-kl), n. a little bag (in the 
body); a seed-vessel ; a gland. [L. 
folliciilum, dim. of follis, a wind-bag.] 

fol'-low (-15), (-lowed, -low-ing), v. to 
go or come after ; to pursue ; to under- 
stand ; to practise ; to support ; to result 
from, fol'-low-er, it. one who — ; a 
copier ; a disciple, fol'-low-ing, adj. 
coming after : ft. a body of followers. 
follow suit, n. in card playing, to play 
a card of the same suit as the one 
which was led ; to follow an example. 
to follow up, to pursue (an advantage) 
closely. [A.S. /otyian, to follow.] 




fol'-ly, n. want of sense ; weakness of 
mind ; a foolish act ; the act or con- 
duct of a fool (q.v.) ; weak or light- 
minded conduct ; rashness. [O.F. fol, 

fo-ment' (-ed, -ing), v. to bathe with 
warm liquid ; to heat or excite (as strife, 
ill-feeling, etc.). fo'-ment, n. fo-men- 
ta'-tion, n. the act or process of foment- 
ing. [F.<L. foveo, I warm, cherish.] 

fond, adj. very loving ; loving foolishly ; 
too indulgent ; prizing highly, f on' -die 
(-died, -riling), v. to caress, fond- 
ness, 11. [Ic. fana, to be foolish.] 

fon'-dant, n. a kind of sweetmeat which 
melts in the mouth. \F.<fondre, to 

tons et o-ri'-go, [L.] source and origin. 

font, n. a vessel for holding water in 
baptism. [L. fons, fontis, a fountain.] 

font (less correctly fount), n. a complete 
assortment of printing type of one size. 
[F. <L. fundo, I cast.] 

food, n. what is eaten for nourishment ; 
anything that sustains or nourishes. 
food— stuffs, n. articles which may be 
used as food, food— values, n. the value, 
in the nourishing and building-up of the 
body, of the various elements (called 
proximate principles — proteids, carbo- 
hydrates, fats, salts, and water) found 
in foods. [A.S. fuda, food.] 

fool, n. a silly person ; a jester ; a tool 
or a butt : v. (fooled, fool'-ing), to 
deceive ; to treat with contempt ; to 
trifle ; to act like a fool, fool'-er-y, n. 
an act of folly, fool-har'-dy, adj. 
foolishly bold or rash, fool'-ish, adj. 
weak in intellect ; wanting in discretion ; 
ridiculous, fools'-cap, n. a size of 
paper (about 13-in. x 8-in. when folded): 
it formerly bore the watermark of a 
fool's head and cap. fool's errand, 
a fruitless errand ; a vain search, fool's 
paradise, a foolish, insecure state of 
happiness. [F./oZ<L. follis, a pair of 
bellows (from the foolish appearance of 
a person whose cheeks are puffed out).] 

fool, n. fruit stewed, crushed, and mixed 
with milk, cream, or custard, as 
gooseberry fool. [F. fouler, to press.] 

foot {foot), n. (pi. feet), one of those 
parts of the body on which an animal 
stands or walks ; a measure of 12 inches ; 
the base (of an object), foot-and- 
mouth disease, a contagious disease 
among domestic animals (esp. cattle), 

consisting of ulcers formed about the 
mouth and hoofs, foot' -ball, n. a 
game in which a large ball is kicked 
about ; the ball itself, foot'-er, n. a 
kick at a football ; f the game of foot- 
ball, foot'-ing, n. standing room for 
the feet ; a position held ; a firm founda- 
tion ; standing or position (of a person) ; 
the act of adding up a column of figures ; 
pi. the bottom layer of stones, bricks, 
etc., in the foundation of a building. 
foot' -fall, n. a footstep ; the sound of 
a footstep, foot'-gear, n. shoes and 
stockings. Foot— Guards, n. pi. Gren- 
adier, Coldstream, Scots, and Irish 
Guards, being infantry soldiers acting 
as guards at Court. foot— hill, n* a 
hill lying at the foot of a mountain or 
range of mountains, foot' -lights, n. 
pi. (in a theatre) a row of lights on the 
stage in front of and on a level with the 
feet of the actors, fbot'-man, n. a 
male attendant ; a foot-soldier, foot'- 
note, n. a note at the foot or bottom 
of a page, foot' -pad, n. a walking 
highway-robber, foot' -path, n. a path 
for walkers only, foot'-plate, n. (of a 
locomotive) the little platform upon 
which the driver and stoker stand. 
foot' -print, n. the mark left by a 
walker's foot ; traces ; an example. 
foot— soldier, n. one who serves on foot 
(not on horseback). foot'-step,n. one 
step of the feet ; in pi. course of life or 
action, foot' -stool, n. a stool for rest- 
ing the foot of a person sitting, foot- 
warmer, n. an apparatus (usu. con- 
taining hot water) for warming the feet 
(esp. in a railway carriage, bed, etc.). 
to put one's — down, to take a reso- 
lute stand, to set on foot, to put in 
motion ; to originate, to pay one's 
footing, to pay drink-money on first 
doing anything, or on being initiated 
into a trade, etc. [A.S. fot, pi. fet."\ 

foo'-zle, n. (at golf) a clumsy or blunder- 
ing stroke ; a tedious fellow : v. (-zled, 
-zling), — ; to waste one's time ; to 
bungle. [?] 

fop, n. a vain, conceited fellow ; a dandy. 
fop'-per-y, n. vanity in dress or 
manners ; affectation, fop'-pish, adj. 
[D. foppen, to act the fool.] 

for, prep. : conj. meaning since or because. 

for-, pref. [A.S.] expressing a negative 
or opposition. 

f.o.r., free on rail. 




for'-age, n. food for horses and cattle : 
v. (-aged, -a-ging), to search about 
(esp. for food), forage-cap, n. a 
goldier's undress cap. for'-a-ger (-a- 
jer), n. one (esp. a soldier) who forages. 
[F. fourrage < root of fodder.] 

fo-ra'-men, n. (pi. fo-ram'-i-na),- (in 
zoology) a little opening ; (in botany) a 
perforation, fo-ram-i-nif'-er-a, 
a group of minute marine creatures 
in very tiny shells with many perfora- 
tions. They exist in immense abund- 
ance, and their cast-off shells form the 
ooze at the bottom of the ocean. (See 
globigerina.) [L. foro, I bore.] 

for'-ay (-a), n. an incursion or raid (esp. 
in border warfare) for plunder : v. 
(-ayed, -ay-ing). [<root of forage.] 

for-bear' (see bear), v. to hold oneself 
back ; to refrain ; to be patient ; to 
control oneself when provoked ; to keep 
out of the way. for-bear '-ance, n. 
self-restraint ; command of feelings or 
temper ; indulgence ; long-suffering. 
[A.S. for- + beran, to endure.] 

for-bear' (-bar'), (or fore-bear'), n. an 
ancestor; a forefather. [</ore--fbe 
-f -er ; a be-er is one who exists < 
verb be."} 

for-bid' (see bid), v. to tell not to do ; to 
prohibit, forbidden— fruit, n. the fruit 
of the tree of Knowledge of Good and 
Evil in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 
ii.) ; a kind of orange ; any coveted, 
but unlawful, inexpedient, or unsuitable 
pleasure. [A.S. for- + beodan, to offer.] 

force, n. power ; strength ; energy ; 
efficiency ; violence ; coercion ; in pi. 
naval or military strength : v. (forced, 
for'-cing), to compel; to take by 
violence ; to ripen or mature (fruit and 
plants) by artificial heat, for'-ci-ble, 
adj. with force ; powerful. force 
majeure (firs md-zhur'), [F.] circum- 
stances beyond one's control, forced, 
adj. compelled ; accomplished by great 
effort (as a forced march) ; unnatural. 
force' -ful, adj. energetic ; powerful. 
force— pump, n. a pump which raises 
water, by great pressure applied, to a 
great height, to — the pace, to hasten 
or press forward (anything) unduly. 
In — , in operation, forcible detainer, 
excluding a person from his property by 
violence, forcible entry, the taking 
possession of a person's land, etc., by 
force. £F. < L. fortis, strong.] 

force (sometimes foss), n. a waterfall 
(esp. in the North of England). [Ic. 
fors, a waterfall.] 

force (forced, for'-cing), v. to stuff (in 
cookery), force'— meat, n. meat chopped 
fine and highly seasoned, generally used 
as a stuffing or a garnish. [<root of 

for'-ceps, n. a kind of pincers or small 
tongs. [L. formus, hot-f cdpio, I take.] 

ford (ford), n. a place for crossing a river, 
or a narrow channel of water, on foot : 
v. (-ed, -ing). ford'-a-ble, adj. able 
to be forded. [A.S. /ord.] 

fore-, pref. [A..S.] before. 

fore, n. the front : adj. at the front, at 
the fore, displayed (as a flag) on the 
foremast of a ship, fore and aft, (in 
a ship) the full length from stem to 
stern, to the fore, to the front. [A.S. 
foran, in front.] 

fore, int. (at golf, etc.) a warning cry to 
any person who stands in the way of the 
stroke or of the ball. [< before.] 

fore-arm' (-armed', -arm'-ing), v. to 
arm beforehand. If ore- -f arm.] 

fore'-arm, n. the lower part of the arm 
from the elbow to the wrist, [fore-f 

fore-bode' (-bo'-ded, -bo'-ding), v. to 
feel or predict (evil) beforehand, fore- 
bode'-ment, n. [fore- + bode.] 

fore— cab '-in, n. a cabin in the forepart 
of a vessel, with accommodation inferior 
to that of the saloon, [fore + cabim] 

fore'-cast (-ed, -ing), v. to calculate or 
plan beforehand ; esp. to calculate the 
weather, or the result of an event, 
beforehand : n. a weather prediction. 
[fore- + cast.] 

fore'-cas-tle (-kas-l ; by sailors, fo'c'sle, 
(fok'-sl)), n. a short, raised deck in the 
front part of a ship ; the forepart of a 
ship under the main-deck, the quarters 
of the crew, [fore + castle.] 

fore-close' (-kloz'), (-closed', -clo'-sing), 
v. to stop ; to prevent ; (of a mortgage) 
to prevent the mortgagee from redeem- 
ing it. fore-clo'-sure (-zur), n. [F. 
<h.foris, outside + claudo, I shut.] 

fore-doom' (-doomed', -doom'-ing), v. 
to destine ; to fix irrevocably the fate of, 
beforehand, [fore- + doom.] 

fore'-fa-ther, n. an ancestor. [fore- + 

fore-fend' (sometimes for-), (-fend'-ed, 





forbid; to avert. [A.S. for-+L. (de) 
fendo, I ward off.] 

fore'-fin-ger, n. the first finger of the 
hand, next the thumb ; the index finger. 
[fore + finger.] 

fore-go' (-went', -gone', -go'-ing), v. to 
go before ; to precede, a foregone 
conclusion, one arrived at beforehand, 
without examining the evidence, the 
foregoing, that which goes or has gone 
before (in position or time) . [fore- -f- go.] 

for-go' (less correctly fore-), (-went', 
-gone', -go'-ing), v . to refrain from ; 
to relinquish. [A.S. forgdn, to go.] 

fore' -ground, n. the front part of a picture 
(supposed to lie nearest to the eye of 
the spectator) . [fore + ground.] 

fore'-head (for'-), n. the front part of the 
face (over the eyes), [f ore -f head.] 

for'-eign (-in), adj. not native ; belonging 
to another country ; not belonging to ; 
not connected with ; entirely new or 
strange, for'-eign-er, n. not a native. 
Foreign Office, n. that department of 
our government which has charge of 
British interests in foreign countries. 
\F . <h.Jj. foraneus <foras, out of doors] 

fore-judge' (-judged', -judg'-ing),t>. to 
form a judgement or opinion of, before- 
hand; to judge before hearing the facts 
and proof . \Jore-+ judge.] 

fore-know' (-knew', -known', -know'- 
ing), v. to know beforehand. \_fore--\- 
know.] [tory. [fore + land.] 

fore '-land, n. a cape, head, or promon- 

fore'-leg, n. one of the front legs of a 
quadruped, chair, etc. [fore -f leg.] 

fore '-lock, n. a lock of hair growing on 
the forehead, to take time by the 
— , to seize an opportunity promptly. 
[fore + lock.] 

fore' -man, n. a worker set over others ; 
an overseer ; the chief man (of a jury) 
who speaks in the name of his colleagues. 
[fore -f man.] 

fore'-mast, n. the mast nearest to the 
head or bow of a ship, [f ore + mast.] 

fore'-most, adj. first in place ; most for- 
ward or advanced, [fore + most.] 

fore-noon', n. the part of the day before 
midday or noon, [fore- + noon.] 

fo-ren'-sic, adj. relating to courts of law 
or justice, forensic medicine, the 
application of medical knowledge to 
legal purposes. [L. forensis, of the 
forum, or publio market-place or meet- 

fore-or-dain' (-dan'), (-dained', -dain'- 
ing), v. to ordain or appoint before- 
hand ; to decree beforehand ; to predes- 
tinate ; to foredoom, [/on?- + ordain.] 

fore'-peak, n. the extreme front part in 
a ship at the angle of the bow. [fore + 

fore-run' (-ran', -run', -run'-ning), v. 
to run or come before ; to precede. 
fore-run' -ner, n. one who runs before 
(to announce an arrival) ; a messenger ; 
a sign of something that is to follow. 
[fore + run.] 

fore'-sail, n. the principal sail set on the 
foremast of a ship, [fore -f sail.] 

fore-see' (-saw', -seen', -see'-ing), v. to 
see beforehand ; to anticipate ; to pre- 
pare, or provide for, beforehand, fore'- 
sight, n. fore-knowledge ; prudence ; 
wise forethought, [fore- + sight.] 

fore' -shore, n. the front part of the 
shore ; that part which lies between 
high- water and low- water marks, [fore 
+ shore.] 

fore-short'-en (-ened, -en-ing), v. (in 
drawing) to represent the shortened 
appearance of an object when not viewed 
directly from the front, fore-short'- 
en-ing, n. [fore -I- shorten.] 

for'-est, n. a large tract of land covered 
with trees ; a hunting ground; anything 
like the trunks of trees standing close 
together, for'-es-ter, n. one in charge 
of a forest, for'-est-ry, n. the art of 
forming or managing forests, forest 
laws, laws for the protection of game 
and preservation of timber, originally 
made for the government of the royal 
forests, forest tree, n. a timber tree 
as distinguished from a fruit tree. [F. 
<Jj.h.forestis, an open hunting-ground 
<h.foris, out of doors.] 

fore-stall' (-stalled', -stall'-ing), v. to 
get an advantage over, beforehand ; to 
obstruct, prevent, or thwart ; to antici- 
pate, to — the market, to intercept 
goods, or to buy them up, before they 
reach the market, so as to enhance the 
price. [A.S. fore-, beiore + steall, a 
standing, a place.] 

fore' -stay, n. a rope stretching from the 
foremast head to the bowsprit end to 
support the mast, [fore + stay.] 

fore ' -taste, n. a taste beforehand ; antici- 
pation : v. (-tast-ed, -tast-ing). [fore- 
-4- taste 1 

fore-tell'' (-told', -tell'-ing), v. to tell 




beforehand ; to prophesy ; to predict, 
[/ore- -f tell.] 

fore '-thought, n. thought beforehand ; 
prudence; caution; provident care. 
[ fore- + thought.] 

fore '-top, n. a small platform at the top 
of the foremast, fore-top— gallant-, 
adj. (in a ship) referring to the mast, 
yard, sails, etc., above the fore-top- 
mast, or the mast at the top of the 
foremast, [fore + top.] 

fore-warn' (-warned', -warn'-ing), v. 
to warn beforehand, fore- warn'-ing, 
n. If ore- + warn.] 

fore' -word, n. a preface, usu. in pi. 
[fore + word.] 

for'-feit (-Jit), (-ed, -ing), v. to lose some- 
thing (or the right to something) by 
neglect, fault, or crime : n. loss by fault ; 
a fine, or penalty for a crime or breach 
of some condition ; something deposited 
(in a game) and redeemable by a fine 
or penalty, for'-feit-a-ble, adj. liable 
to be forfeited, for'-feit-ure, n. loss, 
or act of losing, by fault. [P. forfait> 
L forls, out of doors +facio, I make.] 

for-fend', same as forefend (q.v.). 

for-gath'-er (-ered, -er-ing), v. (some- 
times, but incorrectly, fore-), to meet ; 
to meet together on friendly terms. 
[/or- -f gather.] 

forge {forj), n. the workshop of a smith 
or worker in iron ; the furnace in it ; a 
place where anything is made or shaped : 
v. (forged, f or'-ging), to beat (hot metal) 
into shape ; to shape out in any way ; 
to counterfeit (esp. a signature or other 
writing) ; to commit forgery, for'-ger, 
n. one who — . for'-ger-y (-1), n. 
counterfeiting (esp. writings and money) . 
to forge ahead, to work one's way 
along successfully ; to outstrip another. 
to forge along, to move steadily, but 
slowly, onward. [F.<L. fabrica, a 

for-get' (-got', -got'-ten, -get'-ting), v. 
to cease to remember, for-get' -ta-ble 
(one " t " is incorrect), adj. that may be 
forgotten, for-get '-ful, adj. given to 
forgetting ; having a bad memory, for- 
get' -ful-ness, n. forget-me-not, n. 
a well-known plant with small blue 
flowers, considered the emblem of fidelity 
and friendship, to — oneself, to lose 
one's presence of mind or self-control ; 
to do something unworthy of oneself. 
[&..S. forgietan.] 

for-give' (-gave', -giv'-en, -giv'-ing), 

v. to pardon ; to cease to feel resent- 
ment against ; to remit (as a debt or 
claim), for-giye'-ness, n. for-giy'- 
ing, adj. inclined or ready to forgive ; 
merciful. [&..&. forgiefan."} 

fork, n. an instrument with two or more 
prongs for lifting meat, straw, etc. ; a 
branch (as of a tree, a road, etc. ) : v. 
(forked, fork' -ing), to separate into 
branches ; to raise, dig, or pitch, with 
a fork. [A.S./orca<L./Mrca, a fork.] 

for-lane' (-Idn'), or for-la'-na (-Id'-), n. 
a lively Venetian dance, or the music 
written for it. [I.] 

for-lorn', adj. hopeless ; wretched ; for- 
saken, forlorn hope, a number of 
soldiers chosen to go on some service of 
uncommon danger ; an enterprise or 
attempt which has little chance of 
success ; a last, but almost hopeless, 
resource. [A.S. forloren, p. part, of 
forleosan, to lose utterly.] 

form, n. shape ; orderly arrangement ; 
structure ; a long school-seat for several 
pupils ; a rank or class of pupils in a 
school ; a blank schedule to be filled in 
with details ; an established method or 
fixed way of proceeding ; the nest or lair 
of a hare : v. (formed, form '-ing), to 
give shape to ; to make ; to produce. 
good (or bad) form (in athletics), a 
good (or poor) condition of body, as 
regards fitness for the exertion or exercise 
required ; said also of behaviour, 
manners, style, etc., which are in keep- 
ing with (or opposed to) the customs and 
usages of good society, form'-al, adj. 
in strict form ; erect ; stiff (in manner). 
form'-al-ist, n. one who thinks much 
of strict form, for-mal'-i-ty (-i-tl), n. 
strict form ; ceremony, for' -mat, n. 
the size and shape (of a book), for- 
ma' -tion, n. the act of forming ; struc- 
ture. [F. <L. forma, shape.] 

form-al'-de-hyde, n. a colourless ga3 
(which, when dissolved in water, is 
called formalin, q.v.), largely used as an 
antiseptic and a disinfectant, [formic 
+ aldehyde.] 

for'-ma-lin (not -line), n. a 40 per cent 
solution of formic-aldehyde or form- 
aldehyde {q.v.) in water, used as an 
antiseptic, and sometimes as a preserva- 
tive (for food). [<formal(dehyde).j 

for'-mer, adj. before (in time or order) or' 
preceding, for'-mer-ly, adv. in former 




times. [A. S. forma <fore- , before.] 

for'-mic, adj. pertaining to, or derived 
from, ants, as formic acid (a colourless 
liquid of a sharp acid taste), originally 
obtained from ants, and also found in 
nettles, pine needles, etc, for'-mi-ca- 
py, n. an ant-hill. [L. formica, an ant.] 

for'-mid-a-ble (not for -mid'-), adj. caus- 
ing great fear ; terrible ; alarming. [L. 
formido, fear, terror.] 

for' -ma pau'-per-is, [L.] as a pauper 
or poor person, usu. preceded by in. 

for'-mu-la, n. (pi. -la (-le), or -las), a 
set form or established rule ; a formal 
statement ; a prescription or recipe, 
for'-mu-late (-la-ted, -la-ting), v. to 
draw up or express in formula ; to put 
in a clear and definite form of words, 
etc. for'-mu-la-ry, n. a book contain- 
ing prescribed forms, esp. of religious 
belief, for-mu-la'-tion, n. [L. dim. 
of forma, form.] 

for-sake' j-sook', -sa'-ken, -sa'-king), 
v. to leave ; to abandon ; to desert. 
[A.S. forsacan, to give up.] 

Fors Cla-vig'-er-a (" g " either as "j, n 
or as in " go "), the title of a series of 
letters, chiefly on social and political 
economy, written by John Ruskin 
(1819-1900), and addressed to the work- 
ing men of Great Britain. The term 
is used to mean the practical conduct of 
life, ["fors, the best part of three good 
English words, Force, Fortitude, and 
Fortune + L. cldva, a club, cldvis, a 
key, cldvus, a hammer +gero, I carry — 
hence, Fors the club-bearer = strength 
of Deeds ; Fors the key-bearer = strength 
of Patience, and Fors the nail-bearer = 
strength of Law."] 

for-sooth', adv. in very truth ; certainly. 
[A.S. for sothe, for truth, truly.] 

for-swear' (see swear), v. to deny upon 
oath; to swear falsely. [A.S. for- + 
swerian, to swear.] 

fort, n. a strong place ; a place of defence ; 
a small fortified place, fort'-al-ice 
(■iss), n. a small fort, part of a large one. 
for'-ti-fy (-fled, -fy-ing), v. to add 
strength to ; to furnish with power to 
resist attack (as of an enemy, disease, 
etc.) ; to invigorate ; to make (a place) 
strongs (by walls, guns, etc.) against 
attack, for-ti-fl-ca'-tion (-tl-fi-), n. 
the act of fortifying ; the place fortified ; 
the means used to strengthen against 
attack, for'-tress, n. a strong place 

(fortified^ ; a strong fort or castle ; a 
stronghold. [F.<L. fords, strong.] 
forte (fort), n. a strong point in a person's 
abilities ; that in which one excels. 
for'-te (-to), adj. (in mus.) loud ; strong. 
[I.<L. fortis, strong.] 

forth, adv. out from a place ; forward. 
forth-com'-ing,ad;'. coming on ; about 
to appear, forth '-right, adv. strgight 
on : n. a straight path, forth'-with, 
adv. immediately. [A.S. forth, forth, 

for-tis'-si-mo, adj. (in mus.) very loud. 
[I.<L. fortissimus, superl. of fortis, 

for'-ti-ter in re, [L.] vigorous or 
resolute in deed (generally used after 
suaviter in modo (q.v.), gentle in 
manner) . 

for'-ti-tude,n. strength of mind or soul ; 
patient endurance of pain or adversity ; 
firmness in meeting danger or trouble. 
[L. fortitudo< fortis, strong.] 

fort' -night, n. the space of fourteen days 
(two weeks), fort'-night-ly, adv. [< 
fourteen nights.] 

for-tu'-i-tous (-i-tus), adj. happening by 
chance ; accidental. [L. fortuities, by 
chance, accidental.] 

for' -tune, n. chance; luck; wealth; one's 
lot in life ; good or ill success, for'-tu- 
nate, adj. having good fortune ; lucky. 
fortune— hunter, n. one who is seeking 
to get a rich wife, fortune— teller, n. 
one who professes to tell people what 
their future lives will be. [L. fortuna 
<fors, chance.] 

for'-ty, adj. and n. four times ten. for'- 
ti-eth, adj. and n. The Forty, the 
French Academy (of 40 learned men). 
[A.S. f iower tig."} 

fo'-rum, n. a market-place and place of 
general public business (esp. in ancient 
Eome). [L. forum, a public meeting- 
place out of doors.] 

for' -ward, adj. in front ; pushing on ; 
early in season ; presumptuous ; bold ; 
immodest ; wanting in deference or 
respect : adv. onward : v. (-ed, -ing), 
to assist the progress of ; to send (letter, 
parcel, etc.). f or'- wards, adv. towards 
the front. [A.S. fore+iceard.'] 

fosse (less correctly foss), n. a little ditch 
or moat (esp. in fortification). [F. fosse 
<L. fossa, a ditch.] 

fos'-sick (-sicked, -sick-ing), v. (of a 
gold miner) to work over waste heaps in 




the hope of finding gold ; to rummage 
about for any kind of profit ; to be 

fos'-sick-er, n. [?] 


B fos f -sil, n. petrified remains (animal or 
vegetable) dug out of the ground ; f a 
person whose views and feelings, are 
antiquated : adj. fos-sil-if ' -er-ous 
(-us), adj. (ground) producing or con- 
taining fossils. fos'-sil-ize (-ized, 
-i-zing), v. to change into a fossil ; to 
become antiquated and old-fashioned. 
[F. <L.fossilis, dug up.] 
I fos'-ter (-tered, -ter-ing), v. to bring up 
carefully ; to nourish ; to encourage ; to 
promote, foster— mother, n. one who 
brings up a child not her own. foster- 
father, -parent, —child, etc., ns. [A.S. 
fostrian, to nourish <fost or, feeding.] 

foth'-er, n. a weight of lead, nearly 20 
cwt. ; a large load or quantity. [A.S.] 

foul, adj. very dirty ; filthy ; stormy ; 
choked up ; contrary to rules (in sport) : 
v. (fouled, foul'-ing), to make — ; to 
come into collision with (either acci- 
dentally or deliberately) ; to soil or 
dirty ; to strike against (esp. of a ship 
or boat), foul'-ly, adv. foul— spoken, 
adj. using filthy language, to fall — 
of, to assault ; to quarrel with ; to come 
into collision with, to claim a — , to 
claim an award because of the unfair 
action of an opponent (as in a game, 
etc.). foul brood, a disease among 
bees, foul play, unfair conduct in a 
game ; unfair or treacherous dealing, 
often with violence ; rough usage. 
[A. S. fill, foul.] 

fou-lard (foo-lar' , or foo-lard '), n. a thin, 
soft, washable fabric of untwisted silk, 
or silk and cotton, used for ladies' 
dresses, etc. ; a handkerchief made of 
this material. £F.] 

found (-ed, -ing), v. to establish ; to fix 
firmly ; to originate or endow (an insti- 
tution, college, etc.). found '-er, n. 
(/. -ress), one who founds. [F.<L. 
fundus, the bottom.] 

found (-ed, -ing), v. to melt and form in 
a mould ; to cast, found'-ry, ft. a 
place for casting (metals), fount (often 
written font, q. v.), a complete set of type 
for printing. [F.<L. fundd, I pour.] 

foun-da'-tion, «. the basis ; the act of 
establishing ; an endowment or per- 
manent fund for a benevolent purpose 
or for some special object, foun-da'- 
tion-er, n. one supported from the funds 

or endowments of an institution (as a 
foundation scholar). foundation 
muslin or net, a thin fabric stiffened 
with gum for stiffening dresses, hats, 
bonnets, etc. foundation— stone, n. a 
corner-stone (or other stone) of a build- 
ing (often laid by an important person 
in a public ceremony). [F.<L. fundus, 
the bottom.] 

found' -er (-ered, -er-ing), v. (of a ship) 
to fill with water and go to the bottom. 
[F.<L. fundus, the bottom.] 

f ound'-ling, n. a child deserted and found. 
Foundling Hospital, n. an institution 
where foundlings are brought up. [< 
And (found).] 

foun'-tain (-tan), or fount, n. a spring of 
water ; a source ; a jet of water (esp. an 
ornamental one) ; the source from which 
anything proceeds or is supplied ; the 
reservoir in a lamp containing the oil. 
fountain-head, ». the first source or 
origin of anything, fountain— pen, n. 
one which contains a reservoir or supply 
of ink. [F. < L. fons, a fountain.] 

four, adj. a number, four '-fold, adj. 
folded or multiplied four times, four- 
in-hand, ft. a carriage with four horses 
driven by one person, four— poster, n. 
a bedstead with four posts or pillars. 
four'-some, n. four together ; (in golf) 
a set of four players, two on each side. 
fourth, adj. next after the third : n. one 
of four equal parts, fourth estate, see 
estate, on all fours, on hands and 
knees ; equal to. [A.S../eot<;er.] 

four-gon' (foor-goh'), n. an ammunition 
or baggage waggon. [F.] 

fowl, n. a bird ; cock or hen (of poultry) : 
v. (fowled, fowl' -ing), to catch or shoot 
wild birds, fowl'-er, n. one who hunts 
wild birds, fowling— piece, n. a light 
gun for small shot, used in fowling. 
[A.S./u#oZ, a bird.] 

fox, n. (f. yix'-en, q.v.), a well-known 
quadruped of the dog kind ; a cunning 
person. foxed, adj. discoloured ; 
spotted (of paper). fox'-gloYe, n. a 
plant with bell-like flowers, whose 
leaves are used in medicine, fox'-y, 
adj. of foxes ; cunning ; suspicious ; 
wily. [A.S./o*.] 

foy-er' (fwti-yW), n. the green-room (near 
the stage) of a theatre, or a lobby in a 
theatre. [F.<h.fdcus, a hearth.] 

P.P., fire-plug. 

fra-cas' (fra-ka' ; in U.S., but not con. 




sidered correct in English, frd'-cds), n. 
a noisy quarrel. [F. < I. < L.] 

frac'-tion, n. a part (of a whole), frac'- 
tion-al, adj. vulgar fraction, one 
having a numerator and denominator. 
decimal fraction, one having a denom- 
inator 10, or some power of 10, under- 
stood, fractional distillation. See 
distillation. [F. <Jj. frango, I break.] 

frac'-tious (situs), adj. unruly; cross; 
ready to quarrel. [L. frango, I break ; 
cf. fraction.] 

f rac ' -ture, n . a breaking ; the part broken ; 
the breaking of a bone : v. {-tured, -tur- 
ing), to break, comminuted — , one 
in which the bone is broken into several 
parts, compound — , one in which 
there is an open wound along with the 
broken bone, complicated — , one in 
which an artery or a nerve is injured in 
addition, simple — , one in which the 
bone only is broken. [F.<L. frango, 
I break.] 

frag'-ile [fraj'-U, not frd'-jll), adj. easily 
broken ; frail ; delicate, fra-gil'-i-ty 
(-jll'-i-tl), n. f_F.<L. frango, I break.] 

frag'-ment, n. a piece broken off ; an 
unfinished portion. frag'-men-ta~ry, 
adj. in a state of fragments ; scrappy ; 
incomplete. [F.<~L. frango, I break.] 

fra'-grant (fra?-), adj. sweet-smelling. 
fra'-grance, n. or fra'-gran-cy, n. — ; 
sweet odour or graceful influence. [F. 
<L. frdgrans<frdgo, I emit a smell.] 

frail (frdl), adj. fragile ; weak ; wanting 
in strength or firmness, frail'-ty, n. 
a fault ; infirmity or weakness. [O.F. 
fraile < L. fragtlis, weak.] 

fraise (frdz), n. a palisade (used as a 
defence) of pointed stakes on a rampart. 
[F.] [of Music. 

F.R. A.M., Fellow of the Eoyal Academy 

frame (framed, fra'-mlng), v. to form ; 
to construct by fitting parts together ; 
to put a border round (picture, etc.) ; to 
plan ; to devise : n. a case made to 
enclose or support anything ; the skeleton 
of anything ; a state (of mind, etc.) ; a 
structure with moveable glass roof, used 
for the sheltering or cultivation of 
plants, fra'-ma-ble, adj. fra'-mer, 
n. one who — . frame' -house, n. a 
house built of wood, the outline being 
a frame upon which shingles or planks 
are nailed inside and out to form the 
walls, frame'-work, n. the skeleton ; 
that which gives shape or support to a 

structure ; the skeleton or outline of 
anything. [A.S. fram, strong.] 

franc, n. a French silver coin (value about 
9£d.). [< the Franks.] 

fran'-chise (-chiz), n. liberty; the right 
of voting (esp. for a Member of Parlia- 
ment), pp. franc, free.] 

Fran-cis'-can, adj. applied to an order 
of Mendicant Friars founded by St. 
Francis of Assisi, 1209 a.d. : n. a monk 
of the order. 

Fran'-co— , French, in combination, as 
Franco-British, Franco-German, etc. 

franc— tir-eur' (frang-te-rer'), n. (pi." 
francs— tireurs), [F.] a French sharp- 
shooter ; formerly a soldier of the irregu- 
lar light infantry in the French army. 

fran'-gi-ble (-ji-bl), adj. easily broken. 
fran-gi-bil'-i-ty (-l-ti), n. [L. frango, 
I break.] 

fran'-gi-pane (-ji r pdn), or fran-gi- 
pan'(n)-i, n. a kind of sweet pastry ; a 
perfume extracted from (or imitated 
from) the red-jasmine flower of a West- 
Indian tree. [< the inventor, an Italian 
nobleman of the 16th century.] 

frank, adj. free-spoken ; unrestrained (in 
manner or speech) ; candid : v. (frank, 
frank' -ing), to make (letters) free by 
post, frank' -ness, n. frank' -\y,adv. 
candidly ; without reserve. frank- 
pledge, n. (in olden times) a pledge for 
the good behaviour of freemen, given by 
the freemen themselves. [ < the Franks, 
an old German tribe.] 

Frank'-en-stein (stin), n. any creation 
which brings trouble, anxiety, or disaster 
to its author. [<a monster in Mrs. 
Shelley's (1797-1851) tale Frankenstein] 

frank'-in-cense, n. a kind of gum or 
resin obtained from an Arabian tree ; it 
emits a sweet odour when burnt. It 
was much used in Jewish sacrifices (see 
Exodus xxx., 34 ; St. Matthew ii., 11). 
[frank -f incense.] 

frank'-lin, n. an old English term for a 
freeholder, q.v. [<frank.] 

fran'-tic, adj. mad ; wild ; furious (with 
sorrow or pain), fran'-tic-al-ly, adv. 
[Gr. p]irenitikos<'phren, the mind.] 

frap-pe' (frd-pd'), adj. [F.] (in cookery) 
iced ; cooled with ice. 

F.R.A.S., Fellow of the Eoyal Astronom- 
ical Society. 

fra'-ter, n. a friar ; a comrade, fra'-try 
(or -ter-y), n. the frater-house, or 
dining-room, or meeting-room in a 




monastery, fra'-ter-y, n. a convent 
of friars. [L. / 'rater, a brother.] 

fra-ter'-nal, adj. belonging to a brother 
or brethren; brotherly, frat'-er-nize 
(-nized, -ni-zing), v. to associate or 
seek friendship as brothers, frat-er- 
ni-za'-tion, n. frat'-er-ni-zer, n.f ra- 
ter '-ni-ty (-ni-tl), n. a brotherhood ; a 
body of persons who have a common 
interest or who are associated for busi- 
ness, pleasure, etc. ; a religious com- 
munity. [See frater.] 

frat'-ri-cide (-sid), n. one who kills or 
murders his own brother. [< frater -f 
%j. ccedo. I kilL] [the "a.") 

Frau {from) , [G.] Mrs. (Note : no dots on 

fraud, n. cheating ; imposture ; deceitful 
dealing, fraud'-u-lent, adj. using — ; 
dishonest, pious fraud, a deception 
contrived and carried out to attain some 
good end. [F. <~L.fraus,fraudis, fraud] 

fraught (fraut), adj. freighted; laden ; 
attended (with). [-See freight.] 

Frau'-lein (froi'-lin), [G.] Miss. (Note: 
two dots over the " a.") 

fray {fro), n. an affray, a fight. [See 

fray (fra), (frayed, fray'-ing), v. to 
wear away by rubbing ; to ravel out the 
end of a fabric. [F. frayer<h. fr'ico, 
•J rub.] [Organists, j 

F.R.C.O., Fellow of the Royal College of 

F.R.C.P., Fellow of the Royal College of 

F.R.C.S., Fellow of the Royal College of 

freak, n. a whim or fancy ; caprice ; a 
piece of fun ; a departure from nature ; 
a monstrosity, freak'-ish, adj. [A.S. 
free, bold, rash.] 

freck'-le (frek'-l), n. a spot (esp. on the 
skin) : v. (freck'-led, freck'-ling). [Of 
Scand. origin, as in Dan. fregne, a 

free, adj. not bound ; at liberty ; set at 
liberty ; exempt (with/row) ; gratuitous ; 
familiar ; insolent ; enjoying certain 
privileges ; idiomatic (as a translation) ; 
liberal : v. (freed, free'-ing), to set 
free, free'-dom, u. the state of being 
free, free'-hold, adj. (real property, 
as land) held free of all duty, except to 
the King (i.e., the payment of the King's 
taxes) and local rates, free'-hold-er, 
». one who owns, freehold property. 
free breakfast—table, a term meaning 
that ordinary articles of food commonly 

used at meals should be free of all excise 
or customs duties, free'-boot-er, n. 
a plunderer, free— fooder, n. one who 
holds that all common articles of food 
should be imported duty-free, free- 
lance, n. said of certain knights 
and men-at-arms who wandered over 
Europe, after the Crusades, selling 
their services to any one who would 
engage them ; one who does not attach 
himself to a (political or social) party ; 
one who follows his own inclinations. 
free' -man, n. a man having certain 
privileges as a citizen or holding the 
full rights of a citizen, free'-ma-son, 
n. a member of the ancient and secret 
order, society, or brotherhood of Free 
and Accepted Masons, who follow out 
the tenets and practices of Free— 
Masonry, esp. as regards mutual assist- 
ance, good-fellowship, and social enjoy- 
ment, free— thinker, n. one who forms 
his opinions independently of the 
authority of others, esp. in religious 
matters; an unbeliever, free— trade, n. 
a system under which trade is free from 
restrictive duties. free— trader, n. 
one in favour of free-trade. . free- 
wheel, n. (in a bicycle) a device by 
which the pedal disc can be detached, 
liberated, or set free at will, leaving the 
back wheel free to move even when the 
pedals are at rest. [A.S. freo, free.] 

freeze (froze, fro'-zen, freez'-ing), v. 
to become ice, or like a solid body. 
freezing— point, n. the temperature at 
which water freezes (32° in a Fahren- 
heit thermometer, 0° in a Centigrade 
one), freezing— mixture, n. a mixture 
(as of salt and snow, or of chemicals) for 
producing intense cold. [A.S. freosan, 
to freeze.] 

freight (frdt), n. load (of a train) ; cargo 
(of a ship) ; cost of carriage : v. (-ed, 
-ing), to load (ship), freight' -age, n. 
the act of freighting ; money paid for 
freight, freight— car, n. a railway car 
or truck (esp. in America) for goods ; a 
luggage van. freight— tax, n. (in Amer- 
ica) money paid for the carriage (by 
train) of luggage or goods. [F. fret < G.] 

French, adj. of France. French' -i-fied, 
adj. French-like. French-bean, n. the 
same as kidney-bean. French polish, 
n. a varnish made from gum dissolved 
in spirits, used for putting a polish on 
furniture. French-roll, n. a small, 




roll-shaped cake or bun, made of rich 
bread dough. French-roof, n. a 

mansard roof ; a roof formed thus /\ 

French— window, n. a long window 
forming also a folding-door, to take 
French leave, to depart or leave with- 
out permission ; to use things without 

fren'-zy (-zl), n. a state of mind like 
madness ; a, frantic state ; violent excite- 
ment of the mind, fren'-zied (-zid), 
adj. [F.<L.<Gr. phren, the mind; 
cf. frantic] 

fre'-quent, adj. occurring or coming 
often ; common, fre-quent' (-ed, -ing), 
v. to visit (a place) often ; to loiter 
about (a place), fre'-quence, n. fre'- 
quen-cy, n. fre-quent' -er, n. fre'- 
quent-ly, adv. [F.<L. frequent, 

fres'-co, n. (pi. -coes), a process of paint- 
ing on plaster (usu. on wall) while fresh 
or wet. fresco-painting, n. [I. fresco, 

fresh, adj. new ; brisk ; strong ; untried ; 
sweet ; not salt ; not stale ; just 
arrived ; newly cut (as flowers) ; ruddy ; 
healthy, fresh '-en (-ened, -en-ing), 
v. to make fresh ; (of wind) to grow 
stronger, fresh' -et, n. an overflowing of 
a stream due to heavy rain or melted 
snow, fresh'-man, or fresh'-er, n. a 
student of the first year at a university. 
[A.S./ersc, fresh (water).] 

fret (fret '-ted, fret' -ting), v. to wear by 
rubbing ; to vex ; to irritate ; to grieve 
over : ft. vexation ; worry, fret'-ful, 
adj. peevish ; cross. [A.S. fretan, to 
eat up, destroy.] 

fret, n. ornamental work of interlaced 
bars (of iron, etc.) ; marks placed across 
the finger-board of a guitar, etc., to 
assist in fingering : v. (fret'-ted, fret'- 
ting), in arch, to ornament (as a ceiling) 
with raised patterns or perforated work. 
fret'-work, n. wood-work cut with a 
fret— saw into ornamental designs. [F. 
<L. ferrum, iron.] 

F.R.G.S., Fellow of the Royal Geograph- 
ical Society. [tural Society. 

F.R.H.S., Fellow of the Royal Horticul- 

fri'-a-ble, adj. easily crumbling to powder. 
fri-a-bil'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. [F.<L. frio, 
I rub, crumble.] 

fri'-ar, n. a kind of monk (properly a 
brother), of a certain order, esp. of the 

Franciscans or Grey Friars, founded by 
St. Francis of Assisi, about 1209 ; the 
Augustinians or Austin Friars, founded 
in 1256, on the teaching of St. Augus- 
tine, bishop of Hippo, a city of Numidia, 
in North Africa, (died 430) ; the 
Dominicans or Black Friars, founded by 
St. Dominic of Toulouse, in 1215 ; and 
the Carmelites or White Friars, founded 
by Berthold, a Crusader, about 1156, at 

, Mt. Carmel, in the Holy Land, as an 
association of hermits, fri'-ar-y, n. a 
monastery or establishment of friars. 
friar's balsam, n. a mixture of benzoin, 
alcohol, etc., used for dressing wounds 
and ulcers. [F.frdre < L.f rater, brother] 

F.R.I.B.A., Fellow of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects. 

frib'-ble (-61), (-bled, -bling), v. to trifle : 
n. a trifler. frib'-bler, n. a trifler. 
[F. <L. frlvolus, trifling.] 

fric-an-deau' (frik-an-do'), n. {pi. 
-deaux) (-doz'), a thick slice of cooked 
veal. [See fricassee.] 

fric-as-see' (frik-as-se'), n. a dish of food 
(esp. of white flesh, as of fowls, rabbits, 
etc.) cut up and strongly seasoned : v. 
(-seed ' , -see ' -ing) . [F . fricassee < ?] 

fric'-tion, n. rubbing (of one thing against 
another) ; disagreement ; unpleasant- 
ness, fric'-tion-al, adj. fric'-tion-ize 
(-ized, -i-zing), v. to rub. [F.<L. 
frlco, I rub.] 

Fri'-day, n. the 6th day of the week. 
Good-Friday, the Friday before Easter, 
the day on which Christ's death is com- 
memorated. [A.S. Frige-dceg, the day 
of the goddess Frig, the wife of Woden.] 

friend (frend), n. one who loves or is 
attached to another ; an intimate ac- 
quaintance ; a well-wisher, friend' -ly, 
adj. like a friend ; kindly ; favourably 
disposed, friend'-ship, n. state of 
being friends ; favour ; personal kind- 
ness, friendly-society, n. or benefit- 
society, n. an association for relief 
during sickness, old age, widowhood, 
etc, by paying fixed sums periodically. 
Society of Friends, the Q uakers . [A.S. 
freond, loving.] 

frieze (frez), n. part of the ornamental 
stonework near the top of a column ; 
the ornamentation round a room close 
to the ceiling ; a kind of coarse woollen 
cloth. [F. f rise. 2 

frig-ate, n. (formerly) a second-class, 
light-sailing ship of war, now obsolete, 


the "cruiser" (q.v.) having taken its 
place, frigate— bird, n. a large, tropical, 
swift-flying bird. [F. fregate.] 

fright (frit), n. sudden fear or alarm; 
an ugly or frightful object : v. (-cd, 
-ing), or fright'-en (-ened, -en-ing), 
to cause fright to. fright'-ful, adj, 
terrible ; very ugly. [A.S. fyrhto.J 

frig'-id (frij'-), adj. frozen or stiffened 
with cold ; cold (in manner) ; unfeel- 
ing ; stiff and formal, frigid zones, 
two cold zones or regions of the earth 
surrounding the N. and S. Poles respect- 
ively, frig-id'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. state of 
freezing or of great coldness. [L. 
frigidus, co\di<frigeo, I am cold.] 

frill, n. a ruffle (for a shirt front, etc.) ; 
an ornamental edging (of sleeve, etc.) : 
v. (frilled, fril'-ling), to decorate with 
frills ; to gather or draw up material 
for a frill ; to ruffle the feathers (as of a 
hawk, etc.). fril'-ling, n. material (as 
lace, embroidery, etc.) for making frills. 


fringe, n. loose threads forming an orna- 
mental border trimming ; an edging ; 
a margin ; anything like a fringe : v. 
(fringed, frin'-ging), to ornament with 
fringes; to border. [F. frange<li. 
fimbria <fibr a, a thread.] 

frip'-per-y, n. old clothes ; worn-out 
articles ; cheap and tawdry finery. [F. 
friperie, cast-off garments <f riper, to 
rumple, to wear out.] 

fri-sette' (fri-zef), (less correctly fri- 
zette'), n. a set or cluster of small 
curls (usu. artificial) worn on the fore- 
head ; a pad made of combings of 
natural hair, horse-hair, or silk, ovet 
which women arrange their hair to puff 
it out, or Ifco supply natural deficiencies. 
[F.<friser, to curl.] 

fri-seur' (fri-zuhr'), n. a hair-dresser. 
[F. f riser, to curl.] 

Irisk (frisked, frisk'-ing), v. to leap in a 
playful manner ; to gambol : n. frisk'- 
et, n. a light frame (in a printing press) 
for holding a sheet of paper, frisk'-y, 
adj. [O.F. f risque.] 

frit, n. a calcined mixture of sand and 
other materials used in glass-making. 
[F.<L.frigo, I roast, parch.] 
pith. See firth. 

frit'-ter, n. a piece of meat fried ; a kind 
of pancake ; a fragment : v. (-tered, 
-ter-ing), to waste away (money, time, 
etc.). [F. <L. frigo, I roast, parch.] 



friy'-ol (-oiled, -ol-ling), v. to act in a 
frivolous manner ; to trifle, friy' -oi- 
ler, n. one who — . [See frivolous.] 

friY'-o-lous (-his), adj. trifling ; light ; 
not serious ; of little importance ; given 
to trifling, friy-ol'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. state 
of being frivolous ; light-hearted enjoy- 
ment. [L. frivolus<frico, I rub.] 

friz(z) (frizzed, friz'-zing), v. to curl : n. 
a curl, friz'-zle (-zl), (-zled, -zling), 
v. to curl (esp. in, or like, small curls). 
friz'-zly or friz'-zy, adj. [F. /riser, 
to curl.] 

fri-zette'. See fri-sette'. 

fro, adv. from, to and fro, backwards 
and forwards. [A short form of from.] 

frock, n. a monk's garment with large 
sleeves ; a gown worn by women and 
children, frock-coat, n. a man's coat 
with long skirts of an equal length all 
round, frock-dress, n. (for men, at a 
social function), a frock-coat, as opposed 
to full-dress, evening-dress, or official- 
dress. [F. froc ? < L. Jloccus, a flock of 

frog, n. a well-known four-footed amphib- 
ious animal, frog-spawn, n. the ova, 
spawn, or young of frogs, frog— march, 
n. a mode of carrying a prisoner face 
downwards, between four men, each 
holding a limb. [A.S. frogga."} 

frog, n. an ornamental fastening or loop, 
gen. of braid, or a tasselled button, for 
a military coat or cloak ; a grooved 
piece of iron where the rails of a railway 
or tram-line cross each other : v. 
(frogged, frog'-ging), to decorate with 
frogs. [< root of frock.] 

frol'-ic, n. sport ; a prank ; a merry- 
making : v. (-icked, -ick-ing). frol'- 
ic-some, adj. sportive. [D. vrolijk.] 

troitty prep, denoting departure or position 
at a distance. [A.S. fram.'] 

fro-mage' (fro-mdzh 1 ), n. [F.] cheese. 

frond, n. a leafy stalk (esp. of a palm or a 
fern), frond- es'-cence (-sens), n. the 
putting forth of leaves and fronds. 
frond -ent, adj. frond-if'-er-ous(-u«), 
adj. leaf-bearing, [h.frons, frondis, a 

front (frunt), n. the forehead or brow ; 
the whole face ; the fore-part ; a front 
piece of hair (worn by ladies) ; a loose 
shirt-front: v. (-ed, -ing), to stand in 
face of ; to oppose directly ; to turn the 
face or front towards, fron'-tage, n. 
the front part (esp. of a building) ; the 




extent of front, fron'-tal, adj. belong- 
ing to the front, or forehead : n. the 
front or fa$ade (of a building) ; an 
ornamental covering in front of the 
altar in a church, fron'-tier {-ter), n. 
the boundary of a country, fron' -tiers- 
man, or fron' -tier-man, n. (pi. -men), 
a man who lives on the frontiers or 
boundaries of an unsettled country, or 
beyond the limits of settled and civilized j 
life ; a man qualified by occupation or i 
training for military service, and j 
attached to a company (" The Legion 
of Frontiersmen ") for active service in 
time of war. fron'-tis-piece, n. a 
picture at the beginning of a book. 
front'-let, n. a small band of linen, 
etc., worn on the forehead (esp. in a 
nun's head-dress), frontal attack, 
a direct attack, esp. one delivered upon 
the front, the front, the scene of war. 
to come to the — , to become famous, 
prominent, or reach an important posi- 
tion. [F.<L. frous, frontis, forehead.] 

frost, n, severe cold or freezing weather ; 
frozen dew or hoar— frost ; t a dis- 
appointment ; f a failure : v. (-ed, 
-ing), to injure by frost ; to cover with 
hoar-frost or anything resembling it. 
black— frost, n. a keen frost, destructive 
to vegetation, frost— bite, n. the effect 
of excessive cold on a part of the human 
body, resembling a burn. frost- 
bitten, adj. nipped or affected by frost. 
frost— bound, adj. confined or detained 
by frost, frost '-ing, n. a sugary com- 
position, resembling hoar-frost, used to 
decorate sweet cakes, frost— nail, n. a 
nail with a sharp head driven into a j 
horse's shoe to prevent slipping in frosty 
weather, frost' -y, adj. [A.S. forst, 
see freeze.] 

froth, n. a collection of bubbles in liquids ; 
foam ; scum ; empty, senseless speech ; 
light unsubstantial matter : v. (frothed, 
froth'-ing), to foam, froth'-y, adj. 
full of froth ; empty ; unsubstantial. 
[Scand. frotha.] 

frou-frou' (froo-froo'), n. a rustling (as 
of silk) ; the rustling made by a woman's 
dress when she is walking. [F. Imit.] 

fro'-ward, adj. self-willed ; obstinate ; 
perverse, fro'-ward-ness, n, [A.S. 
fram, irom + -weard, term, signifying 

frown (frowned, frown'-ing), v. to knit 
the brows ; to look displeased ; to repel 

by a frown : n. a stern look. [O.F. 
froignier, to frown.] 

fruc'-ti-fy (-t*-), (-fied, -fy-ing), v. to 
make fruitful ; to fertilize, fruc-ti-fi- 
ca'-tion (-tl-fl-M'-), n. [F. <L. fruc- 
tus, fruit-f/ac/o, 1 make.] 

F.R.S.(L.), Fellow of the Koyal Society 
(of London). [each. 

frs., francs, French coins worth about 9^d. 

fru'-gal,ad;\ saving; economical ; thrifty. 
fru-gal'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. [F.<L. fru- 
(jdlis <frux, fruit.] 

fruit (froot), n. produce; the part of a 
plant bearing the seed, or the seed itself ; 
product, effect, or consequence, fruit- 
a'-ri-an, n. one who lives on fruit. 
fruit'-er-er, n. one who sells fruit. 
fruit '-er-y, n. fruit generally ; a place 
for storing fruit, fruit'-ful, adj. pro- 
ducing fruit in quantity ; productive of 
good results, fruit'-less, adj. without 
fruit ; useless ; without effect, fruit- 
cake, n. a rich cake made with dried 
currants, raisins, etc. fruit— knife, n. 
a knife (mil. of silver) for cutting fruit. 
small— fruits, n. currants, raspberries, 
strawberries, etc. [F. <Tu. fructus, fruit] 

fru-i'-tion (-ish'-un), n. enjoyment; use 
or possession ; attainment. [F.<L. 
friior, I enjoy.] 

fru-men-ta'-ce-ous (-se-us), adj. of or 
resembling wheat (or other corn grain). 
fru'-men-ty, or fur'-men-ty (-ti),n. 
a dish of hulled wheat boiled in milk. 
[L. frumentum, corn.] 

f frump, n. a cross-tempered or untidy 
woman, frump'-ish, adj. — ; old- 
fashioned in dress ; cross-tempered. [?] 

frus'-trate (-tra-ted, -tra-ting), v. to 
bring to nothing ; to defeat ; to foil. 
frus-tra'-tion, ». [L. frmtror <frtm 
tra, in vain.] 

frus'-tum, n. (pi. -ta or -turns), a part of. 
a cone or pyramid which remains after 
cutting off the top by a plane parallel 
with the base. [L. frustum, a piece 
cut off.] 

fry (fried, fry '-ing), v. to cook over a fire 
in an open pan, esp. with fat, butter, or 
oil : n. something fried, fry'-er, n. 
one who fries, frying— pan, n. a shallow, 
flat, metal pan with long handle for 
frying. [F. frire <L. frigo, I roast.] 

fry, n. young fishes (just hatched). 
small fry, small or worthless things, 
or things of little importance. [Ic. free.] 

F.S.A., Fellow of the Society of Anti- 




quaries (not of Arts, of which there are 
only Members, M.S. A., not Fellows). 

ft., foot or feet. 

fu'-chsi-a (fic'-shi-a), n. a well-known, 
common flowering-plant. £< Leonard 
Fuclts, a German botanist, 1501-1566.] 

fu f -cus (-kus), n. (pi. -ci {-si)), a kind of 
sea- weed. [L. f ileus, a rock-lichen (used 
as a dye).] 

fud'-dle (-died, -dling), v. to stupefy 
with drink ; to drink to excess : n. intoxi- 
cating drink ; f a feast, fud'-dled 
(-did), adj. confused in mind ; stupefied 
(esp. by drink), fud'-dler, n. [?] 

fudge, n. a made-up story ; nonsense : 
int. an exclamation of contempt : v. 
(fudged, fudg'-ing), to talk nonsense ; 
to tell untruths ; to make or do in a 
bungling manner, fudg'-ing, n. insert- 
ing late news in a newspaper while it is 
being printed. [F. ?] 

fu'-el, n. coal, wood, or other material 
used for feeding a fire ; anything that 
supplies energy. [O.F.<L. focus, a 
hearth, fire-place.] 

fu'-gi-tiye (-ji-tlv), adj. running away; 
fleeting ; uncertain : n. one who is run- 
ning, or who has run, away. [F.<L. 
filgio, I flee.] 

fu'-gle-man (-gl-), n. a soldier set before 
the others during drill, as an example 
or model ; a ringleader. [G. Fliigelmann, 
a man at the wing (of an army, etc.), a 

fugue (fun), n. (mus.) a composition in 
which the parts follow each other in 
succession, fu'-guist (fu'-gist), n. the 
writer or player of a fugue. [F.<L. 
fuga, flight.] 

ful'-crum, n. (pi. -era or -crums), the 
prop or point of support of a lever. [L. 
fulcrum, a bed-post.] 

ful-nT (-filled', -fiT-ling),v. to complete; 
to bring to pass ; to carry out. ful- 
fil'-ler, n. one who fulfils. ful-nT- 
ment, n. the act of — ; completion. 
[full + fill.] 

ful'-gent, adj. shining ; very bright, ful'- 
gen-cy (-jen-si), n. ful'-gid (fid), adj. 
bright ; flashing. [L. fulgeo, I shine.] 

ful'-gu-rate (" g " hard) (-ra-ted, -ra- 
ting), v. to flash as lightning, ful-gu- 
ra'-tion, n. lightning ; flashing, ful- 
gu-rous, adj. like lightning. [See 

full, adj. quite filled ; complete ; mature 
(of years) ; adequate ; final (as a stop) : 

n. complete extent ; highest degree : 
adv. quite ; completely, ful'-ly, adv. 
full age, the age of 21 years, full- 
back, n. (in football) the player, or the 
position, farthest from the opponents' 
goal, full— blown, adj. fully opened 
(as a flower), full— bottomed, adj. (a 
wig) having long flaps falling upon the 
shoulders, full— bound, n. (of books) 
bound entirely in leather, full— dress, 
n. the dress worn on occasions of state 
or ceremony, full— dress debate, a 
debate (often arranged for beforehand) 
in which important speeches are made. 
full— face, n. the face as seen from the 
front, full— hearted, adj. full of kind- 
ness and good feeling, full'-ness (less 
correctly ful'-ness), n. completeness. 
full— pay, 11. a retiring allowance equal 
to the pay when on active service, in 
full swing, with free course ; unre- 
strained ; working freely. [A.S. fid."] 

full (fulled, full'-ing), v. to thicken, 
whiten, or bleach (cloth), ful'-ler, n. 
one who — . fuller's— earth, n. a kind 
of earth or clay capable of absorbing 
grease, and used in fulling cloth, etc. 
[F. fouler <L. fullo, a cloth-fuller.] 

ful'-mar, it. a kind of petrel, or swim- 
ming-bird, frequenting the northern 
seas, and valuable for its down, feathers, 
and oil. [Ic. ful-mdr, foul mew, from 
the foul smell of its oil.] 

ful'-min-ate (-a- ted, -a-ting), v. to 
thunder or make a loud noise ; to 
explode ; to issue or utter denunciations 
or censures, ful-min-a'-tion, n. ful'- 
min-ant, adj. fulminating ; developing 
suddenly: n. [h. fulmen, lightning < 
fulgeo, I shine.] 

ful'-some, adj. cloying ; nauseous (from 
excess) ; excessive. [A.S./uJ, full, foul ; 
with term, -sum ( = some).] 

ful'-YOUS (-vus), adj. yellowish ; tawny. 
ful'-Yid, adj. [L. fulvus, reddish- 

fu'-ma-role (-ma-rol), n. a hole from 
which steam and volcanic gases are 
emitted. [L. fumus, smoke, vapour.] 

fum'-ble (-bled, -bling), v. to grope 
about ; to handle awkwardly. [D. 

fume, n. vapour (esp. noxious) ; smoke ; 
rage or excitement : v. (fumed, fu'- 
ming), to smoke ; to be in a rage. 
fumed oak, oak wood (timber) exposed 
for some time to the fumes of ammonia 




in order to darken it and show the 
markings more distinctly, fu'-ma-to- 
ry, n. a place for smoking or fumigating 
purposes. f u' -mi-gate (-m£-), (-ga-ted, 
-ga-ting), v. to cover with smoke ; to 
cover with vapour in order to destroy 
infection, fu-mi-ga'-tion, n. fu'-mi- 
ga-tor, n. [F. < L. fitmus, smoke.] 

fu'-mi-to-ry (-vil-to-rl), n. a common 
garden flowering-plant used in medicine. 
{F. <1j. fumus, smoke, vapour.] 

fu-nam'-bu-list, n. one who walks or 
dances on a rope. [Sp.<L. funis, a 
rope -\-ambulo, I walk.] 

func'-tion (shun), n. a special office, 
duty, or work ; a ceremony, func'- 
tion-al, adj. func'-tion-a-ry (-a-ri), 
n. one who holds an office ; an official. 
[L. functio <fungor , I perform.] 

fund, n. a sum of money to be used for 
some special object ; property in money ; 
a stock or store of anything : pi. funds, 
permanent debts owed by a government, 
and upon which interest is paid ; govern- 
ment stock, consolidated funds, see 
Consols, fund'-ed, adj. invested in 
public funds, funded debt, that part 
of the permanent debt of the State, upon 
which interest is paid, fund— holder, 
n. one who has money invested in the 
public funds, sinking— fund, n. money 
set aside by the government for the 
reduction of the National Debt ; money 
set aside by a company, etc., for wiping- 
out its debts, the funds or the public 
funds, securities issued by the govern- 
ment in return for loans ; the Stock of 
the National Debt. [F.<L. fundus, 
the bottom.] 

fun-da-men' -tal, adj. belonging to the 
bottom or foundation ; important ; 
essential, fun-da-men' -tal-ly, adv. 
at the beginning or foundation ; essen- 
tially, fun' -dus,w. the bottom. [F.< 
L. funddmentuiiK fundus, the bottom.] 

fu'-ner-al, n. a burial ceremony, fu- 
ne'-re-al, adj. pertaining to, or suited 
to, a funeral ; dark and dismal ; mourn- 
ful. [F.<L. funus, a funeral (pro- 

fun'-gus, n. (" g " hard), (pi. -gi (-ji) or 
-gus-es), a plant of the mushroom kind. 
fun'-goid, adj. of fungus form, fun- 
gol'-o-gy (-ji), n. the science of fungi. 
fun'-gous (-gus), adj. of or like fungus ; 
soft ; spongy. [L. fungus, a mushroom.] 

fu'-ni-cle (-ni-kl), n. a small rope, cord, 

or fibre, fu-nic'-u-lar, adj. pertaining 
to a rope or cord, funicular railway, 
a cable-railway, that is, one in which 
the carriages are drawn along by a stout 
rope wound round a drum turned by a 
stationary engine (esp. such a railway 
ascending a mountain). [L. funis, a 
rope, cord.] 

f funk, n. great terror or fright ; a coward ; 
one who shirks or shrinks from work or 
duty through fear or doubt of success : 
v. (funked, funk'-ing), to shrink 
through fear ; to try to evade. [?] 

fun'-nel, n. an instrument for pouring 
liquid into a narrow-necked vessel ; a 
tube for the passage of air or smoke. 
funnel— net, n. a funnel-shaped fish- 
ing-net. [F.<L. fun do, I pour.] 

fur, n. the fine, soft hair of some animals 
(as the hare) ; a fur-like coating on the 
tongue, the interior of boilers, etc. : in 
pi. articles of clothing made of fur: 
v. (furred, fur'-ring), to cover, line, 
or provide with fur. fur'-ri-er, n. a 
worker or dealer in furs, fur'-ri-er-y, 
7i. the business or trade of a furrier. 
fur'-ry, adj. composed of or like fur. 
[O.F. forre.^ 

fur'-be-low, n. a flounce, or ornamented 
border of a gown or petticoat : in pi. 
showy ornaments or trimmings. [Sp. 

fur'-bish (-bished, -bish-ing), v. to clean 
and polish (esp. by rubbing) ; to renovate. 
fur'-bish-er,n. one who — . [F.fourbir, 
to polish.] 

fur'-cate, or fur'-ca-ted (-H-), adj. 
forked (in form or shape), fur-ca'- 
tion (-shun), n. [L./wca, a fork.] 

fu-ri-o'-so, n. [I.] a furious person ; (in 
mus.) with great force or vigour. [See 

fu'-ri-ous, see fury. 

furl (furled, furl'-ing), v. to roll up (esp. 
a sail). [Orig. fur die <root of fardel.] 

fur' -long, n. (in Long Measure) 220 yards, 
or 40 poles, or & mile. [< furrow + 

fur '-lough (-15), n. leave of absence (esp. 
of a soldier or sailor) ; also the docu- 
ment granting such absence. [D. verlof.] 

fur'-nace, n: an enclosed fire-place ; an 
oven ; a place or time of great trial or 
affliction, electric-furnace, n. one in 
which heat is produced by electricity, 
the hottest kind of furnace known. [F. 
<^L. fornax, a furnace, oven.] 




fur'-nish (-nished, -nish-ing), v. to fit 

up ; to supply completely with all neces- 
saries ; to yield, fur'-nish-er, n. one 
who — . fur'-ni-ture, n. that which is 
furnished (esp. household goods) ; move- 
ables, either' for use or ornament ; the 
trappings of a horse. [O.F. fouritir] 

fu'-ror, n. fury ; rage ; madness ; great 
enthusiasm or excitement ; a mania or 
craze for anything (esp. something which 
is fashionable), fu'-rore, n. enthusi- 
astic popular admiration ; a " rage " or 
"craze." (Note : The Italian form, 
fu-ro'-re (fu-ro'-rd) is sometimes 
used. [L. furor, rage, madness.] 

fur'-row, n. a trench (esp. one made by a 
plough) ; a groove ; a wrinkle : v. 
(-rowed, -row-ing), to make furrows. 

fur'-ther, adv. more in advance (time or 
place) ; moreover : v. (-thered, -ther- 
ing), to advance ; to help forward ; to 
promote, fur'-ther-more, adv. in 
addition ; besides, fur'-thest, adv. 
most advanced or forward (compare far). 
[A.S. further.'] 

fur'-tiye (-tiv), adj. stealthy ; sly ; secret. 
fur'-tiye-ly, adv. [F. <h.fur, a thief.] 

fu'-ry (-ri), n. great anger ; rage or excite- 
ment ; one of the three ancient Greek 
goddesses of revenge ; hence, a passion- 
ate and violent woman, fu'-ri-ous 
(-ri-us), adj. full of fury ; violent ; im- 
petuous, fu'-ri-ous-ly, adv. — ; with 
great energy. [F. <L. furia, rage.] 

furze (firz), n. the whin or gorse, an 
evergreen prickly bush with golden- 
yellow flowers ' found on heaths or 
commons, fur'-zy, adj. [A.S. fyrs.~\ 

fuse (fuz), (fused, fu'-sing), v. to melt 
(by heat) ; to join or blend (as if by melt- 
ing) : n. a long tube or case of com- 
bustible material for setting fire to an 
explosive charge in a mine, etc. ; (in 
elec.) a short piece of wire, made of tin 
and lead, placed in an electric circuit 
(and often called a safety— fuse), which 
melts when the current becomes too 
strong, and so forms a protector against 
fire or damage ; it is usually fixed in an 
incombustible box, called a fuse— box. 
fu'-si-ble (-zibl), adj. able to be fused. 
fu'-sion (-zhun), n. the act of melting 
or the state of being melted ; the blend- 
ing or union of things into one. fu-si- 
bil'-i-ty, n. electric-fuse, n. a means 
of igniting an explosive material by an 

electric spark, fusing-point, n. the 
temperature at which a substance be- 
comes liquid, fusible-alloy, n. an 
alloy (usu. of lead, tin, and bismuth) 
which melts at a low temperature. [L. 
fundo, I pour.] 

fu-see' (-ze 1 ), n. the spindle in a watch on 
which the chain is wound ; a kind of 
match which does not easily blow out ; 
a kind of musket. [F.<L. fusus, a 

fu'-sel— oil (-zel-), n. a poisonous, oily 
spirit of nauseous smell obtained by 
distilling certain vegetables. [G. Fusel, 
bad brandy or other spirit.] 

fu'-sil (-zil), n. a light musket. fu-sil- 
ier' (sometimes spelt -eer') (-zil-eer'), 
n. a soldier armed with a — ; a soldier 
(of the infantry) carrying a fire-arm. 
fu-sil-lade' (-zil-ldd'), n. a continuous 
discharge of fire-arms. [F.<L. focus, 
a hearth, fire.] 

fuss, n. a bustle or commotion (esp. about 
trifles) ; haste ; commotion : v. (fussed, 
f us' -sing), to be over busy or needlessly 
anxious about trifles, fus'-sy (-**)i 
adj. [A.S. (?)] 

fust, n. a strong, mouldy smell, fus'-ti- 
ness (-ti-), n. fus'-ty (-tl), adj. [O.F. 
fust, a cask.] 

fus'-tian (-tyari),n. coarse, twilled cotton- 
cloth ; inflated or high-flown language. 
[F.<I.<Fustdt, a suburb of Cairo, 
where first manufactured.] 

fus'-tic, n. the wood of a West-Indian 
tree used in dyeing yellow. [F.<L. 
fustis, a stick.] 

fus'-ti-gate (-ti-), (-ga-ted, -ga-ting), 
v. to beat with a stick, fus-ti-ga'-tion, 
n. [L. fustis, a stick.] 

fu'-tile (fii'-til, less correctly -til), adj. 
useless ; fruitless ; of no effect or im- 
portance, fu-til'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. fruit- 
lessness ; ineffectiveness ; utter use- 
lessness. [L. futilis, easily poured 

fut'-tock, ». one of the chief rib-timbers 
of the breadth of a ship, futtock— 
shrouds, n. shrouds stretching from a 
little platform on the mast, called the 
futtock— plate, to a ring on a lower 
mast. [<foot-fhook.] 

fu'-ture (fu'-tyur or fil'-chr), adj. not 
past or present; going to be: n. time 
to come, fu-tu'-ri-ty (-ri-ti), n. future 
time ; an event or state of being yet to 
come. [F. <L. futurus, about to be.] 



Galanty show 

fuzz (fuzzed, fuzz'-ing), v. to fly off in 

very small particles with a buzzing 
sound : n. fine, light particles, as dust, 
down, etc. fuzz'-ball, n. a fungus 
having a head full of fine dust ; a puff- 
ball, fuzz'-y, adj. not firm or sound in 
substance. [<fizz.] 

F.W.A., Factories and Workshops Acts (of 

fyl'-fot, n. a religious symbol, a kind of 
cross, thus ^fi. [A.S. fyther, four + 
Jot, foot. 3 

fyrd (ferd),n. (in Anglo-Saxon times) all 
males capable of bearing arms and 
forming the military forces of the nation. 
[A.S./?/rrf, army.] 

F.Z.S., Fellow of the Zoological Society. 

G.A., General Assembly. 

Ga., Gaelic ; Georgia (U.S.A.). 

gab'-ble (-bled, -bling), v. to talk non- 
sense ; to chatter ; to cackle like geese : 
n. gab'-bler, n. one who — . [Imit.] 

gab'-er-dine (less correctly -ar-) (-den), 
n. a coarse, loose upper garment (form- 
erly worn by Jews). [Sp. gabardina."] 

gab-er-lun'-zie (•** or -yi), n. a strolling 
beggar or mendicant (in Scotland). [?] 

ga'-bi-on, ii. a large, bottomless basket 
filled with earth and used as shelter 
from an enemy's fire, or as a temporary 
defence. [F.<I. gabbia, a cage.] 

ga'-ble {-bl), n. the triangular end of a 
building (from the line of the eaves to 
the top of the roof), gable— end, n. the 
end wall of a building where there is a 
gable, gable— window, n. a window in 
the gable-end of a building ; one with 
its upper part shaped like a — . [O.F.J 

gad, n. a spike, sharp point, or goad, gad'- 
fly» n > {pl- -flies), a fly which pierces 
the hide of cattle with its sharp sting, 
and deposits its eggs. [Ic. gaddr, a goad.] 

gad (-ded, -ding), v. to run restlessly 
about (like an animal stung by the gad- 
fly) ; to run wild ; to be under no control. 
to — about, to wander about without 
any serious object, gad'-der, n. [?] 

gad-hel'-ic (-el'-), adj. of or belonging to 
that branch of the Celtic language which 
includes the Irish, Gaelic, and Manx, as 
distinguished from the Cymric (Welsh) . 
[Irish gaedheal, a Gael.] 

Gaek'-war (gdk'-), n. the title of the 
Maharaja (q.v.) of Baroda, India. 

Gael (gal), n. a Scotch Highlander. Gae'- 
lic (ga'-lik),n. the dialect of the Scottish 
Highlanders: adj. [<the Gaels, a 
Celtic race.] 

gaff, 11. a boat-hook ; a fishing-spear ; a 
spar upon which the upper edge of a fore- 
and-aft sail is extended. [O.F. gaffe.] 

gaf'-ier, n. a familiar (and originally 
respectful) term for an old man (cf.. 
gammer) ; a foreman or overseer. 
[(?)< grandfather.] 

gag (gagged, gag'-ging), v. to stop the 
mouth by thrusting something into it, 
so as to prevent speaking ; to silence ; 
not to allow freedom of speech to : n. — ; 
(by an actor) the introduction of one's 
own words, speech, or business. [? W.] 

gage (gdj), n. a pledge or security ; some- 
thing thrown down as a challenge : v. 
(gaged, ga'-ging). [F. gage<L. vas, 
vadis, a security.] [gauge, q.v. 

gage, n. a measure, etc., incorrect for 

gage, ii. the name given to several kinds 
of plum. [<Sir Wm. Gage, about 1725.] 

gai'-e-ty, n. (pi. -ties). See gay. 

gai'-ly, adj. See gay. 

gain (gdn), (gained, gain'-ing), v. to get 
by effort ; to earn ; to win ; to benefit ; 
to reach (a place) : n. profit ; advan- 
tage, gain'-er,?*. one who — . gain'- 
ful, adj. gain'-ings, earnings; 
profits, to — upon, to overtake by 
degrees. [Ic. gagn."} 

gain'-say (-said, -say-ing), v. to contra- 
dict ; to deny ; to dispute, gain'-say- 
er, n. [A.S. gegn, against + say.] 

gait, n. manner of going or walking ; 
step ; pace. [Ic. gata, way.] 

gait'-er, n. a covering of cloth for the 
ankle, fitting down upon the shoe. 
[F. guetre."] 

ga'-la, n. (pi. -las), festivity ; general 
rejoicing, gala dress, n. gay costume 
for a gala day or special festivity. [F. 
<I. gala, festive attire.] 

gal'-a-lith, n. a horn-like, non-inflam- 
mable substance, resembling celluloid, 
made from the casein of skimmed milk. 
[Gr. gala, galaktos, milk, lithos, stone.] 

gal-an-tine' (-ten'),n. a dish of chicken, 
veal, etc., freed from bones, boiled, and 
served up cold in its own jelly. [F. a 
form of gelatine.] 

gal'-an-ty show (not -try), n. a shadow- 
pantomime caused by throwing shadows 
of figures on a screen or wall. [< 




gal-a-te'-a, n. a strong, washable, cotton 
material, usually striped in blue on a 
white ground, for ladies' and children's 
dresses for sea-side and holiday wear. 
[< Galatea, the name of a sea-nymph.] 

gal'-ax-y (-1), n. (pi. -ies), the Milky - 
Way, or the luminous band of stars 
stretching across the sky ; a brilliant 
assemblage of persons. [F.<Gr. gala, 

gal'-ba-num (not -bd'-), n. a gum-resin 
obtained from an Eastern plant, used in 
the making of varnish and in medicine. 
[L.<H. clieleb, fat.] 

gale, n. a strong wind between a stiff 
breeze and a hurricane. [?] 

ga-le'-na, n. the principal ore from which 
lead is extracted ; lead sulphide. [L.] 

gal'-i-lee, n. a porch or chapel (the 
Galilee— porch) at the entrance of some 
churches ; (in some cathedrals and 
abbey churches) the western part of the 
nave, or a separate chapel at the west 
end, as at Durham, Ely, and Lincoln. 
[<" Galilee of the Gentiles," St. Matt. 
iv. 15, the galilee being considered less 
sacred than the" church itself.] 

gall (gal), n. a bitter fluid from the liver ; 
bile ; bitterness of mind, gall— bladder, 
n. a small sac, shaped like a pear, and 
situated under the liver, in which the 
bile is collected, gall— duct, n. a tube 
in the body conveying gall or bile. 
gall— stone, n. a hard substance formed 
in the gall-bladder and gall-ducts, gall 
and wormwood, anything exceedingly 
disagreeable and annoying. [A.S. 

gall (gal), n. a small, nut-like ball, caused 
by several small flies, called gall— flies, 
in the bark or leaves of certain trees, 
esp. the oak-tree, used in dyeing and 
tanning. Called also gall— nut and 
nut-gall, and oak-apple, gal' -lie, 
adj. of or pertaining to galls, gallic 
acid, n. a substance obtained from nut- 
galls and used in making ink. [F. < L. 
galla, an oak-apple.] 

gall (gal), (galled, gall'-ing), v. to rub 
and bruise the skin ; to annoy, tease, 
or vex. [O.F. galler."} 

gal'-lant, adj. splendid ; noble ; brave ; 
showy. gal-lant', adj. polite and 
attentive to ladies : n. a gay, fashionable 
man ; one polite to ladies, gal'-lant- 
ry (-rl), n. [<root of gala.] 

gal'-le-on, ii. a large Spanish war-ship, 

or treasure-ship. [<root of galley.] 

gal'-ler-y (-1), n. a long passage ; a raised, 
open floor (of church, theatre, etc.) ; the 
topmost floor in a theatre, etc., where 
the seats are the cheapest ; a room for 
the exhibition of works of art ; a museum. 
to play to the gallery, to act or con- 
duct oneself with a view to winning the 
applause or favour of the least intelli- 
gent class of people ; to work for popu- 
larity. [F. galerie.] 

gal' -ley (-11), n. a low, one-decked ship, 
driven by oars or by sails ; a large, open 
row-boat ; a state barge ; a place where 
the cooking is done on board ship ; an 
oblong tray on which the printer places 
the type as he sets it up. galley— slave, 
n. one compelled (often as punishment 
for crime) to work at the oars of a 
galley ; hence, anyone whose work is 
especially arduous. [O.F. galie."} 

gall'-iard (gal' -yard or -ll-ard), n. a 
lively dance, common in the 16th cent. ; 
a gay fellow. [Sp. gallardo, gay.] 

gal -li-ass (less correctly -le-ass), n. a 
vessel similar to a galley (q.v.), but 
larger and heavier. [O.F. galeace, see 

Gar-lic,orGal'-li-can (-It-), adj. of Gaul, 
or France, gal'-li-cizm (-ll-sizm), n. 
the use in English of a mode of speech 
peculiar to French ; a French custom. 
[L. GallicuH."] 

gal-li-gas'-kins (-li-), large, wide, 
open breeches ; a kind of leggings. [F. 
greguesques, properly Greek breeches.] 

gal-li-na'-ceous (-ll-nd'-shus),adj. rela- 
ting to the order of birds which includes 
the common fowl, the pheasant, etc. 
[L. gallma, a hen ; gallus, a cock.] 

gal'-li-ot (less correctly gal'-i-ot), n. 
(formerly) a small galley, built for 
speed ; a two-masted, Dutch sailing- 
vessel. [O.F. galiote.] 

gal'-li-pot (-H-), n. a small, glazed pot 
used by druggists for containing medi- 
cine. [< galley -f pot, a sort of pot 
brought over in galleys from the Medi- 

gal'-li-um (-It-), n. a bright, grey metal 
discovered (by a Frenchman) in 1875. 
[L. Gallia, Gaul, France.] 

f gal-li-yant' (-ed, -ing), v. to gad about 
or spend time frivolously, esp. in flirting. 
[< gallant.] 

gal' -Ion, n . a standard measure of capacity; 
four quarts. [O.F. gallon, a large bowl.] 




gal-loon', n. a kind of lace ; a narrow 
ribbon made of silk, or worsted, or both, 
esp. ribbon used to affix the Great Seal of 
England to a document ; a kind of strong 
braid for binding. [F. galon< root of 

gal'-lop, n. the quickest pace of a horse ; 
quick movement ; a dance (see galop) : 
v. (-lopped, -lop-ping), to move by 
leaps (as a horse) ; to move very rapidly. 
gal-lo-pade', n. a swift running ; a 
Hungarian dance. [O.F. galoper, to 

Gal'-lo-phile (-fH), to. a lover of the 
French and all connected with the 
French nation. Gal'-lo-phobe(-/ofc),n. 
one who dislikes the French and all con- 
nected with them. Gal-lo-pho'-bi-a 
(-/(>'-), to. dislike of all things French. 
[h. Gallia, Gaul (France) + Gr. p)iilos, 
one who loves ; phobos, fear.] 

gal'-lo-way (not -la-), n. a kind of small, 
stout, strong horse, originally a native 
of Galloway, in Scotland. 

gal'-lows (-loz), n. pi. a wooden frame 
for hanging criminals by a rope ; a pair 
of braces, gallows— bird, n. a person 
who deserves hanging, gallows— tree, 
n. a gallows, to cheat the — , to escape 
hanging (or execution) though richly 
deserving it. [A.S. galga."] 

ga-lon' (ga-loti), n. a kind of thick, 
ornamental ribbon for trimming, almost 
a kind of gimp (q.v.). [F.] 

gal'-op (less correctly gallop, q.v.), n. a 
lively round dance, or the music for it. 
[< gallop.] [[Irish.] 

ga-lore', n. abundance ; plenty : adv. 

ga-losh', or go-losh(e)' \-losh'), n. a 
waterproof shoe or slipper worn over 
another in wet weather ; any overshoe ; 
the lower part of a boot or shoe next to 
the welts and sole. [F. galoche (?).] 

gait, n. incorrect for gault, q.v. 

gal'-Yan-ism (-izm), n. one branch of the 
science of electricity which treats of 
electric currents produced by chemical 
action. gal-Yan'-ic, adj. gal'-van- 
ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. to subject to the 
action of a galvanic current ; to coat 
metals by means of galvanic action ; to 
restore to consciousness by galvanic 
action; to infuse new life into ; to stim- 
ulate or excite, galvanic battery, n. 
an apparatus for producing galvanic 
electricity, galvanic belt, n. a belt con- 
taining apparatus for producing a weak 

galvanic current (said to have curative 
properties, but this is doubtful), gal- 
vanized iron, n. iron coated with zinc 
(by dipping it in a bath of melted zinc) 
to prevent its rusting. gal-Ya-nom'-e- 
ter, n. an instrument for measuring 
electric force. \_<Luigi Galvani, of 
Bologna, in Italy (1738— 1798), who first 
described the phenomena in 1792.] 

gam'-bi-er, n. a dyeing and tanning sub- 
stance prepared from the leaves of an 
East Indian shrub. [Malay.] 

gam '-bit, n. (in chess) the sacrifice of a 
pawn early in the game to obtain a good 
position for attack. [F.<I. gamba, 
the leg.] 

gam'-ble (-bl), (-bled, -bling), n. to play 
for money or other valuables (in games 
of chance) ; to engage in reckless specu- 
lations ; to squander : n. a gambling 
transaction, gam '-bier, , n. [<game.] 

gam-boge' {-boj', or -booj'), n. a yellow 
gum-resin used in painting and medi- 
cine. [_< Cambodia, in Annam, Asia.] 

gam'-bol (-boiled, -bol-ling), v. to leap 
about ; to frisk : n. playfulness ; frolic. 
[F. gambade <L gamba, the leg.] 

gam'-brel, n. the hock or ankle joint of 
a horse's hind leg ; a stick, crooked like 
a horse's hind leg, used by butchers for 
suspending a carcass. [I. gamba, leg.] 

game, n. sport of any kind ; jest ; deri- 
sion ; mockery ; any object of ridicule ; 
a contest or play for amusement or for 
stakes ; field sport ; the number of points 
to be made to win a game ; an animal 
hunted for sport and protected by law : 
v. (gamed, ga'-ming), to gamble : adj. 
bold ; plucky ; ready to fight to the last. 
game-bag, n. a bag for holding game 
killed by a sportsman, game— cock, n. 
a cock trained to fight, game'-keep- 
er, n. a man employed to protect game 
(animals), game-laws, n. laws for the 
protection of game, game'-ly, adv. in 
a bold, spirited manner, game-pre- 
serve, n. a park or tract of land stocked 
with game kept for sport, game'-ster, 
7i. a gambler, gaming-house, n. a 
house where gambling is carried on. 
gaming— table, n. a table on (or at) which 
gambling games are played, ga'-my, 
adj. having the flavour of dead game 
kept until it begins to go bad ; showing 
an unyielding spirit to the last, big 
game, wild animals of large size hunted 
for sport, as lions, tigers, bears, etc. to 




die game, to maintain a bold spirit to 
the end. to make — of, to make fun of ; 
to jeer at. a round game, a game in 
which the number of players is not 
fixed, the — is up, the scheme has 
failed or is discovered, the game is 
not worth the candle, the object aimed 
at is not worth the trouble it takes. 
[A.S. gamen, sport, joy.] 

gam'-gee (-je), or gam'-gee tissue, n. a 
dressing for wounds made of absorbent 
wool backed with muslin. [<Dr. 
Gamgee (died 1896), the inventor.] 

gam'-in, n. a wandering, unemployed 
street boy ; a young street Arab. [F. 
gamin, a boy (esp. a dirty, idle boy).] 

gam'-mer, n. old wife ; a familiar term 
for an old woman ; compare gaffer. 
[ < grandmother.] 

gam'-mon, n. a salted and dried thigh of 
the hog ; a ham ; the lower end of a 
flitch of bacon. [O.F. gambon<l. 
gamba, leg.] 

gam'-mon, n. a hoax; humbug: v. 
(-moned, -mon-ing). [ < root of game.] 

fgamp, n. a big, clumsy or untidily 
wrapped-up umbrella. [Used by Mrs. 
Sarah Gamp, an old-fashioned nurse in 
Chas. Dickens's "Martin Chuzzlewit."] 

gam'-ut, n. a scale of music (esp. written 
or printed, with signs) ; the whole extent 
of anything. [F.<Gr. gamma, the 
letter g of the Greek alphabet, denoting 
the last note + L. ut, the first note (do) 
of the scale.] 

ga'-my, adj. See game. 

gan'-der, n. the male of the goose. [A.S. 
gandra.] •* 

gang, n. a number of labourers working 
together; a company of persons, gang'- 
er, ii. the foreman or superintendent of 
a gang (of labourers), esp. on a railway ; 
one appointed to measure the contents 
of casks (also gauger). [A.S. gang, a 
going, path.] 

gan'-gli-on, n. (pi. -ons or -gli-a), a 
collection of nerve-cells from which 
nerve-fibres spread ; a hard tumour 
situated in a tendon, frequently about 
the wrist. [Gr. ganglion.'] 

gan'-grene, n. a sore in whjch the flesh 
decays: v. (-grened, -gre-ning), to 
decay ; to mortify, gan'-gre-nous 
(-nns) , adj. [F. < L. < Gr. gangraina.'} 

gang'-way, n. a passage (esp. in a ship) ; 
a foot-bridge (often moveable) ; a way 
between rows of seats, below the — . 

(in the House of Commons) below a 
cross-passage, half-way down the House, 
giving access to the rear benches, the 
seats being occupied by independent 
members (not belonging to either of the 
two great parties, Liberal and Conserva- 
tive) ; above the — sit the ministers, 
ex-ministers, and their supporters. [< 
gang + way.] 

gan'-net, n. the solan-goose, or any of the 
similar web-footed, aquatic birds found 
in the northern seas. [A.S. ganot."] 

gan'-oid, adj. belonging to an order of 
fishes with strong scales, like the stur- 
geon. [Gr. ganos, splendour-!- eidos, 

gant'-let or gant'-lope, n. a military 
punishment, in which the offender had 
to run through a lane formed by two 
ranks of men, who struck at him as he 
passed, to run the gantlet (less cor- 
rectly gauntlet), to run as above ; to pass 
througn a storm of criticism; to be 
exposed to unpleasant treatment or 
remarks. [Swedish gatlopp."] 

gan'-try (-tri), n. (pi. -tries), a stand for 
a cask ; a platform for a crane, etc. [?] 

gaol (jal), ii. gao'-ler (jd'-), n. See 
jail, jailer. 

gape (gaped, ga'-ping), v. to open the 
mouth wide ; to yawn ; to stare with 
wide-open mouth ; to stand wide open 
(as a door) : n. the act of gaping. 
gapes, n. a disease in birds, of which 
much gaping is the symptom. [Ic. gapa.] 

gar'-age (-dj, or more correctly gar-dzh'), 
11. a stable or dep6t for motor-cars. [F.] 

garb, ii. dress ; clothing ; outward appear- 
ance : v. (garbed, garb'-ing), to clothe ; 
to array. [OF. garbe.J 

gar'-bage, n. refuse ; offal of animals ; 
anything worthless, disgusting, or loath- 
some, garbage-monger, n. a dealer in 
diseased or bad meat, bad books, etc. 
[? O.F. garbe.] 

gar'-ble (-bl), (-bled, -bling), v. to take 
only a part (esp. of a book) ; to muti- 
late ; to falsify ; to pick out such parts 
of, as may suit a purpose. [O.F.] 

gar-con' (-son'), n. a waiter (at hotel or 
refreshment room). [F. garcon, a boy.] 

gar'-den, n. a piece of ground (esp. 
attached to a house) in which flowers or 
vegetables are cultivated : v. (-dened, 
-den-ing), to work in a garden, gar- 
den-er, n. one who works in a garden. 
garden-city, n. the general name for 




an industrial centre (generally in the 
country) , laid out with wide, open spaces, 
and in which each of the houses of the 
workpeople has a garden ; any residen- 
tial centre laid out in a similar manner. 
garden— party, n. one held in the 
garden, or on the lawn, of a house. 
garden-stuff, n. vegetables for the 
table, kitchen-garden, n. a garden 
where vegetables are cultivated for home 
use. market— garden, n. a garden 
where vegetables and fruit are raised for 
sale, roof— garden, n. a garden on the 
roof of a building, winter-garden, n. 
a covered-in garden (esp. a very large 
pleasure-garden) in which the plants are 
protected from the frost and cold of 
winter. [O.F. gardin."} 

gar-de'-ni-a (-»*-), n. the name of certain 
Asiatic and African plants with beautiful 
fragrant flowers. [<Dr. Alex. Garden, 
an American botanist (died 1791).] 

Gar-gan'-tu-an, adj. very large ; mon- 
strous. [< Gargantua, a giant of mon- 
strous size and enormous appetite in the 
tale Gargantua and Pantagruel, written 
between 1533 and 1545 by Rabelais (a 
famous old French humorist).] 

gar ' -gle, n. a liquid for washing the throat : 
v. (-gled, -gling). [F. gargouiller."] 

gar'-goyle (-goil), n. a projecting spout 
(often fancifully or grotesquely carved) 
for throwing off water from the gutter 
of a roof. [F. gargouille.'] 

ga'-ri, n. See gharry. 

gar-i-bal'-di, n. a kind of loose blouse for 
women, in imitation of the red shirts 
worn by the followers of Garibaldi, the 
Italian patriot (1807—1882). 

ga'-rish, adj. showy ; gaudy ; glaring. 
[O.B. gare, to stare.] 

gar' -land, n. a wreath (of flowers or 
leaves). [O.F. garlande."] 

gar'-lic, n. a bulbous plant of the onion 
family used for seasoning. [A.S. gar, 
a spear + leac, leek.] 

gar'-ment, n. an article of clothing. [F. 
garnemenKgarnir, to furnish.] 

gar'-ner, n. a place for storing grain ; a 
granary ; a store of anything : v. 
(-nered, -ner-ing), to place in a garner ; 
to store up ; to treasure. [F. grenier< 
L. grdnum, grain.] 

gar'-net, n. a class of precious stones, 
usually of a red colour. [F. grenate< 
L. grdnum, grain.] 

gar'-nish (-nished, -nish-ing), v, to 

furnish ; to adorn ; to decorate (as a 
dish of food) : n. gar-nish-ee', n. a 
person warned by an order, called a 
garnishee order, not to pay money 
which he owes, nor to deliver over 
property : the person giving the warn- 
ing is called the gar'-nish-er. gar'- 
ni-ture (-«*-), n. ornamentation ; trim- 
ming. [F. garnir, to furnish.] 

gar'-ret, n. a room just under the roof; 
a loft. [O.F. garite."] 

gar'-ri-son (-rl-), n. the soldiers in a 
fortress ; the fortress itself: v. (-soned, 
-son-ing), to supply a fortress with 
troops ; to secure or defend (as a 
fortress with troops). [F. garnison< 
root of garnish.] 

gar-rotte', or ga-rotte', n. a mode of 
execution (now obsolete) by strangling 
with an iron collar: v. (-rot'-ted, 
-rot'-ting), to seize (a person) by the 
throat from behind, in order to rob 
him. gar-rot'-ter, n. one who — . [F. 
<Sp. garrotte."} 

gar'-ru-lous (-rii-lus), adj. talkative; 
chattering about trifles ; (of birds) 
having a loud, harsh note, gar-rul'- 
i-ty (-ruV -l-ii) , n. talkativeness. [L. 
garrulus<garrio, I chatter.] 

gar'-ter, n. a band used for tying the 
stocking to the leg ; the badge (and also 
the order itself) of the Order of the 
Garter, the highest order of Knighthood 
in England ; consisting of the Knights 
of the Garter, with the Sovereign at 
their head : v. (-tered, -ter-ing), to 
fasten with a garter ; to invest with the 
Order of the Garter. Garter King- 
at— arms, the chief Herald of the Order 
of the Garter. [F. jarreti&re.'] - 

garth, n. a yard or enclosure ; a garden ; 
a weir or dam in a river for catching 
fish. [A.S. geard, an enclosure, yard.] 

gas, n. (pi. gas'-es), an air-like fluid, esp. 
that obtained from coal, and called 
coal— gas, used for lighting, heating 
and cooking purposes ; f empty, idle 
talk: v. (gassed, gas'-sing), to supply 
with gas ; to pass a thread or fabric 
through a gas-flame to remove fluff ; to 
suffocate with gas or bad air ; f to talk 
idly or boastfully, gas'-e-ous, or ga'- 
se-ous (gash'-i-us and gd'-shi-us are less 
correct), adj. in the form of, or the 
nature of, gas. gas-e-lier' (-leer') (not 
-a- nor -o-), n. a hanging frame to carrj 
a number of gas-lights. gas'-o-line,«. 




rectified petroleum for burning, gaz'- : 
o-gene (not gas'-), n. an apparatus for ' 
the table used in making aerated water 
on a small scale. gas'-sy,ad/. full of gas. 
gas— bag, n. a bag for holding gas ; f a 
too talkative person, gas— buoy, n. a 
floating buoy containing a reservoir of 
gas to supply a lamp which it carries. 
gas— carbon, n. a kind of charcoal pro- 
duced in gas-retorts when making gas. 
gas— coal, n. a coal suitable for making 
illuminating gas. gas— engine, n. one 
worked by the explosion of gas. gas— j 
field, 11. a region producing natural gas j 
(q.v.). gas— holder or gas-om'-e-ter, | 
n. a large vessel for storing gas. gas— j 
jet, n. the gas flame itself, gas— lime, n. ', 
slaked lime through which coal-gas is • 
passed to dry and purify it, used as a ; 
dressing for land, gas— liquor or gas- 
water, n. water through which coal-gas 
is passed to purify it. gas— main, n. a ! 
large pipe (underground) conveying gas 
from the gasometer to the Ber vice-pipes, ! 
which conduct it to where it is to be con- : 
sumed. gas— mantle, n. (in incandescent | 
gas-lighting) a conical-shaped, hollow j 
gauze, woven from cotton or ramie, and i 
impregnated with certain chemical salts 
which become incandescent (or highly 
luminous) when strongly heated by a 
flame, gas— meter, n. an apparatus 
for measuring the quantity of gas con- 
sumed, gas— motor, n. a gas-engine, j 
gas— oven, n. a cooking-range heated by i 
gas. gas— retort, n. a large, closed j 
chamber in which gas is distilled from j 
coal by heat, gas— tar, or coal— tar, n. \ 
a kind of liquid pitch produced in the j 
distillation of coal, gas— trap, n. a trap j 
in a sewer to prevent sewer-gas escaping j 
to where it will do harm, mond— gas, \ 
n. a kind of producer— gas, that is, gas I 
made by passing air over glowing coke, j 
used for heating purposes in many 
manufactures, natural— gas, 11. gas 
produced naturally in the ground and 
obtained (for heating and lighting pur- 
poses) by borings called gas— wells, 
water— gas, n. gas made by passing 
steam over glowing coke. [D.] 
as' -con, n. a native of Gascony, a pro- 
vince of France ; one given to boasting. 
gas-con-ade', n. boasting talk. 
{ash, n. a deep cut (esp. into the flesh) ; 
a deep, open wound: v. (gashed, 
gash'-ing), to make a gash in. [O.F.] 


gas'-ket, n. a canvas band used to bind up 
the sails of a ship when furled. [?] 

gas' -kin, n. a strip of tow, etc., used for 
packing a piston. [?] 

gasp, n. a deep, difficult breathing with 
wide open mouth : v. (gasped, gasp'- 
ing), to pant violently, the last gasp, 
the death struggle. [Ic. geispa, to yawn.] 

gas'-ter-o-pod, n. (pi. gas-ter-op'-o- 
da), a class of molluscs, including 
limpets, whelks, and snails, having a 
muscular disc under the belly serving as 
a foot. [Gr. (faster, belly +pous, podox, 

gas-tral'-gi-a (-jl-a), n. neuralgic pain 
in the stomach. [See gastric] 

gas'-tric, adj. belonging to the stomach. 
gas-tri'-tis, n. inflammation of the 
lining of the stomach, gastric feyer, 
same as enteric or typhoid fever (q.v.). 
gastric juice, a fluid in the stomach 
acting as the chief agent in digestion. 
gas-tron'-o-my (-mi), n. the science of 
good living (feeding), gas-tron-om'-ic, 
adj. [Gr. gaster, the belly.] 

gate, n. a door (often of open-work) to a 
city, temple, palace, garden, field, etc. ; 
a passage into any enclosure ; an 
entrance ; a door, etc., for stopping the 
passage of water through a dam, lock, 
etc. gate'-house, n. a house or lodge 
at the entrance to an inclosure. gate- 
money, ft. money taken at the entrance, 
for admission to a flower-show, cricket- 
match, etc. gate '-way, n. an opening 
which can be closed by a gate ; an 
entrance generally. [A.S. geat, gate.] 

ga-teau' (gd-to'), n. a cake. yeal 
gateau, n. minced veal cooked in a 
mould. [F.] 

gath'-er (gath'-), (-ered,-er-ing), v. to 
bring together ; to collect ; to pluck 
(flowers) ; to gain or acquire ; (in sew- 
ing) to draw together in small folds 
with a thread ; to infer ; to come to a 
head (as a sore). gath'-er-er, n. 
gath'-er-ing, n. an assembly or collec- 
tion of people ; a small tumour or 
abscess ; a small plait or fold ; a 
pucker. gathering-ground, n. the 
district from which water is collected 
into a reservoir for the supply of a town . 
gath'-ers, n. pi. that part of a dress 
which is drawn in or gathered. [A.S. 

gat-ling— gun', n. a repeating fire-arm 
named after the inventor, R. J. Gatling, 




an American, about 1861. 

gauche-rie' (gosh-re'), n. awkwardness; 
clumsiness; an awkward action. [F.] 

gau'-cho (gau'-chd), n. a native, or cow- 
boy, of the S. American pampas. [Sp.] 

gaud, n. showy finery, gaud'-i-ly, adv. 
gaud'-y, adj. showy ; gay. gaud'-i- 
ness, n. state of being gaudy. [L. 
gaudium, joy.] 

gau-de-a' -mus, let us rejoice : n. a 
rejoicing ; a merry-making (esp. at 
college). [L. The first words of an 
ancient students'-song.] 

gauge (gdj), n. a measure ; a standard of 
measure ; the distance between rails ; an 
estimate ; an estimate of moral qualities ; 
a deposit (as a pledge or security) : 
v. (gauged, gaug'-ing), to measure ; to 
estimate, gaug'-a-ble, adj. gau'-ger, 
n. one who — . gaug'-ing, n. the act 
of measuring ; (in dress.) parallel rows 
of gatherings held in place, gauge- 
glass, n. a glass tube used for a water- 
gauge, that is, to show the height of 
water (as in a steam boiler), rain- 
gauge, n. an instrument for measuring 
the quantity of rain which falls at a 
given place, standard— gauge, n. a 
width of 56£ in. between railway lines ; 
a template or pattern decided upon as a 
basis of measurement. weather- 
gauge, n. the position of one vessel to 
windward of another vessel. [O.F. 
ganger, to gauge.] 

gault (incorrectly gait) (golt), n. clay and 
marl. [Scand.] 

gaunt, adj. thin ; lean ; emaciated. [?] 

gaunt' -let, n. a glove of iron or steel ; a 
lady's long glove covering the wrist or 
even a part of the lower arm. gaunt'- 
let-ed (less correctly -ted), adj. wear- 
ing a gauntlet. to run the — , to 
expose oneself to risk or danger (see 
also gantlet), to throw (or fling) 
down the — , to defy or challenge, to 
take up the — , to accept the challenge 
so made. [F. ganteleKgant, a glove.] 

Gau-ta'-ma (-td'-), n. another name for 
Gautama Buddha, the founder of Budd- 
hism (q.v.). [Hind.] 

gauze (gauz), n. a very thin half-trans- 
parent fabric (gen. of silk) ; anything 
resembling gauze (as wire-gauze), gau'- 
zy (-zl), adj. [F. gaze<Gaza, in Pales- 
tine, whence first brought (?).] 
gaY'-el, n. a chairman's or president's 
mallet for calling order, or attention. [?] 

gay '-el-kind, n. an old tenure of land 
(almost exclusively in Kent) by which, 
on the death of a father, it was gay'- 
elled, or divided equally among his sons. 
[A.S. gafol, tribute + cynd, kind, sort.] 

ga'-Yi-al, n. the East Indian crocodile. 
[F. < Hind, ghariydl."} 

ga-yotte' (not -vot'nor-YOtt'), n. a kind J 
of lively French dance, or the music to 
it. [F. < Gavots, a name given to the 
mountaineers of Provence, in France, 
where it was first danced.] 

gawk, n. a simpleton ; a booby, gawk'-y, 
adj. awkward ; stupid ; ungainly : n. 

gay (go), adj. lively; merry; showy; dissi- 
pated, gai'-e-ty (-££), n. (pi. -ties), mer- 
riment ; joyousness ; pleasure-seeking ; 
showy dress, gai'-ly, adv. [F. gai."] 

gaze (gazed, ga'-zing), v. to look stead- 
fastly : n. ga'-zer, n. one who — . 
[Swedish gasa, to stare at.] 

ga-zelle' (-zeV), n. a small, beautiful 
species of antelope. [F. < Ar. ghazdl."} 

ga-zette' (-zef), n. a newspaper (esp. an 
official, government newspaper, as The 
London — ; The Edinburgh — ; The 
Dublin — , each containing legal and i 
State notices) : v. (-zet'-ted, -zet'- 
ting), to publish in the — ; to announce 
officially (a case of bankruptcy, or an 
appointment in the Army, Navy, Civil 
Service, etc.). gaz-et-teer', n. a geo- 
graphical dictionary. [F. <I. gazzetta.] 

gaz'-o-gene, n. See gas. 

G.C.B., (Knight) Grand Cross of the Bath. 

G.G.I.E., (Knight) Grand Commander of 
the Indian Empire. 

G.C.L.H., Grand Cross of the Legion of 

G.C.M., greatest common measure. 

G.C.M.G., (Knight) Grand Cross of St. 
Michael and St. George. 

G.C.R., Great Central Railway. 

G.C.S.I., (Knight) Grand Commander of 
the Star of India. 

G.C.Y.O., (Knight) Grand Cross of the 
Royal Victorian Order. 

gear (ger), n. dress; tackle; fittings; 
apparatus ; toothed wheels (in mach.). 
driving -gear, n. the parts of a machine 
on which its movement chiefly depends. 
high gear, (of a bicycle, etc.), an 
arrangement of the driving-gear which 
allows the machine to be propelled 
rapidly ; with a low gear the arrange- 
ment allows the machine to be propelled 




more slowly, but less power or physical 
exertion is required than with a high 
gear, variable gear, an arrangement 
which permits of a ready change from 
high to low gear, or vice versa, out of 
gear, out of running order (in macli.) ; 
in disorder. [A.S. gearwe, clothing, 

Ge-hen'-na, n. the valley of Hinnom 
(Jer. vii. 31) ; (in the New Testament) 
hell. [H.] 

gei'-sha (gd'-, not ge'- nor gi'-), n. a 
Japanese dancing-girl. [Japanese.] 

Qeist (gist), n. [G.] spirit ; hence, the 
dominating or inspiring principle or 
characteristic of an age. Zeit-geist 
(tslt-), n. the spirit of the time, schbner 
Geist (shii-ner), n. (pi. schone 
Qeister), a fine or beautiful spirit ; 
hence, a person of wit or fine genius ; 
bel esprit (q.v.). 

gel' -a- tine (not -tin), (jeV -d-ten, or -tin), 
n. an animal substance, soluble in hot 
water, which on cooling forms a jelly. 
ge-lat'-in-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), or 
ge-lat'-in-ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. to 
convert into jelly, ge-lat'-in-ous (-us), 
adj. of the nature or substance of jelly. 
[<root of jelly.] 

ge-lee' (jd-la 1 ), n. jelly, en gelee (in 
cookery), in jelly. [F.] 

gel'-id (jel'-), adj. icy cold ; frosty, gel- 
id'-i-ty (-i-tl), n. [L. gelldus, cold.] 

gel'-ig-nite (jel'-in-yite), n. a jelly-like 
explosive (a kind of dynamite) used in 
blasting (as in railway cuttings). [< 
jelly -f L. ignis, fire.] 

gem, n. a precious stone (esp. when cut 
and polished) ; a jewel ; anything ex- 
ceedingly beautiful or valuable : v. 
(gemmed, gem'-ming), to adorn with 
gems ; (of plants) to. bud ; to germinate. 
gem— cutting, n. the art of cutting and 
polishing precious stones, gem— engra- 
ving, n. the art of cutting designs on 
gems, gem-ring, n. a lady's dress-ring 
set with gems. [F. <L. gemma, a bud, 
a jewel.] [bud. [L.] 

gem -ma (jem'-), n. (pi. -ma), a leaf- 

Gem'-i-ni (jem'-l-nl), n. a constellation 
containing the two bright stars Castor 
and Pollux ; the third sign of the Zodiac, 
which the sun enters 21st May. [L. 
gemlnus, a twin, pi. geminl."} 

gems'-bok (jemz'-), n. a species of ante- 
lope found in Africa. [£>.] 

Gen,, General ; Genesis ; Geneva. 

ge-nappe' (je-nap'), n. a kind of worsted 
yarn or cord used in making fringes, 
etc. \ m <Genappe, in Belgium, where 
first made.] 

gen-darme' (zhah-ddrm'), n. (pi. gen- 
darmes', but sometimes, gens d'armes), 
a French policeman, gen-dar-mer-ie' 
(-e'), n. the armed policemen of France. 
[F. gens d'armes, men-at-arms.] 

gen'-der, n. kind or sex (male or female) ; 
(in grammar, words) masculine and 
feminine. [F.<L. genus, race, sort.] 

gen-e-al'-o-gy (-ji), n. family descent; 
a pedigree, gen-e-a-log'-i-cal, adj. 
gen-e-al'-o-gist, n. one who traces or 
studies genealogies, genealogical tree, 
a table, in the form of a tree and its 
branches, showing the descent and 
relationship of the members of a family. 
[F.<L.<Gr. genea, birth + logos, a 

gen'-er-al, adj. relating to a genus or 
kind ; containing many individuals or 
species ; not exact in meaning or descrip- 
tion ; belonging to all ; common ; public ; 
widely spread ; usual : n. the head of 
an army ; the main or chief part, gen- 
er-al'-i-ty, n. a state of being general ; 
the greater part ; the bulk ; the main 
body, gen'-er-al-ly, adv. Gen-er- 
al-is' -si-mo (si-), n. the chief general 
of military forces (over other generals). 
gen'-er-al-ize (-ized, -i-zing), v. to 
bring under general rules, or include 
under general terms, gen'-er-al-ship, 
it. office of a — ; management by a — . 
general dealer, a shopkeeper who 
deals in all articles in common use. 
general election, one in which 
Members of Parliament are elected in 
every constituency at the same period. 
general officer, (in the army) one 
above the rank of colonel, general 
orders, (in the army) orders from 
head-quarters to the whole of the forces. 
general post, (now) the first delivery 
of letters in the morning, general post 
office, the head post office of a town 
or district, general practitioner, a 
doctor who practises both as a physician 
and surgeon ; one who attends to all 
kinds of illness and accidents (as opposed 
to a specialist)., general principles, 
rules, laws, principles, formulas, descrip- 
tions, etc., to which there are few excep- 
tions, general servant, a servant 
whose duties include work of all kinds in 




the house, as opposed to a cook, house- 
maid, etc.; amaid-of-all-work. general 
staff, those officers of the army who 
are selected to assist the general or 
commander for the time being. [F. < 
L. generalise genus, a race.] 

gen'-er-ate (-a-ted, -a-ting), v. to give 
birth to ; to produce ; to originate. 
gen-er-a'-tion, n. race ; people of the 
same period of time, gen'-er-a-tive, 
adj. having the power of generating or 
producing, gen'-er-a-tor, n. a vessel 
in which steam or other force is gener- 
ated or produced ; an apparatus for pro- 
ducing and maintaining an electric 
current, generating station, a build- 
ing where electricity is produced on a 
large scale, and from whence it is dis- 
tributed, spontaneous generation, the 
(supposed) production of living things 
from non-living matter. [L. genera, I 
produce < genus, a race, birth.] 

ge-ner'-ic, or -ic-al, adj. relating to, or 
applied to, a genus, race, class, or kind. 
[L. genus, a race, kind.] 

gen'-er-ous (-us), adj. of noble nature ; 
ready to give ; liberal ; bountiful ; 
stimulating, gen-er-os'-i-ty (-i-ti), n. 
gen'-er-ous-ly, adv. [F. < L.generosus 
<genus, birth.] 

gen'-e-sis, n. {pi. -ses) (-sez), birth: 
creation ; beginning. The first book of 
the O.T. is named Genesis. [Gr. 
genesis, origin, source.] 

gen'-et (jen'~), n. a small, well-shaped 
Spanish horse (also written j en '-net) ; 
a small, carnivorous, fur-bearing 
animal, found in South Europe and 
North Africa. [Sp. ginete< Ar.] 

gen-et'-ic or -ic-al, adj. relating to the 
origin or mode of production of any- 
thing, gen-et'-ics, the laws or 
science of production or generation. 
[< genesis.] 

ge-ne'-va, n. a spirit distilled from grain 
and flavoured with juniper berries, also 
called ' Hollands ' ; a kind of gin. [D. 
genevre<F.<L. jwniperus.] 

Ge-ne'-yan, adj. pertaining to Geneva, 
in Switzerland : n. an inhabitant of 
Geneva ; a Calvinist, or believer in 
Genevan theology, as taught by John 
Calvin, at Geneva, .in 1559. Geneva 
Convention, an agreement signed at 
Geneva, in 1865, by representatives of 
the Great Powers of Europe, providing 
for the neutrality of ambulances and 

hospitals, and all connected with them, 
in time of war. Geneva Cross, a bold, 
red, Greek cross (thus +) on a white 
ground, used to distinguish hospitals, I 
ambulances, attendants, etc., in time 
of war. 

ge'-ni-al (-"?-), adj. kindly; cheerful; 
jovial and inspiring, ge-ni-al'-i-ty I 
(-i-tl),n. ge'-ni-al-ly, adv. [F.<L.. 
genidlis, pleasant.] 

ge'-nie (je'-ne), n. (pi. -ni-i) (-ni-i), a 
kind of good (sometimes evil) spirit 
supposed to influence a person's life and | 
character ; a jinnee (q.v.). [L. genius, 
a guardian spirit.] 

gen'-i-tive (-i-tiv), adj. relating to birth : 
n. a case of nouns (in E. the possessive) 
denoting origin, etc. [L. gigno, 'I 

ge'-ni-us, /'. (pi. -us-es), disposition; 
great natural, physical, or mental ability ; 
special taste, inclination, or disposition, 
or power of invention ; a person endowed 
with superior intellect ; a spirit (pi. 
ge'-ni-i). ge'-ni-us lo'-ci, [L.] the 
particular spirit, or nature, or influence 
of a place. [L. genius (of. genie).] 

Gen-o-ese' (-eez ') , also spelt Gen-o-Yese', 
n. the people of Genoa, in Italy : adj. 
relating to Genoa. Genoa cake, a rich, 
light, currant cake with almonds on the 
top, or in the interior. Genoese cake, 
a kind of sandwich made of sponge-cake 
and jam. 

genre (zhatVr), n. (in painting) pictures 
or sculpture which represent common, 
familiar, every-day life. [F. <L. genus, 

gens (jenz), n. (pi. gen'-tes), a clan ; a 
tribe ; any body of related people 
descended from a common ancestor. 
[F.<L. genus, kind.] 

| gent, n. a would-be gentleman ; one who 
apes a gentleman in dress and manners. 
(Note : The use of this word is somewhat 
vulgar.) [Abbreviation of gentleman.] 

gen-teel', adj. polite ; well-bred ; grace- 
ful in manners or dress ; free from vul- 
garity ; affectedly polite or gentlemanly* 
gen-teel'-ly, adv. gen-til'-i-ty (-i-tl) r 
n. good birth ; good breeding ; politeness 
of manner. [F. gentil <L. genfilis, 
belonging to a gens or family.] 

gen'-ti-an (-shi-), n. a plant whose bitter 
root is used in medicine. \Gentius, 
King of Illyria, in the 2nd century a.d., 
who first brought it into use.] 




gen' -tile, adj. of non- Jewish race : n. any 
one not a Jew. [F.<L. genti lis < gens, 
a race.] 

gen' -tie (-tl), adj. of good birth ; kind ; 
mild ; amiable ; soothing, gen'-tly, 
adv. softly ; mildly ; in a quiet manner ; 
slowly ; without violence, gen'-'tle- 
man, u. (fern, gen'-tle-wo-man), a 
person of gentle birth ; a person of good 
education and polished manners ; one 
who shows kindly consideration for 
others, gentleman— at— arms, n. one 
of a band of 40 gentlemen who attend 
the Sovereign on State occasions. 
gentleman— commoner, n. a student at 
Oxford who pays all his dues and does 
not receive any help from the funds of 
the University, gentleman-farmer, n . 
a country gentleman who occupies and 
farms his own land, gentleman of 
iortune, a pirate, gentleman-usher, 
n. one whose duty is to introduce visitors 
to the Sovereign, or to persons of rank. 
to be a gentleman, to have no work 
to do. gen'-tle-ness, n. gen'-tle-folk, 
n. people of good family, gentle craft, 
shoemaking ; angling, gentle— hearted, 
adj. of kindly disposition, gentle sex, 
women in general, gen '-ties, n. mag- 
gots for fishing, the larvae of the blue- 
bottle fly. [<root of genteel.] 

gen' -try (-tri), n. the class of people of 
good station in life, but below the 
nobility. [<root of genteel.] 

gen'-u-flect (-ed, -ing), v. to bend the 
knee (as in worship or homage), gen- 
u-flex'-ion or -flec'-tion, n. the act 
of — . [L. genu, knee+jlecto, I bend.] 

gen'-u-ine (-in), adj. natural ; real ; pure ; 
not false. gen'-u-ine-ly, adv. gen'- 
u-ine-ness, n. [L. genuinus<gig?io, I 

ge'-nus, n. (pi. gen'-er-a), a race ; a 
class ; a kind ; a group of species having 
certain characteristics in common (as 
the lion, leopard, tiger, panther, and 
cat are all species of the genus cat). 
[L. genus, a race, kind.] 

ge-o-cen'-tric (-sen'-), adj. relating to the 
earth as the centre. [Gr. ge, the earth 
+ kentron, centre.] 

ge-od'-e-sy (si), n. a science which treats 
of the accurate measurement of the 
earth and its natural divisions, ge-o- 
det'-ic or -ic-al, adj. [Gr. ge, the 
earth + daio, I divide.] 

ge-og'-ra-phy (-ra-fi), n. the science 

which treats of the surface and climates 
of the earth, and of its inhabitants, 
divisions, and productions ; a book or 
work containing such information, ge- 
og'-ra-pher, n. one versed in — . ge- 
o-graph'-ic-al, adj. astronomical — , 
treats of the earth as a member of 
the Solar System, commercial — , 
treats of the productions, manufactures, 
and trades of the various countries of 
the world, mathematical — , deals 
with the measurements of the earth's 
surface, as latitude, longitude, and 
zones. physical — , treats of the 
natural features of the earth, of climate, 
weather, and all things that affect plants, 
animals, and man. political — , treats 
of those circumstances and conditions 
which have been brought about by 
man, as tribes, nations, civilization, 
towns and cities, government, etc. [Gr. 
ge, the earth -j-graphd, I write.] 

ge-ol'-o-gy (-jl), n. the science of the 
earth's structure, age, etc. ge-o-log'- 
i-cal {-loj'-), adj. ge-ol'-o-gist, n. one 
versed in geology. [Gr. ge, the earth + 
logos, a discourse.] 

ge'-o-man-cy {-si), n. divination by 
means of lines or figures drawn on the 
earth or a figure of it. ge'-o-man-cer, 
n. one who professes — . ge-o-man'- 
tic, adj. [Gr. ge, the earth + manteia, 

ge-om'-e-try (je-, -tri), n. that branch 
of mathematics which treats of the 
measurement and relation of lines, sur- 
faces, and solids, ge-om'-e-ter, n. or 
ge-om-e-tri'-cian (-trish'-un), n. one 
versed hi — . ge-o-met'-ric(-al), adj. 
[Gr. ge, the earth -\-me tron, measure.] 

George (the), ». the jewel worn by the 
Knights of the Garter, representing St. 
George on horseback slaying the dragon. 

geor'-gic, n. a poem on agriculture and 
rural life : adj. relating to agriculture 
and rural affairs. [L. georgica, the 
Georgics (<Gr. ge, the earth + ergon, 
work), a poem in Latin by Virgil (r.c. 
70 — B.C. 19) on rules of husbandry.] 

Geor'-gi-an (jor'-ji-an), adj. of George ; 
relating to the reigns of the four Georges 
(Kings of England, 1714 to 1830); 
relating to Georgia in the Caucasus, or 
in the U.S.A. 

G.E.R., Great Eastern Railway. 

Ger., German. 

ge-ra'-ni-um, n. a well-known flowering- 




plant with seed-vessels somewhat like a 
crane's bill. [L. < Gr. gerdnos, a crane.] 

gerb (jerb), n. anything resembling a 
sheaf of wheat ; a kind of firework. [F.] 

ger'-fal-con (sometimes, but less cor- 
rectly, gyr'-fal-con) (jer' -faivl-) , n. a 
large, beautiful species of falcon found 
in both the Old World and the New. 
[<root of G. Geier, a vulture, a falcon.] 

germ, n. that from which anything 
develops, whether animal or vegetable ; 
that from which anything (as a disease) 
springs ; a seed-bud (of plant) ; origin. 
ger'-mi-cide, n. a means of, or prepara- 
tion for, killing noxious germs, ger'- 
min-al, adj. of a germ, ger'-mi-nate 
(-na-ted, -na-ting), v. to be born from a 
germ; to sprout, ger-mi-na'-tion, n. 
germ theory, the opinion that all 
infectious diseases are caused by living 
germs which multiply in the body ; the 
belief that living things or living matter 
can spring only from germs or seeds. 
[F.<L. germen, a bud.]